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Fruit ripening

Min Chen, Xiao Liu, Shenghui Jiang, Binbin Wen, Chao Yang, Wei Xiao, Xiling Fu, Dongmei Li, Xiude Chen, Dongsheng Gao, Ling Li
Peach is an ideal species for fruit tree research because of its small, fully sequenced genome. Chloroplast development is dependent on the tight cooperation between the nuclear and plastid genomes, and is regulated by GLK transcription factors. In this work, the pigment content was monitored and the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion during the fruit ripening was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Localization and expression analyses showed that PpGLK1 was located in the nucleus and expressed mainly in the leaves and fruit skin...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Carla Inês, Maria C Parra-Lobato, Miguel A Paredes, Juana Labrador, Mercedes Gallardo, Mariana Saucedo-García, Marina Gavilanes-Ruiz, Maria C Gomez-Jimenez
Plant sphingolipids are involved in the building of the matrix of cell membranes and in signaling pathways of physiological processes and environmental responses. However, information regarding their role in fruit development and ripening, a plant-specific process, is unknown. The present study seeks to determine whether and, if so, how sphingolipids are involved in fleshy-fruit development and ripening in an oil-crop species such as olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Picual). Here, in the plasma-membranes of live protoplasts, we used fluorescence to examine various specific lipophilic stains in sphingolipid-enriched regions and investigated the composition of the sphingolipid long-chain bases (LCBs) as well as the expression patterns of sphingolipid-related genes, OeSPT, OeSPHK, OeACER, and OeGlcCerase, during olive-fruit development and ripening...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
S Pérez-Burillo, M J Oliveras, J Quesada, J A Rufián-Henares, S Pastoriza
Fruits are foods that contain plenty of vitamins, minerals and some bioactive phytochemicals like polyphenols. Thus, fruits may exert different functional properties on human health, some of which are directly related to their antioxidant capacity like cancer or atherosclerosis. Owing to globalization, consumers have a wide repertory of fruits throughout the year. Among them, tropical and subtropical fruits are steadily expanding, as well as the studies about them. In this sense, this timely review focused on the nutritional value and chemical composition of persimmon and kiwifruit, two tropical fruits with a protective role on different chronic diseases...
March 2018: Food Research International
Lorenzo A Saraiva, Florence P Castelan, Bruna L Gomes, Eduardo Purgatto, Beatriz R Cordenunsi-Lysenko
Brazil is a major producer and consumer of various banana types. Thap Maeo is a promising cultivar for the market due to its resistance to Black and Yellow Sigatoka disease. However, a lack of information and postharvest technologies concerning Thap Maeo physiology seems to be a significant problem limiting its expansion in the market. Thus, this study aims to establish Thap Maeo fruit's physical, biochemical, and physiological aspects, defining the best ethylene dosage for treatment considering fruit ripening parameters...
March 2018: Food Research International
Zhenyun Han, Yanan Hu, Yuanda Lv, Jocelyn K C Rose, Yaqiang Sun, Fei Shen, Yi Wang, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han
Many fleshy fruits have evolved vivid external or internal coloration, which often develops during ripening, in order to attract seed dispersers. Color changes are associated with the biosynthesis of pigments as well as degreening due to chlorophyll degradation. Cultivation has further driven the diversification of fruit color through selection criteria that can vary with ethnic or cultural origin. Here, we demonstrate that there is natural variation in the coding region of the gene ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR, ERF17, which contributes to apple fruit peel degreening...
February 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
Walftor Dumin, Michael Rostas, Christopher Winefield
Jasmonic acid (JA) is known to be an important phytohormone that orchestrates plant defence mechanisms against a range of herbivores and pathogens. Studies have suggested allene oxide synthase (AOS; E.C, the first committed step in JA biosynthesis, is essential for JA biosynthesis, yet clear evidence of its role as a biosynthetic regulatory point is lacking, in the main due to conflicting results derived from transgenic studies. However other studies lend support to a biosynthetic regulatory role for AOS...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Fengli Zhao, Gang Li, Panpan Hu, Xia Zhao, Liangjie Li, Wei Wei, Jiayue Feng, Houcheng Zhou
As the second largest transcription factor family in plant, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, characterized by the conserved bHLH domain, plays a central regulatory role in many biological process. However, the bHLH transcription factor family of strawberry has not been systematically identified, especially for the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 113 bHLH transcription factors and described their chromosomal distribution and bioinformatics for the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patinya Kaewklin, Ubonrat Siripatrawan, Anawat Suwanagul, Youn Suk Lee
The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20 °C...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Thangasamy Saminathan, Marleny García, Bandana Ghimire, Carlos Lopez, Abiodun Bodunrin, Padma Nimmakayala, Venkata L Abburi, Amnon Levi, Nagamani Balagurusamy, Umesh K Reddy
The plant microbiome is a key determinant of plant health and productivity, and changes in the plant microbiome can alter the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the quality of end produce. Little is known about the microbial diversity and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism in ripe fruits. In this study, we aimed to understand the diversity and function of microorganisms in relation to carbohydrate metabolism of ripe watermelon fruits. We used 16S metagenomics and RNAseq metatranscriptomics for analysis of red (PI459074, Congo, and SDRose) and yellow fruit-flesh cultivars (PI227202, PI435990, and JBush) of geographically and metabolically diverse watermelon cultivars...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Manuela Ferrero, Chiara Pagliarani, Ondrej Novák, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Cardinale, Ivan Visentin, Andrea Schubert
Besides signalling to soil organisms, strigolactones (SL) control above- and below-ground morphology, in particular shoot branching. Furthermore, SL interact with stress responses, possibly thanks to a cross-talk with the abscisic acid (ABA) signal. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), ABA drives the accumulation of anthocyanins over the ripening season. In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with a synthetic strigolactone analogue, GR24, on anthocyanin accumulation in grape berries, in presence or absence of exogenous ABA treatment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Barbara Lanza, Filomena Amoruso
BACKGROUND: A series of transformations occur in olive fruit both during ripening and processing. In particular, significant changes of the microstructural composition affect the flavour, texture, nutrients and overall quality of the end product. Texture is one of the sensory quality attributes of greatest importance to the consumer acceptance. In the present work, kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives of three cultivars of Olea europaea L. (Bella di Cerignola, Peranzana and Taggiasca cvs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhonghai Li, Hongwei Guo
Plant leaf senescence is the final process of leaf development that involves the mobilization of nutrients from old leaves to newly growing tissues. Leaf senescence involves a coordinated action at the cellular and organism levels under the control of a highly regulated genetic program. However, leaf senescence is also influenced by multiple internal and environmental signals that are integrated into the age information. Among these internal factors, the simple gaseous phytohormone ethylene is well-known to be an important endogenous modulator of plant leaf senescence and fruit ripening...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaohong Kou, Mengshi Wu
Senescence is the terminal stage of plant development. It is a strategic and tactical response to seasonal and unpredictable stresses. As an important part of plant senescence, fruit ripening is normally viewed distinctly as climacteric or non-climacteric. In this chapter we describe protocols for the determination of a number of parameters that have been used in characterizing the ripening behavior of fruits. These include changes in respiratory rate, ethylene, flesh firmness, sugar, acidity, starch, pectin, enzymes, aroma volatiles, and expression of ripening-related genes during fruit ripening and senescence...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
B K Sakhale, S S Gaikwad, R F Chavan
The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of gaseous application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on quality and shelf life of mango fruits of Cv. Kesar. The freshly harvested matured mango fruits were washed, cleaned and treated with fungicide at 500 ppm concentration for 10 min. The fruits were then subjected to 1-MCP treatment at different concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppb) and exposed for 18 and 24 h at 20 °C temperature in an air tight chamber along with control sample...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Lucio D'Andrea, Miguel Simon-Moya, Briardo Llorente, Ernesto Llamas, Mónica Marro, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Li Li, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion, Ariel Vicente
Profound metabolic and structural changes are required for fleshy green fruits to ripen and become colorful and tasty. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit ripening involves the differentiation of chromoplasts, specialized plastids that accumulate carotenoid pigments such as β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) and lycopene. Here, we explored the role of the plastidial Clp protease in chromoplast development and carotenoid accumulation. Ripening-specific silencing of one of the subunits of the Clp proteolytic complex resulted in β-carotene-enriched fruits that appeared orange instead of red when ripe...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yoshihito Shinozaki, Philippe Nicolas, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Qiyue Ma, Daniel J Evanich, Yanna Shi, Yimin Xu, Yi Zheng, Stephen I Snyder, Laetitia B B Martin, Eliel Ruiz-May, Theodore W Thannhauser, Kunsong Chen, David S Domozych, Carmen Catalá, Zhangjun Fei, Lukas A Mueller, James J Giovannoni, Jocelyn K C Rose
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an established model for studying fruit biology; however, most studies of tomato fruit growth and ripening are based on homogenized pericarp, and do not consider the internal tissues, or the expression signatures of individual cell and tissue types. We present a spatiotemporally resolved transcriptome analysis of tomato fruit ontogeny, using laser microdissection (LM) or hand dissection coupled with RNA-Seq analysis. Regulatory and structural gene networks, including families of transcription factors and hormone synthesis and signaling pathways, are defined across tissue and developmental spectra...
January 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Cristina Esteras, Jose Luis Rambla, Gerardo Sánchez, M Pilar López-Gresa, M Carmen González-Mas, Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Jose María Bellés, Antonio Granell, M Belén Picó
BACKGROUND: Aroma profile and carotenoids content of melon flesh are two important aspects influencing the quality of this fruit that have been characterized using only selected genotypes. However, the extant variability of the whole species remains unknown. RESULTS: A complete view of the volatile/carotenoids profiles of melon flesh was obtained analyzing 71 accessions, representing the whole diversity of the species. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and HPLC were used to analyze 200 volatile compounds and 5 carotenoids...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yanling Wang, Wenxiong Zou, Yan Xiao, Lina Cheng, Yudong Liu, Song Gao, Zihang Shi, Yun Jiang, Mingfang Qi, Tao Xu, Tianlai Li
Ethylene perception is regulated by receptors, and the downstream protein CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 is a key suppressor of ethylene signalling. The non-conserved tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) microRNA1917 (Sly-miR1917) mediates degradation of SlCTR4 splice variants (SlCTR4sv) but the molecular details of this pathway remain unknown. Sly-miR1917 and the targeted SlCTR4sv are ubiquitously expressed in all tomato organs. Overexpression of Sly-miR1917 enhances ethylene responses, including the triple response in etiolated seedlings, in the absence of ethylene, as well as epinastic petiole growth, accelerated pedicel abscission, and fruit ripening...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Marta Arrizabalaga, Fermín Morales, Mónica Oyarzun, Serge Delrot, Eric Gomès, Juan José Irigoyen, Ghislaine Hilbert, Inmaculada Pascual
The intra-varietal genetic diversity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) may be exploited to maintain grape quality under future warm conditions, which may alter grape berry development and composition. The present study assesses the effects of elevated temperature on the development of berry, grape composition and anthocyanins:sugars ratio of thirteen clones of V. vinifera. cv. Tempranillo that differed in length of the ripening period (time from veraison to berry total soluble solids, mainly sugars, of ca. 22 °Brix)...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Eduardo Corpas Iguarán, Gonzalo Taborda Ocampo, Omar Tapasco Alzate
Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit cultivated in Colombia. During ripening and senescence, this climactic fruit undergoes biochemical processes that produce the volatiles responsible for its aroma. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the volatile content during the ripening and senescence of lulo. Analysis of the volatile composition of lulo harvested in each of its five ripening stages and during its senescence time when stored at 18 ± 2 °C was performed using HS-SPME with GC-MS...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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