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Fruit ripening

Tessa Carrau, Nils Hiebert, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kwang-Zin Lee
The invasive insect pest Drosophila suzukii infests ripening fruits and causes extensive damage to crops in the northern hemisphere. Novel, environmentally friendly strategies to control the spread of this species are urgently needed, and one promising approach is the deployment of entomopathogenic viruses. Here we report the identification and characterization of two natural viruses associated with D. suzukii: Drosophila A virus (DAV) and La Jolla virus (LJV). Our work provides new tools for the development of biological control agents that protect crops against D...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Talita M Santos, Men de Sá M Souza Filho, Ebenézer de O Silva, Márcia R S da Silveira, Maria Raquel A de Miranda, Mônica M A Lopes, Henriette M C Azeredo
The quality of zein (Z)- and zein-tannic acid (ZTA)-coated guavas was monitored throughout 12 days of storage. Coated fruit showed lower changes in terms of visual appearance, chlorophyll contents and color. Weight loss, softening, and changes in soluble solids were also decreased by the coatings. The respiration peak as well as H2 O2 and superoxide dismutase activity peaks were delayed by the coatings, and the ethylene production was reduced. So, the results were consistent with a slowed down ripening of guavas by the coatings, which was probably related to lowered oxygen permeability of guava skin...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Britt Merlaen, Ellen De Keyser, Marie-Christine Van Labeke
The newly identified aquaporin coding sequences presented here pave the way for further insights into the plant-water relations in the commercial strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa ). Aquaporins are water channel proteins that allow water to cross (intra)cellular membranes. In Fragaria x ananassa , few of them have been identified hitherto, hampering the exploration of the water transport regulation at cellular level. Here, we present new aquaporin coding sequences belonging to different subclasses: plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 and subtype 2 (PIP1 and PIP2) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP)...
2018: Horticulture Research
Andrea Sciarretta, Maria Rosaria Tabilio, Elena Lampazzi, Claudio Ceccaroli, Marco Colacci, Pasquale Trematerra
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. The economic importance of this fruit fly is increasing due to its invasion of new geographical areas. Efficient control and eradication efforts require adequate information regarding C. capitata adults in relation to environmental and physiological cues. This would allow effective characterisation of the population spatio-temporal dynamic of the C...
2018: PloS One
Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek, Małgorzata Nowacka, Magdalena Dadan, Artur Wiktor, Katarzyna Rybak, Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert, Artur Zdunek
The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle) method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε...
April 4, 2018: Sensors
Kai Hu, Abdul Ghani Dars, Qiudou Liu, Bijun Xie, Zhida Sun
Maturity has important effects on the phytochemical and biochemical characteristics of fruits. It affects the quality, nutritional value, harvest time and commercial operations. In this study, Keitt, Sensation and Xiangya mango cultivars in four distinct stages from southwest China were evaluated for their phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activities in real time. Furthermore, the biochemical characteristics indices polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities were determined...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rémy Rosalie, Mathieu Léchaudel, Claudie Dhuique-Mayer, Laurent Dufossé, Jacques Joas
The effects of 15 days of storage at 12 °C and 7 °C followed by fruit ripening at 20 °C on oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and carotenoid accumulation were studied for two successive years in mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Cogshall. Changes in the non-enzymatic (ascorbate) and enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR) antioxidant systems, as well as oxidative parameters (H2 O2 and MDA) and the contents of the major carotenoids were measured for three maturity stages, at harvest and after ripening following cold temperature storage...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Taibo Liu, Binbin Huang, Lin Chen, Zhiqiang Xian, Shiwei Song, Riyuan Chen, Yanwei Hao
Polyamines (PAs), including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and thermospermine (T-Spm), play key roles in plant development, including fruit setting and ripening, morphogenesis, and abiotic/biotic stress. Their functions appear to be intimately related to their synthesis, which occurs via arginine/ornithine decarboxylase (ADC/ODC), Spd synthase (SPDS), Spm synthase (SPMS), and Acaulis5 (ACL5), respectively. Unfortunately, the expression and function of these PA synthesis-relate genes during specific developmental process or under stress have not been fully elucidated...
March 29, 2018: Gene
Sarah Muniz Nardeli, Sinara Artico, Gustavo Mitsunori Aoyagi, Stéfanie Menezes de Moura, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa, Elisson Romanel, Marcio Alves-Ferreira
The MADS-box gene family encodes transcription factors that share a highly conserved domain known to bind to DNA. Members of this family control various processes of development in plants, from root formation to fruit ripening. In this work, a survey of diploid (Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum) and tetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum) cotton genomes found a total of 147, 133 and 207 MADS-box genes, respectively, distributed in the MIKC, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ subclades. A comparative phylogenetic analysis among cotton species, Arabidopsis, poplar and grapevine MADS-box homologous genes allowed us to evaluate the evolution of each MADS-box lineage in cotton plants and identify sequences within well-established subfamilies...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chao Gu, Yu-Hang Zhou, Wei-Sheng Shu, Hai-Yan Cheng, Lu Wang, Yue-Peng Han, Yu-Yan Zhang, Ming-Liang Yu, Dirk Joldersma, Shao-Ling Zhang
Fruit size is determined by fruit swelling that usually occurs in two distinct time periods in peach. However, little is known about gene regulation of fruit swelling. In this study, measurements of longitudinal and transverse diameters in developing and ripening peach fruits unveiled two periods of fruit swelling: the first swelling ends at approximately 65 days after flower blooming (DAFB) and the second swelling starts at approximately 75 DAFB. Comparisons of diameters sizes and development periods among cultivars and accession revealed a cooperative regulation of swelling velocity and swelling duration, which leads to final determination of fruit size...
March 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sneha Choubey, Soniya Goyal, Lesley Rachel Varughese, Vinod Kumar
Gallic acid and its derivatives not only exhibit excellent antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, antimicrobial properties but also provide protection to the cells against oxidative stress. Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a low molecular triphenolic compound has arised as an efficient apoptosis inducing agent. The antimicrobial and other biological properties of gallic acid and its derivatives seemed to be linked with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between gallic acid and polyols like tannins hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits...
March 29, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
José M Palma, Carmelo Ruiz, Francisco J Corpas
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved many physiological plant processes, including germination, growth and development of roots, flower setting and development, senescence, and fruit ripening. In the latter physiological process, NO has been reported to play an opposite role to ethylene. Thus, treatment of fruits with NO may lead to delay ripening independently of whether they are climacteric or nonclimacteric. In many cases different methods have been reported to apply NO to plant systems involving sodium nitroprusside, NONOates, DETANO, or GSNO to investigate physiological and molecular consequences...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Antonios Petridis, Jeroen van der Kaay, Elina Chrysanthou, Susan McCallum, Julie Graham, Robert D Hancock
Published evidence indicates that nearly 60% of blueberry-producing countries experience yield instability. Yield is a complex trait determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here, using physiological and biochemical approaches, we tested the hypothesis that yield instability results from year-to-year environmental variation that limits carbon assimilation, storage and partitioning. Data indicate that fruit development depends primarily on the daily production of non-structural carbohydrates by leaves and there is no accumulation of a starch buffer to allow continuous ripening under conditions limiting for photosynthesis...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hideyuki Takahashi, Sayaka Kikuchi-Fujisaki, Chiharu Yoshida, Hidetoshi Yamada, Tetsuro Yamashita, Naotake Konno, Takumi Takeda
Gentiobiose, a β-1,6-linked glycosyl disaccharide, accumulates abundantly in Gentianaceae and is involved in aspects of plant development, such as fruits ripening and release of bud dormancy. However, the mechanisms regulating the amount of gentio- oligosaccharide accumulation in plants remains obscure. This study aimed to identify an enzyme that modulates gentio-oligosaccharide amount in gentian ( Gentiana triflora ). A protein responsible for gentiobiose hydrolysis, GtGen3A, was identified by partial purification and its peptide sequence analysis...
March 26, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Rong Zhou, Liping Xu, Liping Zhao, Yinlei Wang, Tongmin Zhao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are an emerging class of non-coding RNAs in plants. Our aim is to identify the circRNAs with different expression levels between tomato fruits from two cultivars ('Jinling Fenyu' and 'Jinling Moyu') at two different developmental stages. Following high-throughput sequencing, 3796 circRNAs were identified, and 243 circRNAs were shared in the four samples. As compared with the fruit at mature green stage, the expression levels of 273 and 89 circRNAs were significantly altered in the fruit at turning stage from 'Jinling Fenyu' and 'Jinling Moyu', respectively...
March 23, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Imen Oueslati, Hédia Manaï, Mónica Madrigal-Martínez, Manuel A Martínez-Cañas, Jacinto Sánchez-Casas, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Guido Flamini
Heating operation has been applied to Chétoui extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) extracted from fruits with several ripening stages (RS). The studied samples, were subjected to microwave and conventional heating. Results showed that heated VOOs after 2.5 h and 7 min of conventional and microwave heating, respectively, gave rise to a drastically decrease of LOX products and allowed the detection of toxic new formed aldehydic volatiles (alkanal: nonanal, alkenals: (Z)-2-heptenal and (E)-2-decenal, and alkadienals: (E...
April 2018: Food Research International
Zhong Zhang, Jian Huang, Xingang Li
The fruit of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is immensely popular worldwide, while its fleshy fruit has a very short shelf life and suffers serious postharvest damage. The fruit has been controversially classified as non-climacteric, though the mechanisms underlying its ripening behavior, particularly the role of ethylene, have remained unclear. In this study, low and stable ethylene production was detected during ripening of Z. jujuba 'Dongzao' fruit, with production increasing at the full maturity stage...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Guoxiang Jiang, Fuwang Wu, Zhiwei Li, Taotao Li, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Xuewu Duan, Yueming Jiang
Sulfoxidation of methionine in proteins by reactive oxygen species can cause conformational alteration or functional impairment, and can be reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Currently, only a few potential Msr-substrates have been confirmed in higher plants. Here, we investigated Msr-mediated sulfoxidation regulation of calmodulin (CaM) and its underlying biological significance in relation to banana fruit ripening and senescence. Expression of MaCaM1 and MaMsrA7 were upregulated with increased ripening and senescence...
March 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Dario Donno, Maria Gabriella Mellano, Marta De Biaggi, Isidoro Riondato, Ernest Naivonirina Rakotoniaina, Gabriele Loris Beccaro
European bird cherry ( Prunus padus L.) has been known since the Middle Ages for its medical/food use and high health-promoting value. This study aimed to assess the potential of these fruits as a source of bioactive compounds through the characterization of its physicochemical traits, nutraceutical properties, phytochemical composition via HPLC fingerprint, and antioxidant capacity. Fully ripened fruits of Prunus padus L. (Colorata cv) were collected in mid-July 2017 in Chieri, north-western Italy. The TPC (194...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
William O Asiche, Oscar W Mitalo, Yuka Kasahara, Yasuaki Tosa, Eric G Mworia, Willis O Owino, Koichiro Ushijima, Ryohei Nakano, Kentaro Yano, Yasutaka Kubo
BACKGROUND: Kiwifruit are classified as climacteric since exogenous ethylene (or its analogue propylene) induces rapid ripening accompanied by ethylene production under positive feedback regulation. However, most of the ripening-associated changes (Phase 1 ripening) in kiwifruit during storage and on-vine occur largely in the absence of any detectable ethylene. This ripening behavior is often attributed to basal levels of system I ethylene, although it is suggested to be modulated by low temperature...
March 21, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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