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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045097/management-of-airway-obstruction-and-stridor-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L. Langhan
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044795/ahns-series-do-you-know-your-guidelines-perioperative-antithrombotic-management-in-head-and-neck-surgery
#2
Annika Meyer, Neil Gross, Marita Teng
Head and neck surgeons are commonly faced with surgical patients who have underlying medical problems requiring antithrombotic therapy. It is difficult to achieve a balance between minimizing the risk of thromboembolism and hemorrhage in the perioperative period. Data from randomized, controlled trials are limited, and procedure-specific bleed rates are also difficult to pinpoint. The decision is made more difficult when patients with moderate-to-high risk for thromboembolic events undergo procedures that are high risk for bleeding...
October 16, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044225/microrna-181b-is-increased-in-cystic-fibrosis-cells-and-impairs-lipoxin-a4-receptor-dependent-mechanisms-of-inflammation-resolution-and-antimicrobial-defense
#3
Anna Maria Pierdomenico, Sara Patruno, Marilina Codagnone, Felice Simiele, Veronica Cecilia Mari, Roberto Plebani, Antonio Recchiuti, Mario Romano
The involvement of microRNA (miR) in cystic fibrosis (CF) pathobiology is rapidly emerging. We previously documented that miR-181b controls the expression of the ALX/FPR2 receptor, which is recognized by the endogenous proresolution ligand, lipoxin (LX)A4. Here, we examined whether the miR-181b-ALX/FPR2 circuit was altered in CF. We examined human airways epithelial cells, normal (16HBE14o-), carrying the ΔF508 mutation (CFBE41o-) or corrected for this mutation (CFBE41o-/CEP-CFTR wt 6.2 kb), as well as monocyte-derived macrophages (MΦs) from CF patients...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039225/toxicological-impact-of-waterpipe-smoking-and-flavorings-in-the-oral-cavity-and-respiratory-system
#4
Fawad Javed, Shatha Subhi ALHarthi, Munerah Saleh BinShabaib, Sangeeta Gajendra, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
Waterpipe smoking (WS), an emerging trend has major health concerns. It is prevalent worldwide as a recreational activity both indoors and outdoors. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of waterpipe smoke on the oral and respiratory system (oral cavity and pulmonary tissues). A number of studies have shown that periodontal health status is compromised in waterpipe smokers when compared with nonsmokers. Some studies have associated WS with oral premalignant and malignant lesions; however, due to the poor quality of these studies, the presented outcomes should be interpreted with caution...
October 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039083/myristoylated-alanine-rich-c-kinase-substrate-marcks-a-multirole-signaling-protein-in-cancers
#5
REVIEW
Lon Wolf R Fong, David C Yang, Ching-Hsien Chen
Emerging evidence implicates myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), a major substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), in a critical role for cancer development and progression. MARCKS is tethered to the plasma membrane but can shuttle between the cytosol and plasma membrane via the myristoyl-electrostatic switch. Phosphorylation of MARCKS by PKC leads to its translocation from the plasma membrane to the cytosol where it functions in actin cytoskeletal remodeling, Ca(2+) signaling through binding to calmodulin, and regulation of exocytic vesicle release in secretory cells such as neurons and airway goblet cells...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037744/intoxication-from-the-novel-synthetic-cannabinoids-ab-pinaca-and-adb-pinaca-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Patil Armenian, Michael Darracq, Jirair Gevorkyan, Shane Clark, Bryan Kaye, Nicklaus P Brandehoff
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), are a novel class of designer drugs which emerged as a drug of abuse in the late 2000's. We report a case series of 6 patients who may have smoked a synthetic cannabinoid product in a remote wilderness setting. They presented with varying degrees of altered mental status, agitation, and seizures. Two were confirmed to have AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA and their respective pentanoic acid metabolites in biological specimens via liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037603/mri-and-ct-lung-biomarkers-towards-an-in-vivo-understanding-of-lung-biomechanics
#7
REVIEW
Heather M Young, Rachel L Eddy, Grace Parraga
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical properties of the lung are necessarily dependent on its structure and function, both of which are complex and change over time and space. This makes in vivo evaluation of lung biomechanics and a deep understanding of lung biomarkers, very challenging. In patients and animal models of lung disease, in vivo evaluations of lung structure and function are typically made at the mouth and include spirometry, multiple-breath gas washout tests and the forced oscillation technique...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037302/feno-levels-increase-with-degree-of-sensitisation-in-apprentices-at-risk-of-occupational-asthma
#8
P Wild, H Mével, E Penven, D Zmirou-Navier, A Barbaud, A Bohadana, C Paris
BACKGROUND: Atopy has emerged as a major determinant of airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether early markers of occupational asthma increase with degree of sensitisation. METHOD: This study was a prospective follow-up study of apprentices in baking, pastry-cooking and hairdressing during their 2-year apprenticeship. Four visits were conducted to administer a standardised questionnaire, a methacholine challenge test to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and to measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035946/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-hiv-pathogenesis
#9
Meera K Shenoy, Susan V Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the lung microbiome in HIV-infected patients and associated pulmonary diseases, and the relationship of airway microbial communities to metabolic and immune signatures within this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: The lung microbiome in HIV infection is a relatively new and rapidly developing field; early studies in the field produced inconclusive evidence as to whether HIV-infection changes the lower airway microbiome...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034967/evaluation-of-a-method-for-isocapnic-hyperventilation-a-clinical-pilot-trial
#10
K Hallén, P Jildenstål, O Stenqvist, S-E Ricksten, S Lindgren
BACKGROUND: Isocapnic hyperventilation (IHV) is a method that shortens time to extubation after inhalation anaesthesia using hyperventilation (HV) without lowering airway CO2 . In a clinical trial on patients undergoing long-duration sevoflurane anaesthesia for major ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgery, we evaluated the utility of a technique for CO2 delivery (DCO2 ) to the inspiratory limb of a closed breathing circuit, during HV, to achieve isocapnia. METHODS: Fifteen adult ASA 1-3 patients were included...
October 16, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030500/prolapsed-antrochoanal-polyp-an-unusual-cause-of-acute-adult-respiratory-distress
#11
Thomas Terence Whittle, Stuart Benzie, Daniel Graham
Here we describe an adult male who presented with acute dyspnoea and airway occlusion. Nasoendoscopy revealed a large antrochoanal polyp extending from his maxillary sinus to the level of the epiglottis. The patient underwent a successful semi-emergency polypectomy following initial stabilisation with medication.
October 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028157/transthoracic-catheter-drainage-for-large-symptomatic-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#12
Seong Hee Oh, Chae Young Kim, Byong Sop Lee, Dong Kwan Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, Ki-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection of large symptomatic congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) in newborns has high risks of mortality and postoperative morbidity. This study aimed to report the clinical outcomes of newborns who underwent percutaneous transthoracic catheter drainage (PTCD) of large symptomatic CPAM before surgical resection. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive study based on review of the medical records of newborn infants who required surgical resection of large symptomatic CPAM at a single tertiary hospital from 2001 to 2017...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027772/supraglottic-airway-devices-indications-contraindications-and-management
#13
Joanna Gordon, Richard M Cooper, Matteo Parotto
Supraglottic airway devices (SADs) have become an essential tool in airway management. Over the past three decades, these devices have been increasingly adopted as an alternative to face mask ventilation and/or endotracheal intubation. The range of proposed uses and features have increased significantly. They are used in pre- and in-hospital settings, elective and emergency anesthesia, in spontaneously breathing and ventilated patients, as conduits for intubation, as a bridge to extubation and for airway rescue...
October 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019723/accidental-hanging-injuries-in-children-recognition-and-management
#14
Siba P Paul, Ruby Paul, Paul A Heaton
Accidental hanging is rare in childhood but is often fatal. Window blind cords pose a particular and unique risk to young children in the UK, accounting for one to two deaths annually. These accidents are frequently associated with non-adherence to the safety instructions provided by the manufacturers. Early discovery of the child and initiation of effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the site of the incident are likely to improve the outcome. Prolonged suspension, children who are pulseless at first contact by the emergency paramedic responder, and patients with prolonged periods of remaining in asystole before return of spontaneous circulation after starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation are unlikely to have intact neurological survival...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017220/-bronchitis-plastica-acute-dyspnea-and-branching-airway-casts
#15
P Wischmann, S Keymel, M Kelm, S Krüger
A 65 year old female presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and progressive cough with very viscous elongated secretion plugs. She suffered from multiple cardiac comorbidities and chronic heart failure. The CT scan of the thorax demonstrated extensive pulmonary infiltrates, unspecific mediastinal lymphadenopathy and enlargement of pulmonary lymph vessels. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed extensive occlusive bronchial casts. We diagnosed a case of bronchitis plastica. Therapy with inhalative heparin led to clinical improvement...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994202/beak-technique-use-of-modified-fuller-s-bivalve-tracheostomy-tube-for-emergency-dilation-of-tracheostomy-stenosis
#16
Rajshekhar Halkud, Sreelekha Ray, Ashok M Shenoy, Gururaj Arakeri, Peter A Brennan
Loss of an already established airway causing stridor is a common condition seen in busy oncology centres of India and other third world countries. Patients attend with acute respiratory distress, and are unable to reinsert the tracheostomy tube, sometimes days after having successfully mastered the technique. We have therefore developed a simple nonsurgical technique to widen simple tracheostomies to establish an emergency airway. In our opinion, since this is an easy non surgical procedure to perform and, can be performed rapidly without the need for any specialized types of equipment...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993393/recurrent-wheeze-and-its-relationship-with-lung-function-and-airway-inflammation-in-preschool-children-a-cross-sectional-study-in-south-korea
#17
Ji Eun Soh, Kyung-Moon Kim, Ji-Won Kwon, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Hyo-Bin Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Gwang-Cheon Jang, Dae-Jin Song, Woo Kyung Kim, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Jung Yeon Shim
BACKGROUND: Relationship between recurrent wheeze and airway function and inflammation in preschool children is not fully known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between recurrent wheeze and airway inflammation, lung function, airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) and atopy in preschool children. DESIGN: Observational study, comparing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and mid-forced expiratory flow (FEF25%-75%), dose-response slope (DRS), exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and atopic sensitisation between children with recurrent wheeze and those without...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993211/global-cognitive-profile-and-different-components-of-reaction-times-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-over-time
#18
Maria Devita, Andrea Zangrossi, Maurizio Marvisi, Paola Merlo, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Sara Mondini
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been recurrently associated with cognitive and psychomotor impairments. However, the occurrence and possible reversibility of these deficits are still extremely controversial, also as a result of different methodologies adopted used by scholars. The aim of the present study was to compare over time the global cognitive profile of patients with OSAS undergoing the continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP; N=23) with that of patients with OSAS who were not (N=10)...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993038/capnography-in-the-emergency-department-a-review-of-uses-waveforms-and-limitations
#19
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman, Michael A Vivirito
BACKGROUND: Capnography has many uses in the emergency department (ED) and critical care setting, most commonly cardiac arrest and procedural sedation. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: This review evaluates several indications concerning capnography beyond cardiac arrest and procedural sedation in the ED, as well as limitations and specific waveforms. DISCUSSION: Capnography includes the noninvasive measurement of CO2, providing information on ventilation, perfusion, and metabolism in intubated and spontaneously breathing patients...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992874/poisoning-after-ingestion-of-spartium-junceum-seeds-dose-dependent-effects-in-three-boys
#20
Nuria Giménez, Noemí Magro, Nuria Cortés, Raimon Guitart
BACKGROUND: Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.) is an ornamental, medicinal, and potentially poisonous plant. CASE REPORT: Three children, aged 5-6 years, were accidentally poisoned from ingesting a variable number of seeds of Spanish broom. This plant contains several quinolizidine alkaloids as cytisine, which act as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The potential danger varies, depending on the dose. After having ingested one to two seeds, one of the boys was asymptomatic...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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