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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533216/a-diverse-community-to-study-communities-integration-of-experiments-and-mathematical-models-to-study-microbial-consortia
#1
Antonella Succurro, Fiona Wanjiku Moejes, Oliver Ebenhöh
The last few years have seen the advancement of high-throughput experimental techniques produce an extraordinary amount of data. Bioinformatics and statistical analyses have become instrumental to interpreting the information coming from e.g. sequencing data, and often motivate further targeted experiments. The broad discipline of "computational biology" spans far beyond the well-established field of bioinformatics, but it is our impression that more theoretical methods like mathematical models are not yet as well integrated in the research studying microbial interactions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533183/dedicated-research-time-during-surgery-residency-leads-to-a-significant-decline-in-self-assessed-clinical-aptitude-and-surgical-skills
#2
Monica M Grova, Anthony D Yang, Misty D Humphries, Joseph M Galante, Edgardo S Salcedo
OBJECTIVE: The surgical community commonly perceives a decline in surgical and patient care skills among residents who take dedicated time away from clinical activity to engage in research. We hypothesize that residents perceive a decline in their skills because of dedicated research time. SETTING: UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, an institutional tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: General surgery residents and graduates from UC Davis general surgery residency training program, who had completed at least 1 year of research during their training...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532397/a-systematic-review-of-factors-that-shape-implementation-of-mass-drug-administration-for-lymphatic-filariasis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Adam Silumbwe, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Hikabasa Halwindi, Choolwe Jacobs, Jessy Zgambo, Rosalia Dambe, Mumbi Chola, Gershom Chongwe, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532291/using-key-informant-method-to-determine-the-prevalence-and-causes-of-childhood-blindness-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#4
Ada E Aghaji, Ifeoma R Ezegwui, Jude O Shiweobi, Cyril C Mamah, Mary N Okoloagu, Ernest N Onwasigwe
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526661/the-parasol-protocol-an-implementation-science-study-of-hiv-continuum-of-care-interventions-for-gay-men-and-transgender-women-in-burma-myanmar
#5
Andrea L Wirtz, Soe Naing, Emily Clouse, Kaung Htet Thu, Sandra Hsu Hnin Mon, Zin Min Tun, Stefan Baral, Aung Zayar Paing, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care...
May 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525522/cardiovascular-disease-in-korean-americans-a-systematic-review
#6
Cha-Nam Shin, Colleen Keller, Kyungeh An, Jeongha Sim
BACKGROUND: Despite Korean Americans being one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States, little is known about their cardiovascular health or cardiovascular disease risk factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risks and their contributing factors in Korean Americans and recommend future directions for the development of cardiovascular disease prevention or management research to meet the unique needs of this ethnic group...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523652/announcement-changes-in-the-jipb-board
#7
EDITORIAL
Chun-Ming Liu
As a journal run entirely by scientists from plant science community, JIPB has developed from a China-based national journal to an international one over the past decade. Serving as the JIPB Editor-in-Chief, I have witnessed the gradual elevation of the journal in terms of publication quality and international visibility. The SCI impact factor has markedly increased from 0.671 in 2007 to 3.993 in 2016. Meanwhile, the number of yearly downloads have drastically increased from 54,931 to over 175,000 and our ranking among the plant science journals worldwide has increased from 100(th) to 24(th) ! Internationally, the subscriptions of JIPB currently includes 15,200 universities and research institutions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523219/discovery-and-informing-research-participants-of-incidental-findings-detected-in-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies-review-and-multi-institutional-study
#8
REVIEW
Kyoko Takashima, Yoshiyuki Takimoto, Eisuke Nakazawa, Yoshinori Hayashi, Atsushi Tsuchiya, Misao Fujita, Akira Akabayashi
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sometimes reveal incidental findings (IFs) that might be relevant to some of the health issues in research participants. Although professional communities have discussed how to manage these IFs, there is no global consensus on the concrete handling procedures including how to inform participants of IFs. METHODS: First, this study reviewed previous studies for the number of IFs discovered in brain imaging studies using MEDLINE...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522825/integrated-trophic-position-decreases-in-more-diverse-communities-of-stream-food-webs
#9
Naoto F Ishikawa, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Aya R Murakami, Ichiro Tayasu, Hiroyuki Togashi, Jun-Ichi Okano, Yoichiro Sakai, Tomoya Iwata, Michio Kondoh, Noboru Okuda
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is an important theme in environmental sciences. We propose a new index for configuration of the biomass pyramid in an ecosystem, named integrated trophic position (iTP). The iTP is defined as a sum of trophic positions (i.e. the average number of steps involved in biomass transfer) of all the animals in a food web integrated by their individual biomass. The observed iTP for stream macroinvertebrates ranged from 2.39 to 2.79 and was negatively correlated with the species density and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index of the local community...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518097/light-sheet-based-fluorescence-microscopy-of-living-or-fixed-and-stained-tribolium-castaneum-embryos
#10
Frederic Strobl, Selina Klees, Ernst H K Stelzer
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important insect model organism in developmental genetics and evolutionary developmental biology. The observation of Tribolium embryos with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy has multiple advantages over conventional widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Due to the unique properties of a light sheet-based microscope, three dimensional images of living specimens can be recorded with high signal-to-noise ratios and significantly reduced photo-bleaching as well as photo-toxicity along multiple directions over periods that last several days...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515633/association-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-anthropometric-measurements-a-case-control-study-in-south-india
#11
REVIEW
A Awasthi, C R Rao, D S Hegde, K Rao N
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical evidence indicates a stronger association of diabetes with central obesity than general obesity. The present study aimed to compare the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and different anthropometric measurements and evaluate the usefulness of these measurements in clinical practice. METHODS: A case-control study was done among 102 individuals; of whom 51 cases included diagnosed T2DM (≥ 20 years age) patients attending the Medicine out-patient consultation of a tertiary care hospital and 51 controls who were screen negative for T2DM and recruited from the local community...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514701/a-biased-opinion-demonstration-of-cognitive-bias-on-a-fingerprint-matching-task-through-knowledge-of-dna-test-results
#12
Sarah V Stevenage, Alice Bennett
One study is presented which explores the biasing effects of irrelevant contextual information on a fingerprint matching task. Bias was introduced by providing the outcomes of a DNA test relating to each fictitious case under consideration. This was engineered to suggest either a match, no match, or an inconclusive outcome, and was thus either consistent, misleading or unbiased depending on the ground truth of each fingerprint pair. The results suggested that, when the difficulty of the fingerprint matching task was measurably increased, participants became more vulnerable to the biasing information...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513845/claud-s-rupert-1919-2017-the-father-of-dna-repair
#13
Aziz Sancar
Claud Stanley Rupert Jr, a founding father of the field of DNA repair, died of natural causes in Dallas, Texas, on February 2(nd) , 2017. Dr. Rupert was highly respected by the photobiology and DNA repair communities. In 1964, he received the Finsen Medal, the highest recognition given by International Union of Photobiology. He was elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1966. In 1971, he was named to the Johns Hopkins University Society of Scholars. This article is protected by copyright...
May 17, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511702/what-is-the-evidence-for-the-management-of-patients-along-the-pathway-from-the-emergency-department-to-acute-admission-to-reduce-unplanned-attendance-and-admission-an-evidence-synthesis
#14
Sarah H Credé, Colin O'Keeffe, Suzanne Mason, Anthea Sutton, Emma Howe, Susan J Croft, Mike Whiteside
BACKGROUND: Globally, the rate of emergency hospital admissions is increasing. However, little evidence exists to inform the development of interventions to reduce unplanned Emergency Department (ED) attendances and hospital admissions. The objective of this evidence synthesis was to review the evidence for interventions, conducted during the patient's journey through the ED or acute care setting, to manage people with an exacerbation of a medical condition to reduce unplanned emergency hospital attendance and admissions...
May 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510603/effectiveness-of-community-based-peer-support-for-mothers-to-improve-their-breastfeeding-practices-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Prakash Shakya, Mika Kondo Kunieda, Momoko Koyama, Sarju Sing Rai, Moe Miyaguchi, Sumi Dhakal, Su Sandy, Bruno Fokas Sunguya, Masamine Jimba
METHODS: We searched for evidence regarding community-based peer support for mothers in databases, such as PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, SocINDEX, and PsycINFO. We selected three outcome variables for breastfeeding practices, namely, exclusive breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding within the first hour of life, and prelacteal feeding. We conducted meta-analyses of the included randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies. RESULTS: For our review, we selected 47 articles for synthesis out of 1,855 retrieved articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510572/1-2-million-kids-and-counting-mobile-science-laboratories-drive-student-interest-in-stem
#16
Amanda L Jones, Mary K Stapleton
In today's increasingly technological society, a workforce proficient in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills is essential. Research has shown that active engagement by K-12 students in hands-on science activities that use authentic science tools promotes student learning and retention. Mobile laboratory programs provide this type of learning in schools and communities across the United States and internationally. Many programs are members of the Mobile Lab Coalition (MLC), a nonprofit organization of mobile and other laboratory-based education programs built on scientist and educator collaborations...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508813/web-and-mobile-based-hiv-prevention-and-intervention-programs-pros-and-cons-a-review
#17
Sharareh Niakan, Esmaeil Mehraeen, Tayebeh Noori, Elahe Gozali
BACKGROUND: With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. OBJECTIVES: In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508440/has-evidence-based-medicine-ever-been-modern-a-latour-inspired-understanding-of-a-changing-ebm
#18
Sietse Wieringa, Eivind Engebretsen, Kristin Heggen, Trish Greenhalgh
Evidence-based health care (EBHC), previously evidence-based medicine (EBM), is considered by many to have modernized health care and brought it from an authority-based past to a more rationalist, scientific grounding. But recent concerns and criticisms pose serious challenges and urge us to look at the fundamentals of a changing EBHC. In this paper, we present French philosopher Bruno Latour's vision on modernity as a framework to discuss current changes in the discourse on EBHC/EBM. Drawing on Latour's work, we argue that the early EBM movement had a strong modernist agenda with an aim to "purify" clinical reality into a dichotomy of objective "evidence" from nature and subjective "preferences" from human society and culture...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507240/mathematical-methods-in-medicine-neuroscience-cardiology-and-pathology
#19
José M Amigó, Michael Small
The application of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering to medicine is gaining momentum as the mutual benefits of this collaboration become increasingly obvious. This theme issue is intended to highlight the trend in the case of mathematics. Specifically, the scope of this theme issue is to give a general view of the current research in the application of mathematical methods to medicine, as well as to show how mathematics can help in such important aspects as understanding, prediction, treatment and data processing...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506379/pharmacist-initiated-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-in-a-community-pharmacy-to-increase-awareness-and-link-to-care-at-the-medical-center
#20
Nadine Y Isho, Marlowe Djuric Kachlic, Jennifer Chan Marcelo, Michelle T Martin
OBJECTIVE: To describe the design and implementation of a pharmacist-led hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and education program in a community pharmacy with a protocol for linkage to care at the affiliated hepatology clinic for patients born between 1945 and 1965. SETTING: Outpatient pharmacy affiliated with the University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: The community pharmacist resident conducted the HCV screening at the health system-based community pharmacy...
May 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
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