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Citizen science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336804/beyond-privacy-and-exposure-ethical-issues-within-citizen-facing-analytics
#1
Peter Grindrod
We discuss the governing forces for analytics, especially concerning citizens' behaviours and their transactions, that depend on which of three spheres of operation an institution is in (corporate, public sector/government and academic). We argue that aspirations and missions also differ by sphere even as digital spaces have drawn these spheres ever closer together. We propose that citizens' expectations and implicit permissions for any exploitation of their data require the perception of a fair balance of benefits, which should be transparent (accessible to citizens) and justifiable...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336798/data-science-ethics-in-government
#2
REVIEW
Cat Drew
Data science can offer huge opportunities for government. With the ability to process larger and more complex datasets than ever before, it can provide better insights for policymakers and make services more tailored and efficient. As with all new technologies, there is a risk that we do not take up its opportunities and miss out on its enormous potential. We want people to feel confident to innovate with data. So, over the past 18 months, the Government Data Science Partnership has taken an open, evidence-based and user-centred approach to creating an ethical framework...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328937/efficient-occupancy-model-fitting-for-extensive-citizen-science-data
#3
Emily B Dennis, Byron J T Morgan, Stephen N Freeman, Martin S Ridout, Tom M Brereton, Richard Fox, Gary D Powney, David B Roy
Appropriate large-scale citizen-science data present important new opportunities for biodiversity modelling, due in part to the wide spatial coverage of information. Recently proposed occupancy modelling approaches naturally incorporate random effects in order to account for annual variation in the composition of sites surveyed. In turn this leads to Bayesian analysis and model fitting, which are typically extremely time consuming. Motivated by presence-only records of occurrence from the UK Butterflies for the New Millennium data base, we present an alternative approach, in which site variation is described in a standard way through logistic regression on relevant environmental covariates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318695/monitoring-water-quality-in-toronto-s-urban-stormwater-ponds-assessing-participation-rates-and-data-quality-of-water-sampling-by-citizen-scientists-in-the-freshwater-watch
#4
Andrew B Scott, Paul C Frost
From 2013 to 2015, citizen scientist volunteers in Toronto, Canada were trained to collect and analyze water quality in urban stormwater ponds. This volunteer sampling was part of the research program, FreshWater Watch (FWW), which aimed to standardize urban water sampling efforts from around the globe. We held training sessions for new volunteers twice yearly and trained a total of 111 volunteers. Over the course of project, ~30% of volunteers participated by collecting water quality data after the training session with 124 individual sampling events at 29 unique locations in Toronto, Canada...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301706/facts-values-and-journalism
#5
Susan Gilbert
At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289733/correcting-for-microbial-blooms-in-fecal-samples-during-room-temperature-shipping
#6
Amnon Amir, Daniel McDonald, Jose A Navas-Molina, Justine Debelius, James T Morton, Embriette Hyde, Adam Robbins-Pianka, Rob Knight
The use of sterile swabs is a convenient and common way to collect microbiome samples, and many studies have shown that the effects of room-temperature storage are smaller than physiologically relevant differences between subjects. However, several bacterial taxa, notably members of the class Gammaproteobacteria, grow at room temperature, sometimes confusing microbiome results, particularly when stability is assumed. Although comparative benchmarking has shown that several preservation methods, including the use of 95% ethanol, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and FTA cards, and Omnigene-GUT kits, reduce changes in taxon abundance during room-temperature storage, these techniques all have drawbacks and cannot be applied retrospectively to samples that have already been collected...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273159/the-challenge-of-monitoring-elusive-large-carnivores-an-accurate-and-cost-effective-tool-to-identify-and-sex-pumas-puma-concolor-from-footprints
#7
Sky Alibhai, Zoe Jewell, Jonah Evans
Acquiring reliable data on large felid populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. However, large felids, typically solitary, elusive and nocturnal, are difficult to survey. Tagging and following individuals with VHF or GPS technology is the standard approach, but costs are high and these methodologies can compromise animal welfare. Such limitations can restrict the use of these techniques at population or landscape levels. In this paper we describe a robust technique to identify and sex individual pumas from footprints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264704/initiating-community-engagement-in-an-ecohealth-research-project-in-southern-africa
#8
Rosemary Musesengwa, Moses J Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Community Engagement (CE) in health research ensures that research is consistent with the socio-cultural, political and economic contexts where the research is conducted. The greatest challenges for researchers are the practical aspects of CE in multicentre health research. This study describes the CE in an ecohealth community-based research project focusing on two vulnerable and research naive rural communities. METHODS: A qualitative, longitudinal multiple case study approach was used...
March 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262715/citizen-science-shows-systematic-changes-in-the-temperature-difference-between-air-and-inland-waters-with-global-warming
#9
Gesa A Weyhenmeyer, Murray Mackay, Jason D Stockwell, Wim Thiery, Hans-Peter Grossart, Pétala B Augusto-Silva, Helen M Baulch, Elvira de Eyto, Josef Hejzlar, Külli Kangur, Georgiy Kirillin, Don C Pierson, James A Rusak, Steven Sadro, R Iestyn Woolway
Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261460/modeling-nonbreeding-distributions-of-shorebirds-and-waterfowl-in-response-to-climate-change
#10
Gordon C Reese, Susan K Skagen
To identify areas on the landscape that may contribute to a robust network of conservation areas, we modeled the probabilities of occurrence of several en route migratory shorebirds and wintering waterfowl in the southern Great Plains of North America, including responses to changing climate. We predominantly used data from the eBird citizen-science project to model probabilities of occurrence relative to land-use patterns, spatial distribution of wetlands, and climate. We projected models to potential future climate conditions using five representative general circulation models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5)...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260564/interweaving-ideas-and-patchwork-programmes-nutrition-projects-in-colonial-fiji-1945-60
#11
Sarah Clare Hartley
The influence of a range of actors is discernible in nutrition projects during the period after the Second World War in the South Pacific. Influences include: international trends in nutritional science, changing ideas within the British establishment about state responsibility for the welfare of its citizens and the responsibility of the British Empire for its subjects; the mixture of outside scrutiny and support for projects from post-war international and multi-governmental organisations, such as the South Pacific Commission...
April 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251872/phylogeography-of-human-y-chromosome-haplogroup-q3-l275-from-an-academic-citizen-science-collaboration
#12
Oleg Balanovsky, Vladimir Gurianov, Valery Zaporozhchenko, Olga Balaganskaya, Vadim Urasin, Maxat Zhabagin, Viola Grugni, Rebekah Canada, Nadia Al-Zahery, Alessandro Raveane, Shao-Qing Wen, Shi Yan, Xianpin Wang, Pierre Zalloua, Abdullah Marafi, Sergey Koshel, Ornella Semino, Chris Tyler-Smith, Elena Balanovska
BACKGROUND: The Y-chromosome haplogroup Q has three major branches: Q1, Q2, and Q3. Q1 is found in both Asia and the Americas where it accounts for about 90% of indigenous Native American Y-chromosomes; Q2 is found in North and Central Asia; but little is known about the third branch, Q3, also named Q1b-L275. Here, we combined the efforts of population geneticists and genetic genealogists to use the potential of full Y-chromosome sequencing for reconstructing haplogroup Q3 phylogeography and suggest possible linkages to events in population history...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249761/towards-benchmarking-citizen-observatories-features-and-functioning-of-online-amateur-weather-networks
#13
Mohammad Gharesifard, Uta Wehn, Pieter van der Zaag
Crowd-sourced environmental observations are increasingly being considered as having the potential to enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of current data streams from terrestrial and areal sensors. The rapid diffusion of ICTs during the past decades has facilitated the process of data collection and sharing by the general public and has resulted in the formation of various online environmental citizen observatory networks. Online amateur weather networks are a particular example of such ICT-mediated observatories that are rooted in one of the oldest and most widely practiced citizen science activities, namely amateur weather observation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245932/characterisation-of-a-smartphone-image-sensor-response-to-direct-solar-305nm-irradiation-at-high-air-masses
#14
D P Igoe, A Amar, A V Parisi, J Turner
This research reports the first time the sensitivity, properties and response of a smartphone image sensor that has been used to characterise the photobiologically important direct UVB solar irradiances at 305nm in clear sky conditions at high air masses. Solar images taken from Autumn to Spring were analysed using a custom Python script, written to develop and apply an adaptive threshold to mitigate the effects of both noise and hot-pixel aberrations in the images. The images were taken in an unobstructed area, observing from a solar zenith angle as high as 84° (air mass=9...
February 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244173/reducing-fat-intake-using-implementation-intentions-a-meta-analytic-review
#15
Irene Vilà, Isabel Carrero, Raquel Redondo
PURPOSE: To study the efficacy of forming implementation intentions for fat intake reduction as well as possible moderating variables. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 empirical studies (N = 3,323) published in English and Spanish in the Web of Science (Core Collection) and MEDLINE (1990-January 2016) databases. RESULTS: This study found that the efficacy of planning interventions on fat consumption reduction was higher than expected, as a moderate overall effect of implementation intentions was observed (d = 0...
February 28, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231261/a-natural-user-interface-to-integrate-citizen-science-and-physical-exercise
#16
Eduardo Palermo, Jeffrey Laut, Oded Nov, Paolo Cappa, Maurizio Porfiri
Citizen science enables volunteers to contribute to scientific projects, where massive data collection and analysis are often required. Volunteers participate in citizen science activities online from their homes or in the field and are motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we investigated the possibility of integrating citizen science tasks within physical exercises envisaged as part of a potential rehabilitation therapy session. The citizen science activity entailed environmental mapping of a polluted body of water using a miniature instrumented boat, which was remotely controlled by the participants through their physical gesture tracked by a low-cost markerless motion capture system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210895/combining-physiological-environmental-and-locational-sensors-for-citizen-oriented-health-applications
#17
J J Huck, J D Whyatt, P Coulton, B Davison, A Gradinar
This work investigates the potential of combining the outputs of multiple low-cost sensor technologies for the direct measurement of spatio-temporal variations in phenomena that exist at the interface between our bodies and the environment. The example used herein is the measurement of personal exposure to traffic pollution, which may be considered as a function of the concentration of pollutants in the air and the frequency and volume of that air which enters our lungs. The sensor-based approach described in this paper removes the 'traditional' requirements either to model or interpolate pollution levels or to make assumptions about the physiology of an individual...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190572/prioritising-local-action-for-water-quality-improvement-using-citizen-science-a-study-across-three-major-metropolitan-areas-of-china
#18
Ian Thornhill, Jonathan G Ho, Yuchao Zhang, Huashou Li, Kin Chung Ho, Leticia Miguel-Chinchilla, Steven A Loiselle
Streams in urban areas are prone to degradation. While urbanization-induced poor water quality is a widely observed and well documented phenomenon, the mechanism to pinpoint local drivers of urban stream degradation, and their relative influence on water quality, is still lacking. Utilizing data from the citizen science project FreshWater Watch, we use a machine learning approach to identify key indicators, potential drivers, and potential controls to water quality across the metropolitan areas of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169029/the-contribution-of-volunteer-based-monitoring-data-to-the-assessment-of-harmful-phytoplankton-blooms-in-brazilian-urban-streams
#19
Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Simone Pereira Casali, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Ian Thornhill, Steven Arthur Loiselle
Urban streams are vulnerable to a range of impacts, leading to the impairment of ecosystem services. However, studies on phytoplankton growth in tropical lotic systems are still limited. Citizen science approaches use trained volunteers to collect environmental data. We combined data on urban streams collected by volunteers with data obtained by professional scientists to identify potential drivers of phytoplankton community and determine thresholds for Cyanobacteria development. We combined datasets (n=117) on water quality and environmental observations in 64 Brazilian urban streams with paired data on phytoplankton...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162801/characteristics-and-applications-of-small-portable-gaseous-air-pollution-monitors
#20
REVIEW
Grant R McKercher, Jennifer A Salmond, Jennifer K Vanos
BACKGROUND: Traditional approaches for measuring air quality based on fixed measurements are inadequate for personal exposure monitoring. To combat this issue, the use of small, portable gas-sensing air pollution monitoring technologies is increasing, with researchers and individuals employing portable and mobile methods to obtain more spatially and temporally representative air pollution data. However, many commercially available options are built for various applications and based on different technologies, assumptions, and limitations...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
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