Read by QxMD icon Read

Citizen science

J Casey, E Jardim, J Th Martinsohn
Exploitation of fish and shellfish stocks by the European Union fishing fleet is managed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), which aims to ensure that fishing and aquaculture are environmentally, economically and socially sustainable and that they provide a source of healthy food for E.U. citizens. A notable feature of the CFP is its legally enshrined requirement for sound scientific advice to underpin its objectives. The CFP was first conceived in 1970 when it formed part of the Common Agricultural Policy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Rachelle M Duvall, Russell W Long, Melinda R Beaver, Keith G Kronmiller, Michael L Wheeler, James J Szykman
This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in Houston, Texas and Denver, Colorado, under the umbrella of the NASA-led DISCOVER-AQ Earth Venture Mission. Measurements were focused on ozone (O₃) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂). The performance evaluation showed that the CairClip O₃/NO₂ sensor provided a consistent measurement response to that of reference monitors (r² = 0...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Lisa G Rosas, Deborah Salvo, Sandra J Winter, David Cortes, Juan Rivera, Nicole M Rodriguez, Abby C King
Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Peter Barss, Michal Grivna, Amna Al-Hanaee, Ayesha Al-Dhahab, Fatima Al-Kaabi, Shamma Al-Muhairi
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers (BWs) are frequent causes of infant injuries. Little research is reported from the Middle East and few population-based studies anywhere. METHODS: Using multistage random sampling in a city of the United Arab Emirates, 4 of 8 female Arab government high schools and 3 final-year classes each from science and arts tracks were selected. Structured self-administered questionnaires assessed prevalence, frequency, severity, and external causes of BW incidents and injuries, and residential hazards...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Chris Roelfsema, Ruth Thurstan, Maria Beger, Christine Dudgeon, Jennifer Loder, Eva Kovacs, Michele Gallo, Jason Flower, K-le Gomez Cabrera, Juan Ortiz, Alexandra Lea, Diana Kleine
Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PloS One
Silviu O Petrovan, Benedikt R Schmidt
Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe's most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo)...
2016: PloS One
Moses John Chimbari
Ecohealth projects are designed to garner ownership among all stakeholders, such as researchers, communities, local leadership and policy makers. Ideally, designs should ensure that implementation goes smoothly and that findings from studies benefit the stakeholders, bringing changes particularly to the communities researched. Paradoxically, the process is fraught with challenges associated with implementation. Notwithstanding the challenges, evidence from projects implemented in southern Africa justify the need to invest in ecohealth...
September 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
Georgia Miskell, Jennifer Salmond, David E Williams
Low-cost sensors offer the possibility of gathering high temporal and spatial resolution crowd-sourced data-sets that have the potential to revolutionize the ways in which we understand individual and population exposure to air pollution. However, one of the challenges associated with crowd-sourced data ('citizen science'), often from low-cost sensors, is that citizens may use sites strongly affected by local conditions, limiting the wider significance of the data. This paper examines results from a low-cost network measuring ground-level ozone to evaluate the impact of siting on data quality...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hans Reynders, Ann Colles, Bert Morrens, Maja Mampaey, Dries Coertjens, Gudrun Koppen, Greet Schoeters, Ilse Loots, Hana Chovanova, Wim Winderickx, Karen Van Campenhout
Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Stephen J Price, Trenton W J Garner, Andrew A Cunningham, Tom E S Langton, Richard A Nichols
There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease reports in the UK: that outbreaks were being reported more frequently, that climate change had altered the interaction between hosts and a previously widespread pathogen, and that disease was emerging due to spatial spread of a novel pathogen...
September 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Barak Fishbain, Uri Lerner, Nuria Castell, Tom Cole-Hunter, Olalekan Popoola, David M Broday, Tania Martinez Iñiguez, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Milena Jovasevic-Stojanovic, Dusan Topalovic, Roderic L Jones, Karen S Galea, Yael Etzion, Fadi Kizel, Yaela N Golumbic, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari, Tamar Yacobi, Dana Drahler, Johanna A Robinson, David Kocman, Milena Horvat, Vlasta Svecova, Alexander Arpaci, Alena Bartonova
Recent developments in sensory and communication technologies have made the development of portable air-quality (AQ) micro-sensing units (MSUs) feasible. These MSUs allow AQ measurements in many new applications, such as ambulatory exposure analyses and citizen science. Typically, the performance of these devices is assessed using the mean error or correlation coefficients with respect to a laboratory equipment. However, these criteria do not represent how such sensors perform outside of laboratory conditions in large-scale field applications, and do not cover all aspects of possible differences in performance between the sensor-based and standardized equipment, or changes in performance over time...
September 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mandy Kauffman, Dannele Peck, Brandon Scurlock, Jim Logan, Timothy Robinson, Walt Cook, Kari Boroff, Brant Schumaker
Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Pietro K Maruyama, Hans Henrik Bruun, Dimitar Dimitrov, Thomas Laessøe, Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Bo Dalsgaard
Woody plants host diverse communities of associated organisms, including wood-inhabiting fungi. In this group, host effects on species richness and interaction network structure are not well understood, especially not at large geographical scales. We investigated ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of fungal species richness and network modularity, that is, subcommunity structure, across woody hosts in Denmark, using a citizen science data set comprising > 80 000 records of > 1000 fungal species on 91 genera of woody plants...
September 23, 2016: New Phytologist
Carl Stenoien, Kelly R Nail, Jacinta M Zalucki, Hazel Parry, Karen S Oberhauser, Myron P Zalucki
We review the postulated threatening processes that may have affected the decline in the eastern population of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in North America. Although there are likely multiple contributing factors, such as climate and resource-related effects on breeding, migrating, and overwintering populations, the key landscape level change appears to be associated with the widespread use of genetically modified herbicide resistant crops that have rapidly come to dominate the extensive core summer breeding range...
September 21, 2016: Insect Science
Isaac Holeman, Tara Patricia Cookson, Claudia Pagliari
BACKGROUND: Poor governance impedes the provision of equitable and cost-effective health care in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although systemic problems such as corruption and inefficiency have been characterized as intractable, "good governance" interventions that promote transparency, accountability and public participation have yielded encouraging results. Mobile phones and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are beginning to play a role in these interventions, but little is known about their use and effects in the context of LMIC health care...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
Elvina Viennet, Scott A Ritchie, Craig R Williams, Helen M Faddy, David Harley
Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Judith Schneider, Alice Valentini, Tony Dejean, Fabrizio Montarsi, Pierre Taberlet, Olivier Glaizot, Luca Fumagalli
Repeated introductions and spread of invasive mosquito species (IMS) have been recorded on a large scale these last decades worldwide. In this context, members of the mosquito genus Aedes can present serious risks to public health as they have or may develop vector competence for various viral diseases. While the Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is a well-known vector for e.g. dengue and chikungunya viruses, the Asian bush mosquito (Ae. j. japonicus) and Ae. koreicus have shown vector competence in the field and the laboratory for a number of viruses including dengue, West Nile fever and Japanese encephalitis...
2016: PloS One
Sara Wylie, Kim Schultz, Deborah Thomas, Chris Kassotis, Susan Nagel
This article describes Dr Theo Colborn's legacy of inspiring complementary and synergistic environmental health research and advocacy. Colborn, a founder of endocrine disruption research, also stimulated study of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In 2014, the United States led the world in oil and gas production, with fifteen million Americans living within one mile of an oil or gas well. Colborn pioneered efforts to understand and control the impacts of this sea change in energy production. In 2005, her research organization The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX) developed a database of chemicals used in natural gas extraction and their health effects...
September 13, 2016: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Elizabeth H Boakes, Gianfranco Gliozzo, Valentine Seymour, Martin Harvey, Chloë Smith, David B Roy, Muki Haklay
The often opportunistic nature of biological recording via citizen science leads to taxonomic, spatial and temporal biases which add uncertainty to biodiversity estimates. However, such biases may also give valuable insight into volunteers' recording behaviour. Using Greater London as a case-study we examined the composition of three citizen science datasets - from Greenspace Information for Greater London CIC, iSpot and iRecord - with respect to recorder contribution and spatial and taxonomic biases, i.e. when, where and what volunteers record...
2016: Scientific Reports
Paulita Bennett-Martin, Christy C Visaggi, Timothy L Hawthorne
Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"