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Fruit ripening

Zhu Zhu, Yanli Chen, Guoqing Shi, Xueji Zhang
The antioxidant activity of selenium (Se) detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying Se induced fruit development and ripening. Our study showed that foliar pretreatment with 1mgL(-1) sodium selenate effectively delayed fruit ripening and maintained fruit quality. Gene expression studies revealed that the repression of ethylene biosynthetic genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase decreased ethylene production and respiration rate...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Lillian Oglesby, Anthony Ananga, James Obuya, Joel Ochieng, Ernst Cebert, Violeta Tsolova
The skin color of grape berry is very important in the wine industry. The red color results from the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, which is regulated by transcription factors belonging to the MYB family. The transcription factors that activate the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes have been isolated in model plants. However, the genetic basis of color variation is species-specific and its understanding is relevant in many crop species. This study reports the isolation of MybA1, and MYBCS-1 genes from muscadine grapes for the first time...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Claudia A Bustamante, Laura L Monti, Julieta Gabilondo, Federico Scossa, Gabriel Valentini, Claudio O Budde, María V Lara, Alisdair R Fernie, María F Drincovich
Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI) symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xin-Yu Yuan, Rui-Heng Wang, Xiao-Dan Zhao, Yun-Bo Luo, Da-Qi Fu
Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins...
2016: PloS One
Cristina Barsan, Marcel Kuntz, Jean-Claude Pech
Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation of tomato plastids at three fruit developmental stages, namely, nascent chromoplasts from the mature green stage, chromoplasts from an intermediate stage, and fully differentiated red chromoplasts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Da-Long Guo, Fei-Fei Xi, Yi-He Yu, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Guo-Hai Zhang, Gan-Yuan Zhong
BACKGROUND: Early ripening is an important desirable attribute for fruit crops. 'Kyoho' is a popular table grape cultivar in many Asian countries. 'Fengzao' is a bud mutant of 'Kyoho' and ripens nearly 30 days earlier than 'Kyoho'. To identify genes controlling early fruit development and ripening in 'Fengzao', RNA-Seq profiles of the two cultivars were compared at 8 different berry developmental stages in both berry peel and flesh tissues. METHODS: RNA-Seq profiling of berry development between 'Kyoho' and 'Fenzhao' were obtained using the Illumina HiSeq system and analyzed using various statistical methods...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ashish B Deshpande, Hemangi G Chidley, Pranjali S Oak, Keshav H Pujari, Ashok P Giri, Vidya S Gupta
Data in this article presents fatty acid composition of three mango cultivars; Alphonso, Pairi and Kent through fruit development and ripening. Change in the ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids level during mango fruit development and ripening is depicted. Also, data on aroma volatile 'lactones' composition from pulp and skin tissues of these cultivars at their ripe stage, respectively is provided. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates modulation in lactone content with that of fatty acid composition and content during fruit development and ripening in all the three mango cultivars...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Judith Hempel, Christopher N Schädle, Jasmin Sprenger, Annerose Heller, Reinhold Carle, Ralf M Schweiggert
Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Fang Xie, Shuzhi Yuan, Hanxu Pan, Rui Wang, Jiankang Cao, Weibo Jiang
Yeast mannan treatments effectively delayed colour change and firmness decline and inhibited ethylene production in two cultivars of tomato fruit during storage. The yeast mannan treatment maintained the integrity of tomato pericarp cell wall architecture and suppressed the modification of water-soluble and insoluble pectic polysaccharides in the cell wall. A decrease in the neutral sugars, including d-galactose, l-arabinose and l-rhamnose, in water-insoluble pectin and an increase in these sugars in water-soluble pectin were inhibited by yeast mannan...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Natalia M Villarreal, María Marina, Cristina F Nardi, Pedro M Civello, Gustavo A Martínez
Due to its organoleptic and nutraceutical qualities, strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch) is a worldwide important commodity. The role of ethylene in the regulation of strawberry cell wall metabolism was studied in fruit from Toyonoka cultivar harvested at white stage, when most changes associated with fruit ripening have begun. Fruit were treated with ethephon, an ethylene-releasing reagent, or with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, maintaining a set of non-treated fruit as controls for each condition...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Clara Pons, Cristina Martí, Javier Forment, Carlos H Crisosto, Abhaya M Dandekar, Antonio Granell
Peach fruits subjected to prolonged cold storage (CS) to delay decay and over-ripening often develop a form of chilling injury (CI) called mealiness/woolliness (WLT), a flesh textural disorder characterized by lack of juiciness. Transcript profiles were analyzed after different lengths of CS and subsequent shelf life ripening (SLR) in pools of fruits from siblings of the Pop-DG population with contrasting sensitivity to develop WLT. This was followed by quantitative PCR on pools and individual lines of the Pop-DG population to validate and extend the microarray results...
October 6, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Meiying Li, Licheng Ren, Biyu Xu, Xiaoliang Yang, Qiyu Xia, Pingping He, Susheng Xiao, Anping Guo, Wei Hu, Zhiqiang Jin
Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Padma Nimmakayala, Yan R Tomason, Venkata L Abburi, Alejandra Alvarado, Thangasamy Saminathan, Venkata G Vajja, Germania Salazar, Girish K Panicker, Amnon Levi, William P Wechter, James D McCreight, Abraham B Korol, Yefim Ronin, Jordi Garcia-Mas, Umesh K Reddy
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juxun Wu, Saisai Zheng, Guizhi Feng, Hualin Yi
Fruit ripening in citrus is not well-understood at the molecular level. Knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of citrus fruit ripening at the post-transcriptional level in particular is lacking. Here, we comparatively analyzed the miRNAs and their target genes in a spontaneous late-ripening mutant, "Fengwan" sweet orange (MT) (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), and its wild-type counterpart ("Fengjie 72-1," WT). Using high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs and RNA degradome tags, we identified 107 known and 21 novel miRNAs, as well as 225 target genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mariko Takayama, Chiaki Matsukura, Tohru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura
The C-terminal extension region of SlGAD3 is likely involved in autoinhibition, and removing this domain increases GABA levels in tomato fruits. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a ubiquitous non-protein amino acid with several health-promoting benefits. In many plants including tomato, GABA is synthesized via decarboxylation of glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which generally contains a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. We previously generated transgenic tomato plants in which tomato GAD3 (SlGAD3) was expressed using the 35S promoter/NOS terminator expression cassette (35S-SlGAD3-NOS), yielding a four- to fivefold increase in GABA levels in red-ripe fruits compared to the control...
October 4, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Jun-Wei Wang, Xin Zhou, Qian Zhou, Zhi-Yong Liu, Lei Sheng, Long Wang, Shun-Chang Cheng, Shu-Juan Ji
BACKGROUND: Postharvest ripening of the 'Nanguo' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim) can be impeded by low temperature storage. However, pears after long-term refrigeration are prone to peel browning (PB) when returned to room temperature conditions. This study investigated the browning mechanism of 'Nanguo' pear stored at a low temperature by analyzing the differentially expressed proteins between healthy and PB fruit. RESULTS: The results showed that 181 proteins underwent statistically significant changes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Guozheng Qin, Zhu Zhu, Weihao Wang, Jianghua Cai, Yong Chen, Li Li, Shiping Tian
Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a series of physiological and biochemical changes that ultimately influence fruit quality traits, such as color and flavor. Sugar metabolism is an important factor in ripening and there is evidence that it influences various aspects of ripening, although the associated mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we identified and analyzed the expression of 36 genes involved in sucrose metabolism in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift assays indicated that SlVIF, which encodes a vacuolar invertase inhibitor, and SlVI, encoding a vacuolar invertase, are directly regulated by the global fruit ripening regulator RIN (RIPENING INHIBITOR)...
September 30, 2016: Plant Physiology
Khadiza Khatun, Arif Hasan Khan Robin, Jong-In Park, Chang Kil Kim, Ki-Byung Lim, Min-Bae Kim, Do-Jin Lee, Ill Sup Nou, Mi-Young Chung
The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) proteins have growth, development, defense-related and growth regulatory functions in plants. The present study used genome-wide analysis to investigate ADF family genes in tomato. Eleven tomato ADF genes were identified and differential expression patterns were found in different organs. SlADF6 was preferentially expressed in roots, suggesting its function in root development. SlADF1, SlADF3 and SlADF10 were predominately expressed in the flowers compared to the other organs and specifically in the stamen compared to other flower parts, indicating their potential roles in pollen development...
2016: Genes
Zhen Gao, Chengjun Zhang, Meng Luo, Yusen Wu, Shuyan Duan, Jiefa Li, Lei Wang, Shiren Song, Wenping Xu, Shiping Wang, Caixi Zhang, Chao Ma
Pears are one of the most popular nutrient-rich fruits in the world. The pear core and mesocarp have significantly different metabolism, although they display similar profiles. Most strikingly, the core is more acidic in taste. Our results showed that there is more titrated acid but lower total soluble solids in the core compared to the mesocarp, and the content of citric acid was more than 17-fold higher in the core compared to the mesocarp at the ripening stage. Proteomics was used to investigate the difference between core and mesocarp tissues during 'Cuiguan' pear ripening...
September 30, 2016: Proteomics
Kevin B Rice, Brent D Short, Sharon K Jones, Tracy C Leskey
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding the specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistencies in trap performance indicate the need for the development of improved monitoring and management techniques for this insect. Our studies focused on identifying attractive visual cues for adult D. suzukii and incorporating these cues into a potential attract-and-kill tactic for D...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Entomology
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