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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346288/application-of-computational-intelligence-to-improve-education-in-smart-cities
#1
Everton Gomede, Fernando Henrique Gaffo, Gabriel Ulian Briganó, Rodolfo Miranda de Barros, Leonardo de Souza Mendes
According to UNESCO, education is a fundamental human right and every nation's citizens should be granted universal access with equal quality to it. Because this goal is yet to be achieved in most countries, in particular in the developing and underdeveloped countries, it is extremely important to find more effective ways to improve education. This paper presents a model based on the application of computational intelligence (data mining and data science) that leads to the development of the student's knowledge profile and that can help educators in their decision making for best orienting their students...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346278/a-case-study-in-citizen-science-the-effectiveness-of-a-trap-neuter-return-program-in-a-chicago-neighborhood
#2
Daniel D Spehar, Peter J Wolf
The use of trap-neuter-return (TNR) as a method of managing free-roaming cat populations has increased in the United States in recent decades. Historically, TNR has been conducted most often at a grassroots level, which has led to inconsistent data collection and assessment practices. Consequently, a paucity of analyzable data exists. An initiative is underway to standardize TNR program data collection and assessment. However, it could be some time before scientifically sound protocols are implemented on a broad scale...
January 18, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312833/geo-referencing-bird-window-collisions-for-targeted-mitigation
#3
R Scott Winton, Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Nicolette Cagle
Bird collisions with windows are an important conservation concern. Efficient mitigation efforts should prioritize retrofitting sections of glass exhibiting the highest mortality of birds. Most collision studies, however, record location meta-data at a spatial scale too coarse (i.e., compass direction of facing façade) to be useful for large buildings with complex geometries. Through spatial analysis of three seasons of survey data at a large building at a university campus, we found that GPS data were able to identify collision hotspots while compass directions could not...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309168/-scientific-conference-rijeka-and-its-citizens-in-medical-history-2000-2016
#4
Robert Doričić, Igor Eterović
This paper presents the form and content of the sixteen scientific conferences "Rijeka and its Citizens in Medical History" ("Rijeka i Riječani u medicinskoj povjesnici") which were held in the period between 2000 and 2016 according to the archive data of the conference organizer Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture. It presents data about the beginning of science convention, some its organisational features and the number of participants. A total of 315 presentations, whose abstracts were published in individual conference's abstract books, were given at the sixteen conventions by 463 participants from Croatia and abroad...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309167/-on-the-occasion-of-the-fiftieth-anniversary-of-the-croatian-scientific-society-for-the-history-of-health-culture
#5
Ante Škrobonja, Igor Salopek
A group of intellectuals, predominantly lecturers from the Faculty of Medicine, founded in Rijeka on May 29, 1966 the branch of the Yugoslav Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture, which after the independence of Croatia in 1991 continues its work under the name Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture. Over the past 50 years, within activities of the Society more than 250 professional and scientific conferences have been held in Rijeka and other Croatian cities. In addition, a dozen of professional-scientific trips to neighbouring countries were organized...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302044/the-pertinence-of-sutton-s-law-to-exposure-science-lessons-from-unconventional-shale-gas-drilling
#6
REVIEW
Bernard D Goldstein
Sutton's Law urges the medical practitioner to utilize the test that goes directly to the problem. When applied to exposure science, Sutton's Law would argue that the major emphasis should be on techniques that directly measure exposure in or close to the human, animal or ecosystem receptors of concern. Exposure science largely and appropriately violates Sutton's Law by estimating exposure based on information on emissions or measurements obtained at a distance from the receptors of concern. I suggest four criteria to help determine whether Sutton's law should be violated for an innovative technology, and explore these criteria in relation to potential human exposure resulting from unconventional gas drilling (UGD): (1) The technological processes possibly leading to release of the chemical or physical agents of concern are reasonably understood; (2) the agents of concern are known; (3) the source and geographical location of the releases can be reasonably identified; and (4) there is information about the likely temporal pattern of the releases and resulting pollutant levels in relation to the temporal patterns of receptor susceptibility...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274609/trends-and-seasonality-of-river-nutrients-in-agricultural-catchments-18years-of-weekly-citizen-science-in-france
#7
Benjamin W Abbott, Florentina Moatar, Olivier Gauthier, Ophélie Fovet, Virginie Antoine, Olivier Ragueneau
Agriculture and urbanization have disturbed three-quarters of global ice-free land surface, delivering huge amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater ecosystems. These excess nutrients degrade habitat and threaten human food and water security at a global scale. Because most catchments are either currently subjected to, or recovering from anthropogenic nutrient loading, understanding the short- and long-term responses of river nutrients to changes in land use is essential for effective management. We analyzed a never-published, 18-year time series of anthropogenic (NO3- and PO43-) and naturally derived (dissolved silica) riverine nutrients in 13 catchments recovering from agricultural pollution in western France...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258497/non-invasive-genetic-monitoring-involving-citizen-science-enables-reconstruction-of-current-pack-dynamics-in-a-re-establishing-wolf-population
#8
Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Craig Primmer, Meri Lindqvist, Jenni Poutanen, Olaf Thalmann, Jouni Aspi, Jenni Harmoinen, Ilpo Kojola, Toni Laaksonen
BACKGROUND: Carnivores are re-establishing in many human-populated areas, where their presence is often contentious. Reaching consensus on management decisions is often hampered by a dispute over the size of the local carnivore population. Understanding the reproductive dynamics and individual movements of the carnivores can provide support for management decisions, but individual-level information can be difficult to obtain from elusive, wide-ranging species. Non-invasive genetic sampling can yield such information, but makes subsequent reconstruction of population history challenging due to incomplete population coverage and error-prone data...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238495/assessment-of-life-skills-of-medical-students-in-mashhad-iran-in-2015
#9
Arash Akhavan Rezayat, Shabnam Niroumand, Elham Shiehzadeh, Ali Saghebi, Reza Rahimzadeh Oskooie, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam
Background: Developing social skills and mental health is a crucial part of the psychosocial health status of medical students. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the life skills of medical students in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2015. By census method, 146 interns were entered into the study. The life skill questionnaire, consisting of 144 questions, was used as the measurement tool...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238339/comparing-the-healthy-nose-and-nasopharynx-microbiota-reveals-continuity-as-well-as-niche-specificity
#10
Ilke De Boeck, Stijn Wittouck, Sander Wuyts, Eline F M Oerlemans, Marianne F L van den Broek, Dieter Vandenheuvel, Olivier Vanderveken, Sarah Lebeer
To improve our understanding of upper respiratory tract (URT) diseases and the underlying microbial pathogenesis, a better characterization of the healthy URT microbiome is crucial. In this first large-scale study, we obtained more insight in the URT microbiome of healthy adults. Hereto, we collected paired nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs from 100 healthy participants in a citizen-science project. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene V4 amplicon sequencing was performed and samples were processed using the Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm 2 (DADA2) algorithm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228053/traditional-scientific-data-vs-uncoordinated-citizen-science-effort-a-review-of-the-current-status-and-comparison-of-data-on-avifauna-in-southern-brazil
#11
Louri Klemann-Junior, Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos, Pedro Scherer-Neto, Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule
Data generated by citizen science is particularly valuable in ecological research. If used discerningly with data from traditional scientific references, citizen science can directly contribute to biogeography knowledge and conservation policies by increasing the number of species records in large geographic areas. Considering the current level of knowledge on south Brazilian avifauna, the large volume of data produced by uncoordinated citizen science effort (CS), and the growing need for information on changes in abundance and species composition, we have compiled an updated, general list of bird species occurrence within the state of Paraná...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216596/understanding-social-and-behavioral-drivers-and-impacts-of-air-quality-sensor-use
#12
Bryan J Hubbell, Amanda Kaufman, Louie Rivers, Kayla Schulte, Gayle Hagler, Jane Clougherty, Wayne Cascio, Dan Costa
BACKGROUND: Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215333/erratum-new-blood-the-promise-of-environmental-health-citizen-science-projects
#13
Nancy Averett
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1289/EHP2484.].
December 6, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211752/getting-the-full-picture-assessing-the-complementarity-of-citizen-science-and-agency-monitoring-data
#14
Jeneen Hadj-Hammou, Steven Loiselle, Daniel Ophof, Ian Thornhill
While the role of citizen science in engaging the public and providing large-scale datasets has been demonstrated, the nature of and potential for this science to supplement environmental monitoring efforts by government agencies has not yet been fully explored. To this end, the present study investigates the complementarity of a citizen science programme to agency monitoring of water quality. The Environment Agency (EA) is the governmental public body responsible for, among other duties, managing and monitoring water quality and water resources in England...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211734/seafarer-citizen-scientist-ocean-transparency-data-as-a-resource-for-phytoplankton-and-climate-research
#15
Secchi Disk Seafarers, Samantha Lavender, Gregory Beaugrand, Nicholas Outram, Nigel Barlow, David Crotty, Jake Evans, Richard Kirby
The oceans' phytoplankton that underpin the marine food chain appear to be changing in abundance due to global climate change. Here, we compare the first four years of data from a citizen science ocean transparency study, conducted by seafarers using home-made Secchi Disks and a free Smartphone application called Secchi, with contemporaneous satellite ocean colour measurements. Our results show seafarers collect useful Secchi Disk measurements of ocean transparency that could help future assessments of climate-induced changes in the phytoplankton when used to extend historical Secchi Disk data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190283/sonic-kayaks-environmental-monitoring-and-experimental-music-by-citizens
#16
Amber G F Griffiths, Kirsty M Kemp, Kaffe Matthews, Joanne K Garrett, David J Griffiths
The Sonic Kayak is a musical instrument used to investigate nature and developed during open hacklab events. The kayaks are rigged with underwater environmental sensors, which allow paddlers to hear real-time water temperature sonifications and underwater sounds, generating live music from the marine world. Sensor data is also logged every second with location, time and date, which allows for fine-scale mapping of water temperatures and underwater noise that was previously unattainable using standard research equipment...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184838/magnifying-the-senescence-impact-of-oral-health-on-quality-of-life-and-daily-performance-in-geriatrics-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Kuldeep Dhama, Priyanka Razdan, Lav Kumar Niraj, Irfan Ali, Basavaraj Patthi, Gagandeep Kundra
Objective: The objective of the study is to study the behavior of the GOHAI as well as the OIDPs as potent measures in oral health related to quality of life in senior citizens. Materials and Methods: An outreach program-based cross-sectional study conducted in Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 340 study participants aged >60 years were selected from outreach program which were held between January 2017 and April 2017 based on inclusion and exclusion criterion...
October 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164092/the-nuisance-mosquito-anopheles-plumbeus-stephens-1828-in-germany-a-questionnaire-survey-may-help-support-surveillance-and-control
#18
Eva C Heym, Jette Schröder, Helge Kampen, Doreen Walther
The mosquito species Anopheles plumbeus is an aggressive biter and a potential vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. It occurs naturally at low population densities, as its larval development is adapted to the specific water qualities found in tree holes. However, probably owing to environmental changes, it has recently been observed in several European countries to use increasingly often artificial breeding habitats that may lead to mass development and severe annoyance to humans living close by...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153174/a-100-year-review-animal-welfare-in-the-journal-of-dairy-science-the-first-100-years
#19
Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Daniel M Weary
This paper outlines the history and development of research in the area of animal welfare as reflected in the 100 yr that the Journal of Dairy Science has been published. The first paper using the term "animal welfare" was published in 1983; since then (to May 2017), 244 papers that reflect growing interest regarding how farm animals are cared for have been published. Much of the scientific work to date has focused on issues related to cow health, such as lameness, and methodologically many papers use behavioral measures...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141765/bionomics-and-spatial-distribution-of-triatomine-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-texas-and-other-southern-states-usa
#20
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Sarah A Hamer, Sage Lane, Michael Z Levy, Gabriel L Hamer
Defining spatial and temporal occurrences of triatomine vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, in the US is critical for public health protection. Through a citizen science program and field collections from 2012 to 2016, we collected 3,215 triatomines, mainly from Texas. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we identified seven Triatoma species and report sex, length, and blood engorgement status. Many citizen-collected triatomines (92.9%) were encountered indoors, in peridomestic settings, or in dog kennels and represent spillover transmission risk of T...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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