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Fruit ripening

Suk-Hee Lee, Angela Oh, Seo-Hee Shin, Ha-Na Kim, Woo-Won Kang, Shin-Kyo Chung
Amygdalin contents of the seeds, endocarps, and mesocarps from three peach cultivars (i.e., Stone Peach, Hikawa Hakuho, and Bakhyang) were measured at three stages of fruit development (stone-hardening, fruit enlargement, and ripening). The peach samples were dried and defatted with a Soxhlet apparatus, reflux extracted with methanol, and analyzed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. During all fruit development stages, the amygdalin contents in the seeds were higher than those in the endocarps and mesocarps...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Chang-Chun Fu, Yan-Chao Han, Jian-Fei Kuang, Jian-Ye Chen, Wang-Jin Lu
Papaya is an important tropical fruit with a rich source of carotenoids. The ripening of papaya is a physiological and metabolic process with remarkable changes including carotenoids accumulation, which depends primarily on the action of ethylene. Ethylene response is mediated by a transcriptional cascade involving the transcription factor families of EIN3/EILs and ERFs. Although ERF members have been reported to control carotenoids production in Arabidopsis and tomato, whether EIN3/EILs are also involved in carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening remains unclear...
October 12, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Willian Batista Silva, Gláucia Michelle Cosme Silva, Diederson Bortolini Santana, Acácio Rodrigues Salvador, David Barbosa Medeiros, Ikram Belghith, Natália Martins da Silva, Maria Helena Menezes Cordeiro, Gisele Polete Misobutsi
Guava is a typically tropical fruit highly perishable with a short shelf-life due to intense metabolic activity after harvested. In attempt to minimize the problems related to the postharvest, we evaluated the physiochemical characteristics and antioxidant system in guava fruits under chitosan coating at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% stored at 25°C during 96h. The chitosan suppressed the respiratory rate, fresh weight loss, firmness and skin color with delay in the degradation of chlorophyll. In the treatment with 2% and 3% of chitosan in the solid soluble content and ascorbic acid were reduced; retarded the loss of titratable acidity during 96h after treatment...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Luzia Guyer, Kathrin Salinger, Undine Krügel, Stefan Hörtensteiner
During leaf senescence and fruit ripening, chlorophyll is degraded in a multistep pathway into linear tetrapyrroles called phyllobilins. A key feature of chlorophyll breakdown is the removal of the hydrophobic phytol chain that renders phyllobilins water soluble, an important prerequisite for their ultimate storage in the vacuole of senescent cells. Chlorophyllases had been considered for more than a century to catalyze dephytylation in vivo; however, this was recently refuted. Instead, pheophytinase was discovered as a genuine in vivo phytol hydrolase...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Muhammad Jehanzeb, Xiangzi Zheng, Ying Miao
Senescence affect different traits of plants, such as the ripening of fruit, number, quality and timing of seed maturation. While senescence is induced by age, growth hormones and different environmental stresses, a highly organized genetic mechanism related to substantial changes in gene expression regulates the process. Only a few genes associated to senescence have been identified in crop plants despite the vital significance of senescence for crop yield. The S40 gene family has been shown to play a role in leaf senescence...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Si-Yu Zhao, Zhen-Li Liu, Yi-Song Shu, Meng-Lei Wang, Dan He, Zhi-Qian Song, Hong-Lian Zeng, Zhang-Chi Ning, Cheng Lu, Ai-Ping Lu, Yuan-Yan Liu
This manuscript elaborates on the establishment of a chemotaxonomic classification strategy for closely-related Citrus fruits in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). UPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based metabolomics was applied to depict the variable chemotaxonomic markers and elucidate the metabolic mechanism of Citrus TCMs from different species and at different ripening stages. Metabolomics can capture a comprehensive analysis of small molecule metabolites and can provide a powerful approach to establish metabolic profiling, creating a bridge between genotype and phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yan Li, Suresh Kumar, Weiqiang Qian
Active DNA demethylation (enzymatic removal of methylated cytosine) regulates many plant developmental processes. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation entails the base excision repair pathway initiated by the Repressor of silencing 1/Demeter family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases. In this review, we first present an introduction to the recent advances in our understanding about the mechanisms of active DNA demethylation. We then focus on the role of active DNA demethylation in diverse developmental processes in various plant species, including the regulation of seed development, pollen tube formation, stomatal development, fruit ripening, and nodule development...
October 12, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Jin Wang, Sai Kranthi Vanga, Vijaya Raghavan
Fruits are an important source of vitamins and antioxidants that can effectively delay aging and contribute to health and well-being of the human kind. However, they are growing to be one of the primary elicitors of food allergies around the world. Fruit allergens can induce an IgE-mediated (Immunoglobulin E) reaction, presenting with a symptom like localized oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Numerous studies showed that varying environmental and cultivation conditions can influence the fruit allergen content during flowering and ripening stages...
October 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Cui-Cui Yin, He Zhao, Biao Ma, Shou-Yi Chen, Jin-Song Zhang
Gaseous hormone ethylene has diverse effects in various plant processes. These processes include seed germination, plant growth, senescence, fruit ripening, biotic and abiotic stresses responses, and many other aspects. The biosynthesis and signaling of ethylene have been extensively studied in model Arabidopsis in the past two decades. However, knowledge about the ethylene signaling mechanism in crops and roles of ethylene in regulation of crop agronomic traits are still limited. Our recent findings demonstrate that rice possesses both conserved and diverged mechanism for ethylene signaling compared with Arabidopsis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Benke Kuai, Junyi Chen, Stefan Hörtensteiner
Chlorophyll breakdown is one of the most obvious signs of leaf senescence and fruit ripening. The resulting yellowing of leaves can be observed every autumn, and the color change of fruits indicates their ripening state. During these processes, chlorophyll is broken down in a multistep pathway, now termed the 'PAO/phyllobilin' pathway, acknowledging the core enzymatic breakdown step catalysed by pheophorbide a oxygenase, which determines the basic linear tetrapyrrole structure of the products of breakdown that are now called 'phyllobilins'...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Baowen Huang, Jean-Marc Routaboul, Mingchun Liu, Wei Deng, Elie Maza, Isabelle Mila, Guojian Hu, Mohamed Zouine, Pierre Frasse, Julia T Vrebalov, James J Giovannoni, Zhengguo Li, Benoît van der Rest, Mondher Bouzayen
MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade gathers AGAMOUS-like genes which are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expression levels in seeds and in central tissues of young fruits. The potential effects of Sl-AGL11 on fruit development were addressed through RNAi silencing and ectopic expression strategies...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Qingmin Han, Daisuke Kabeya, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Peter Millard
The contributions of the internal nitrogen (N) cycle and N uptake from soil to growth in mature trees remain poorly understood, especially during reproduction. In order to elucidate how reproduction affects N uptake, allocation and remobilization, we applied pulse 15N labelling to three fruiting (F) and three non-fruiting (NF) Fagus crenata Blume trees after the leaves were fully unfurled. Three-year-old branches were sampled from upper crowns at about 2 week intervals until leaf fall. 15N content per organ dry mass (15Nexcess) and N concentration in all new shoot organs were determined...
July 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
Francisco Javier Molina-Hidalgo, Laura Medina-Puche, Carlos Cañete-Gómez, José Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, Irene López-Vidriero, Roberto Solano, José Luis Caballero, Antonio Rodríguez-Franco, Rosario Blanco-Portales, Juan Muñoz-Blanco, Enriqueta Moyano, Ariel Vicente
Only a few transcription factors have been described in the regulation of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit ripening process. Using a transcriptomic approach, we identified and functionally characterized FaDOF2, a DOF-type ripening-related transcription factor, which is hormonally regulated and specific to the receptacle, though high expression levels were also found in petals. The expression pattern of FaDOF2 correlated with eugenol content, a phenylpropanoid volatile, in both fruit receptacles and petals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Anna K Wallingford, Dong H Cha, Charles E Linn, Michael S Wolfin, Gregory M Loeb
In agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (IPM) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. This may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. Here we attempt to identify potential hallmarks of repellent stimuli that are robust enough for practical use in the field. We explore the literature for success stories using repellents in IPM and we investigate the mechanisms of repellency for two chemical oviposition deterrents for controlling Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, a serious pest of small fruit crops...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Anjaritha A R Parijadi, Sastia P Putri, Sobir Ridwani, Fenny M Dwivany, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Metabolomics is an emerging research field based on exhaustive metabolite profiling that have been proven useful to facilitate the study of postharvest fruit development and ripening. Specifically, tracking changes to the metabolome as fruit ripens should provide important clues for understanding ripening mechanisms and identify bio-markers to improve post-harvest technology of fruits. This study conducted a time-course metabolome analysis in mangosteen, an economically important tropical fruit valued for its flavor...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez-López, Carmen Hernández-Brenes, Víctor Treviño, Rocío I Díaz de la Garza
BACKGROUND: Avocado fruit contains aliphatic acetogenins (oft-acetylated, odd-chain fatty alcohols) with promising bioactivities for both medical and food industries. However, we have scarce knowledge about their metabolism. The present work aimed to study changes in acetogenin profiles from mesocarp, lipid-containing idioblasts, and seeds from 'Hass' cultivar during fruit development, germination, and three harvesting years. An untargeted LC-MS based lipidomic analysis was also conducted to profile the lipidome of avocado fruit in each tissue...
September 29, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Lydia Ninan Lestario, Luke R Howard, Cindi Brownmiller, Nathan B Stebbins, Rohana Liyanage, Jackson O Lay
Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation...
October 2017: Food Research International
Ke Yang, Xiaojun Zhou, Yueyue Wang, Hualing Feng, Xiaolong Ren, Huidong Liu, Wenzhe Liu
Background and Aims: Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae) is a functional androdioecious species with both male and hermaphroditic individuals, and fruit ripening overlaps with flowering in the hermaphroditic individuals. Pollen vitality was lower in the hermaphrodites than in the males. Anther development requires nutrients, and carbohydrates are the basic nutrients; abnormal carbohydrate metabolism will result in pollen abortion. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the weakening of the male function of hermaphroditic flowers in T...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
Jihye Jung, Sang Chul Choi, Sunghee Jung, Byung-Kwan Cho, Gwang-Hwan Ahn, Stephen B Ryu
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), which is a climacteric fruit, softens in 3-5 weeks after harvest. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional changes that underlie persimmon ripening. In this study, high-throughput de novo RNA sequencing was performed to examine differential expression between freshly harvested (FH) and softened (ST) persimmon fruit peels. Using the Illumina HiSeq platform, we obtained 259,483,704 high quality reads and 94,856 transcripts. After the removal of redundant sequences, a total of 31,258 unigenes were predicted, 1,790 of which were differentially expressed between FH and ST persimmon (1,284 up-regulated and 506 down-regulated in ST compared with FH)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nuratika Tamimi S Mohamed, Phebe Ding, Jugah Kadir, Hasanah M Ghazali
Crown rot caused by fungal pathogen is the most prevalent postharvest disease in banana fruit that results significant economic losses during transportation, storage, and ripening period. Antifungal effects of ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation at doses varied from 0.01 to 0.30 kJ m(-2) were investigated in controlling postharvest crown rot disease, maintenance of fruit quality, and the effects on antioxidant capacity of Berangan banana fruit during ripening days at 25 ± 2°C and 85% RH. Fruits irradiated with 0...
September 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
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