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Citizen science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890974/senior-friendly-hospitals-development-and-application-of-criteria-a-descriptive-study
#1
M R Rashmi, Arvind Kasthuri, Rashmi J Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: The world's population is rapidly aging. Between 2000 and 2050, the proportion of the world's population over the age of 60 will double from about 11% to 22%; more so in the developing countries. The prevalence of frailty and morbidity among the elderly is high. There is a need to assess the "preparedness" of the health care system including hospitals to respond to the needs of the elderly. AIM: 1. To develop criteria for a senior friendly hospital and 2...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866685/garrett-hardin-s-tragic-sense-of-life
#2
Jason Oakes
I discuss biologist Garrett Hardin's view of human nature, with examples from the background to his seminal 1968 essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" and his testimony before the US House of Representatives in the 1970s. Hardin saw the human species as being governed by deterministic laws of the same kind that controlled all other forms of life. Humans, as much as cattle and microbes, were in inevitable competition for space and resources. Equal parts Malthusian political economy and Cold War systems science, his view was the survival of the human race depended on obeying these iron laws...
November 17, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843747/citizen-surveillance-for-environmental-monitoring-combining-the-efforts-of-citizen-science-and-crowdsourcing-in-a-quantitative-data-framework
#3
REVIEW
Marijke Welvaert, Peter Caley
Citizen science and crowdsourcing have been emerging as methods to collect data for surveillance and/or monitoring activities. They could be gathered under the overarching term citizen surveillance. The discipline, however, still struggles to be widely accepted in the scientific community, mainly because these activities are not embedded in a quantitative framework. This results in an ongoing discussion on how to analyze and make useful inference from these data. When considering the data collection process, we illustrate how citizen surveillance can be classified according to the nature of the underlying observation process measured in two dimensions-the degree of observer reporting intention and the control in observer detection effort...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830253/clinical-research-informatics-for-big-data-and-precision-medicine
#4
C Weng, M G Kahn
OBJECTIVES: To reflect on the notable events and significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) in the year of 2015 and discuss near-term trends impacting CRI. METHODS: We selected key publications that highlight not only important recent advances in CRI but also notable events likely to have significant impact on CRI activities over the next few years or longer, and consulted the discussions in relevant scientific communities and an online living textbook for modern clinical trials...
November 10, 2016: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817057/the-y-chromosome-as-the-most-popular-marker-in-genetic-genealogy-benefits-interdisciplinary-research
#5
REVIEW
Francesc Calafell, Maarten H D Larmuseau
The Y chromosome is currently by far the most popular marker in genetic genealogy that combines genetic data and family history. This popularity is based on its haploid character and its close association with the patrilineage and paternal inherited surname. Other markers have not been found (yet) to overrule this status due to the low sensitivity and precision of autosomal DNA for genetic genealogical applications, given the vagaries of recombination, and the lower capacities of mitochondrial DNA combined with an in general much lower interest in maternal lineages...
November 5, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810012/power-to-the-people-addressing-big-data-challenges-in-neuroscience-by-creating-a-new-cadre-of-citizen-neuroscientists
#6
Jane Roskams, Zoran Popović
Global neuroscience projects are producing big data at an unprecedented rate that informatic and artificial intelligence (AI) analytics simply cannot handle. Online games, like Foldit, Eterna, and Eyewire-and now a new neuroscience game, Mozak-are fueling a people-powered research science (PPRS) revolution, creating a global community of "new experts" that over time synergize with computational efforts to accelerate scientific progress, empowering us to use our collective cerebral talents to drive our understanding of our brain...
November 2, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797433/anopheles-plumbeus-diptera-culicidae-in-germany-updated-geographical-distribution-and-public-health-impact-of-a-nuisance-and-vector-mosquito
#7
Eva C Heym, Helge Kampen, Marcus Fahle, Tobias L Hohenbrink, Mandy Schäfer, Dorothee E Zielke, Doreen Walther
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to map the current spatial distribution of Anopheles plumbeus in Germany, a potential vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. Reports of mass occurrence and nuisance connected with artificial breeding site usage by this species were analysed. METHODS: Distribution data were collected from 2011 to 2014 mainly through trapping and submissions of adult mosquito specimens to a citizen science project. In the framework of the latter, additional information was gathered on recent nuisance incidents caused by An...
October 31, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783970/realities-of-environmental-toxicity-and-their-ramifications-for-community-engagement
#8
Justin T Clapp, Jody A Roberts, Britt Dahlberg, Lee Sullivan Berry, Lisa M Jacobs, Edward A Emmett, Frances K Barg
Research on community responses to environmental toxicity has richly described the struggles of citizens to identify unrecognized toxins, collect their own environmental health facts, and use them to lobby authorities for recognition and remediation. Much of this literature is based on an empiricist premise: it is concerned with exploring differences in how laypeople and experts perceive what is presumed to be a singular toxic reality that preexists these varying perspectives. Here, we seek to reexamine this topic by shifting the focus from facts to facticity-that is, by exploring the many types of knowledge that communities develop about toxicity and how these knowledges articulate with the ideas of scientific and governmental authorities about what kinds of information are valid bases for policymaking...
December 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780593/citizen-science-datasets-reveal-drivers-of-spatial-and-temporal-variation-for-anthropogenic-litter-on-great-lakes-beaches
#9
Anna Vincent, Nate Drag, Olga Lyandres, Sarah Neville, Timothy Hoellein
Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (AL) on marine beaches and its ecological effects have been a major focus of research. Recent studies suggest AL is also abundant in freshwater environments, but much less research has been conducted in freshwaters relative to oceans. The Adopt-a-BeachTM (AAB) program, administered by the Alliance for the Great Lakes, organizes volunteers to act as citizen scientists by collecting and maintaining data on AL abundance on Great Lakes beaches. Initial assessments of the AAB records quantified sources and abundance of AL on Lake Michigan beaches, and showed that plastic AL was >75% of AL on beaches across all five Great Lakes...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771096/low-plastic-ingestion-rate-in-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-from-newfoundland-destined-for-human-consumption-collected-through-citizen-science-methods
#10
Max Liboiron, France Liboiron, Emily Wells, Natalie Richárd, Alexander Zahara, Charles Mather, Hillary Bradshaw, Judyannet Murichi
Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766239/healthy-older-adults-balance-pattern-under-dual-task-conditions-exploring-the-strategy-and-trend
#11
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761916/the-role-of-genetics-in-fisheries-management-under-the-e-u-common-fisheries-policy
#12
J Casey, E Jardim, J Th Martinsohn
Exploitation of fish and shellfish stocks by the European Union fishing fleet is managed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which aims to ensure that fishing and aquaculture are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable and that they provide a source of healthy food for E.U. citizens. A notable feature of the CFP is its legally enshrined requirement for sound scientific advice to underpin its objectives. The CFP was first conceived in 1970 when it formed part of the Common Agricultural Policy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754370/performance-evaluation-and-community-application-of-low-cost-sensors-for-ozone-and-nitrogen-dioxide
#13
Rachelle M Duvall, Russell W Long, Melinda R Beaver, Keith G Kronmiller, Michael L Wheeler, James J Szykman
This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado, under the umbrella of the NASA-led DISCOVER-AQ Earth Venture Mission. Measurements were focused on ozone (O₃) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂). The performance evaluation showed that the CairClip O₃/NO₂ sensor provided a consistent measurement response to that of reference monitors (r² = 0...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752825/harnessing-technology-and-citizen-science-to-support-neighborhoods-that-promote-active-living-in-mexico
#14
Lisa G Rosas, Deborah Salvo, Sandra J Winter, David Cortes, Juan Rivera, Nicole M Rodriguez, Abby C King
Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747554/baby-walker-injury-disability-and-death-in-a-high-income-middle-eastern-country-as-reported-by-siblings
#15
Peter Barss, Michal Grivna, Amna Al-Hanaee, Ayesha Al-Dhahab, Fatima Al-Kaabi, Shamma Al-Muhairi
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers (BWs) are frequent causes of infant injuries. Little research is reported from the Middle East and few population-based studies anywhere. METHODS: Using multistage random sampling in a city of the United Arab Emirates, 4 of 8 female Arab government high schools and 3 final-year classes each from science and arts tracks were selected. Structured self-administered questionnaires assessed prevalence, frequency, severity, and external causes of BW incidents and injuries, and residential hazards...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706182/a-citizen-science-approach-a-detailed-ecological-assessment-of-subtropical-reefs-at-point-lookout-australia
#16
Chris Roelfsema, Ruth Thurstan, Maria Beger, Christine Dudgeon, Jennifer Loder, Eva Kovacs, Michele Gallo, Jason Flower, K-le Gomez Cabrera, Juan Ortiz, Alexandra Lea, Diana Kleine
Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706154/volunteer-conservation-action-data-reveals-large-scale-and-long-term-negative-population-trends-of-a-widespread-amphibian-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#17
Silviu O Petrovan, Benedikt R Schmidt
Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe's most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693333/lessons-from-implementation-of-ecohealth-projects-in-southern-africa-a-principal-investigator-s-perspective
#18
Moses John Chimbari
Ecohealth projects are designed to garner ownership among all stakeholders, such as researchers, communities, local leadership and policy makers. Ideally, designs should ensure that implementation goes smoothly and that findings from studies benefit the stakeholders, particularly bringing changes to the communities researched. Paradoxically, the process is fraught with challenges associated with implementation. Notwithstanding these challenges, evidence from projects implemented in southern Africa justify the need to invest in the subject of ecohealth...
September 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693150/low-cost-sensors-and-crowd-sourced-data-observations-of-siting-impacts-on-a-network-of-air-quality-instruments
#19
Georgia Miskell, Jennifer Salmond, David E Williams
Low-cost sensors offer the possibility of gathering high temporal and spatial resolution crowd-sourced data-sets that have the potential to revolutionize the ways in which we understand individual and population exposure to air pollution. However, one of the challenges associated with crowd-sourced data ('citizen science'), often from low-cost sensors, is that citizens may use sites strongly affected by local conditions, limiting the wider significance of the data. This paper examines results from a low-cost network measuring ground-level ozone to evaluate the impact of siting on data quality...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692571/the-added-value-of-a-surveillance-human-biomonitoring-program-the-case-of-flehs-in-flanders-belgium
#20
Hans Reynders, Ann Colles, Bert Morrens, Maja Mampaey, Dries Coertjens, Gudrun Koppen, Greet Schoeters, Ilse Loots, Hana Chovanova, Wim Winderickx, Karen Van Campenhout
Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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