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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214118/optimizing-peri-urban-ecosystems-pure-to-re-couple-urban-rural-symbiosis
#1
REVIEW
Yong-Guan Zhu, Brian J Reid, Andrew A Meharg, Steve A Banwart, Bo-Jie Fu
Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214038/maximising-synergy-among-tropical-plant-systematists-ecologists-and-evolutionary-biologists
#2
REVIEW
Timothy R Baker, R Toby Pennington, Kyle G Dexter, Paul V A Fine, Helen Fortune-Hopkins, Euridice N Honorio, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Bente B Klitgård, Gwilym P Lewis, Haroldo C de Lima, Peter Ashton, Christopher Baraloto, Stuart Davies, Michael J Donoghue, Maria Kaye, W John Kress, Caroline E R Lehmann, Abel Monteagudo, Oliver L Phillips, Rodolfo Vasquez
Closer collaboration among ecologists, systematists, and evolutionary biologists working in tropical forests, centred on studies within long-term permanent plots, would be highly beneficial for their respective fields. With a key unifying theme of the importance of vouchered collection and precise identification of species, especially rare ones, we identify four priority areas where improving links between these communities could achieve significant progress in biodiversity and conservation science: (i) increasing the pace of species discovery; (ii) documenting species turnover across space and time; (iii) improving models of ecosystem change; and (iv) understanding the evolutionary assembly of communities and biomes...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211056/targeted-mass-media-interventions-promoting-healthy-behaviours-to-reduce-risk-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-adult-ethnic-minorities
#3
REVIEW
Annhild Mosdøl, Ingeborg B Lidal, Gyri H Straumann, Gunn E Vist
BACKGROUND: Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs...
February 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210365/who-are-the-most-influential-emergency-physicians-on-twitter
#4
Jeff Riddell, Alisha Brown, Ivor Kovic, Joshua Jauregui
INTRODUCTION: Twitter has recently gained popularity in emergency medicine (EM). Opinion leaders on Twitter have significant influence on the conversation and content, yet little is known about these opinion leaders. We aimed to describe a methodology to identify the most influential emergency physicians (EP) on Twitter and present a current list. METHODS: We analyzed 2,234 English-language EPs on Twitter from a previously published list of Twitter accounts generated by a snowball sampling technique...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209609/pancreatic-cancer-progress-and-challenges-in-a-rapidly-moving-field
#5
Eric A Collisson, Kenneth P Olive
"Pancreatic Cancer: Advances in Science and Clinical Care," a Special Conference of the American Association for Cancer Research, was held in Orlando, FL, on May 12 to 15, bringing together more than 450 basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiologic pancreatic cancer researchers as well as pancreatic cancer patients, survivors, and advocates. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the great challenges in medicine, but the accelerating pace of research and early hints of clinical successes to come were palpable throughout the meeting...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209501/comparing-surgical-clerkship-performance-of-medical-and-physician-assistant-students
#6
Nasser N Alamiri, Charles Miles Maliska, Heather Chancellor-McIntosh, Guido Sclabas
OBJECTIVE: Third-year medical students (MS-III) and second-year physician assistant students (PA-S) have similar core clinical rotations during their education. Uniquely at our institution, both groups rotate together and are assessed by the same evaluation and grading standards. This study compares the performance of MS-III and PA-S during their combined surgical clerkship rotation. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis on students' final clerkship grades, individual grades for clinical performance evaluation, objective structured clinical examination, faculty tutorials, and National Board of Medical Education (NBME) general surgery examination for academic years 2013 and 2014...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209173/moving-from-legality-to-reality-how-medical-abortion-methods-were-introduced-with-implementation-science-in-zambia
#7
Tamara Fetters, Ghazaleh Samandari, Patrick Djemo, Bellington Vwallika, Stephen Mupeta
BACKGROUND: Although abortion is technically legal in Zambia, the reality is far more complicated. This study describes the process and results of galvanizing access to medical abortion where abortion has been legal for many years, but provision severely limited. It highlights the challenges and successes of scaling up abortion care using implementation science to document 2 years of implementation. METHODS: An intervention between the Ministry of Health, University Teaching Hospital and the international organization Ipas, was established to introduce medical abortion and to address the lack of understanding and implementation of the country's abortion law...
February 16, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197520/a-mini-review-on-the-most-important-effective-medicinal-plants-to-treat-hypertension-in-ethnobotanical-evidence-of-iran
#8
REVIEW
Babak Baharvand-Ahmadi, Majid Asadi-Samani
Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in human communities. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease which causes a mortality twice higher than general population. Given the fact that medicinal plants have long been used to treat hypertension and are currently being administered for this disease, we sought to report the mostly effective and important medicinal plants on hypertension therapy in ethno-botanical evidence of Iran. In this study, hypertension, Iran, ethno-botany, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine were used as key words to search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO and EMBASE to select relevant articles...
2017: J Nephropharmacol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196421/science-in-a-global-community
#9
Jan van Hest, Erin B Lavik, Bradley D Smith, Gang Zheng, Vincent M Rotello
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195029/the-problem-of-epistemic-jurisdiction-in-global-governance-the-case-of-sustainability-standards-for-biofuels
#10
David E Winickoff, Matthieu Mondou
While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194770/clinical-pharmacology-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#11
EDITORIAL
S A Waldman, A Terzic
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT), the definitive and timely source for advances in human therapeutics, transcends the drug discovery, development, regulation, and utilization continuum to catalyze, evolve, and disseminate discipline-transformative knowledge. Prioritized themes and multidisciplinary content drive the science and practice of clinical pharmacology, offering a trusted point of reference. An authoritative herald across global communities, CPT is a timeless information vehicle at the vanguard of discovery, translation, and application ushering therapeutic innovation into modern healthcare...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193243/bite-size-research-bmc-research-notes-goes-back-to-its-roots
#12
EDITORIAL
Dirk Krüger, Diana M Marshall
Since it first launched in 2008, BMC Research Notes has been a place where researchers can publish short notes and observations, research outputs which are useful for the community but which can end up hidden in the lab notebook or as a footnote in a dataset. In order to re-affirm the importance of publishing these kinds of outputs, the journal is renewing its focus on publishing note articles as well as other potentially dark data such as short null results. Publishing these articles is useful for many researchers, therefore we are also expanding the scope to all scientific and clinical disciplines including health sciences, life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics and all engineering disciplines...
February 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190904/which-early-works-are-cited-most-frequently-in-climate-change-research-literature-a-bibliometric-approach-based-on-reference-publication-year-spectroscopy
#13
Werner Marx, Robin Haunschild, Andreas Thor, Lutz Bornmann
This bibliometric analysis focuses on the general history of climate change research and, more specifically, on the discovery of the greenhouse effect. First, the Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS) is applied to a large publication set on climate change of 222,060 papers published between 1980 and 2014. The references cited therein were extracted and analyzed with regard to publications, which are cited most frequently. Second, a new method for establishing a more subject-specific publication set for applying RPYS (based on the co-citations of a marker reference) is proposed (RPYS-CO)...
2017: Scientometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188283/the-deaf-mentoring-survey-a-community-cultural-wealth-framework-for-measuring-mentoring-effectiveness-with-underrepresented-students
#14
Derek C Braun, Cara Gormally, M Diane Clark
Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187722/effectiveness-of-differing-levels-of-support-for-family-meals-on-obesity-prevention-among-head-start-preschoolers-the-simply-dinner-study
#15
Holly E Brophy-Herb, Mildred Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Jean Kerver, Niko Kaciroti, Mara Stein, Hannah Jong Lee, Brittany Motz, Sheilah Hebert, Erika Prine, Candace Gardiner, Laurie A Van Egeren, Julie C Lumeng
BACKGROUND: Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals...
February 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186210/us-residential-building-air-exchange-rates-new-perspectives-to-improve-decision-making-at-vapor-intrusion-sites
#16
Rivka Reichman, Elham Shirazi, Donald G Colliver, Kelly G Pennell
Vapor intrusion (VI) is well-known to be difficult to characterize because indoor air (IA) concentrations exhibit considerable temporal and spatial variability in homes throughout impacted communities. To overcome this and other limitations, most VI science has focused on subsurface processes; however there is a need to understand the role of aboveground processes, especially building operation, in the context of VI exposure risks. This tutorial review focuses on building air exchange rates (AERs) and provides a review of literature related building AERs to inform decision making at VI sites...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185765/proceedings-of-the-2016-santa-fe-bone-symposium-new-concepts-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis-and-metabolic-bone-diseases
#17
REVIEW
E Michael Lewiecki, John P Bilezikian, Susan V Bukata, Pauline Camacho, Bart L Clarke, Michael R McClung, Paul D Miller, John Shepherd
The Santa Fe Bone Symposium is an annual meeting of healthcare professionals and clinical researchers that details the clinical relevance of advances in knowledge of skeletal diseases. The 17th Santa Fe Bone Symposium was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, on August 5-6, 2016. The program included plenary lectures, oral presentations by endocrinology fellows, meet-the-professor sessions, and panel discussions, all aimed to provide ample opportunity for interactive discussions among all participants. Symposium topics included recent developments in the translation of basic bone science to patient care, new clinical practice guidelines for postmenopausal osteoporosis, management of patients with disorders of phosphate metabolism, new and emerging treatments for rare bone diseases, strategies to enhance fracture healing, and an update on Bone Health Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes, using a teleconferencing platform to elevate the level of knowledge of healthcare professionals in underserved communities to deliver best practice care for skeletal diseases...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183809/specifying-the-content-of-home-based-health-behaviour-change-interventions-for-older-people-with-frailty-or-at-risk-of-frailty-an-exploratory-systematic-review
#18
Benjamin Gardner, Ana Jovicic, Celia Belk, Kalpa Kharicha, Steve Iliffe, Jill Manthorpe, Claire Goodman, Vari M Drennan, Kate Walters
OBJECTIVES: To identify trials of home-based health behaviour change interventions for frail older people, describe intervention content and explore its potential contribution to intervention effects. DESIGN: 15 bibliographic databases, and reference lists and citations of key papers, were searched for randomised controlled trials of home-based behavioural interventions reporting behavioural or health outcomes. SETTING: Participants' homes...
February 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182727/evolution-of-ischemic-damage-and-behavioural-deficit-over-6-months-after-mcao-in-the-rat-selecting-the-optimal-outcomes-and-statistical-power-for-multi-centre-preclinical-trials
#19
Sarah S J Rewell, Leonid Churilov, T Kate Sidon, Elena Aleksoska, Susan F Cox, Malcolm R Macleod, David W Howells
Key disparities between the timing and methods of assessment in animal stroke studies and clinical trial may be part of the reason for the failure to translate promising findings. This study investigates the development of ischemic damage after thread occlusion MCAo in the rat, using histological and behavioural outcomes. Using the adhesive removal test we investigate the longevity of behavioural deficit after ischemic stroke in rats, and examine the practicality of using such measures as the primary outcome for future studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178021/the-meanings-young-people-assign-to-living-with-mental-illness-and-their-experiences-in-managing-their-health-and-lives-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#20
Roberta L Woodgate, Corey Sigurdson, Lisa Demczuk, Pauline Tennent, Bernadine Wallis, Pamela Wener
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that less than 25% of young people in need of treatment for mental illness receive specialized services, and even fewer receive a diagnosis by their doctor. These findings are troubling given that living with a mental illness can have a significant impact on a young person's life, the lives of his/her family members, the young person's community and society generally. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on the meanings young people assign to living with mental illness and their experiences in managing their health and lives...
February 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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