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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089553/plastic-debris-straps-on-threatened-blue-shark-prionace-glauca
#1
Ana I Colmenero, Claudio Barría, Elisabetta Broglio, Salvador García-Barcelona
Juveniles of blue shark Prionace glauca caught in pelagic longlines targeting tuna and swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were found entangled with plastic straps around their gill region. The plastic debris were identified as strapping bands and caused several degrees of injuries on the dorsal musculature and pectoral fins. They were also obstructing the gill slits probably causing breathing issues. These records were uploaded in the web site seawatchers.org, and highlight the potential of citizen science in revealing the occurrence of such problems which could help to measure the effects of plastic debris on marine life...
January 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078659/summer-research-training-provides-effective-tools-for-underrepresented-minorities-to-obtain-doctoral-level-degrees
#2
Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Ashish Damania, Teri L Turner, Gayle Slaughter, Kendal D Hirschi
The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree completion rates by participants in these programs. This study evaluates the attainment of doctoral degrees by a NIH-funded cohort of undergraduates from the 1998-2002 Baylor College of Medicine's Summer Medical Research Training (SMART) program...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077766/historical-citizen-science-to-understand-and-predict-climate-driven-trout-decline
#3
Miguel Clavero, Miquel Ninyerola, Virgilio Hermoso, Ana Filipa Filipe, Magda Pla, Daniel Villero, Lluís Brotons, Miguel Delibes
Historical species records offer an excellent opportunity to test the predictive ability of range forecasts under climate change, but researchers often consider that historical records are scarce and unreliable, besides the datasets collected by renowned naturalists. Here, we demonstrate the relevance of biodiversity records developed through citizen-science initiatives generated outside the natural sciences academia. We used a Spanish geographical dictionary from the mid-nineteenth century to compile over 10 000 freshwater fish records, including almost 4 000 brown trout (Salmo trutta) citations, and constructed a historical presence-absence dataset covering over 2 000 10 × 10 km cells, which is comparable to present-day data...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073306/the-gap-in-scientific-knowledge-and-role-of-science-communication-in-south-korea
#4
Jeong-Heon Chang, Sei-Hill Kim, Myung-Hyun Kang, Jae Chul Shim, Dong Hoon Ma
Using data from a national survey of South Koreans, this study explores the role of science communication in enhancing three different forms of scientific knowledge ( factual, procedural, and subjective). We first assess learning effects, looking at the extent to which citizens learn science from different channels of communication (interpersonal discussions, traditional newspapers, television, online newspapers, and social media). We then look into the knowledge gap hypothesis, investigating how different communication channels can either widen or narrow the gap in knowledge between social classes...
January 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070299/evaluating-citizen-science-data-for-forecasting-species-responses-to-national-forest-management
#5
Louise Mair, Philip J Harrison, Mari Jönsson, Swantje Löbel, Jenni Nordén, Juha Siitonen, Tomas Lämås, Anders Lundström, Tord Snäll
The extensive spatial and temporal coverage of many citizen science datasets (CSD) makes them appealing for use in species distribution modeling and forecasting. However, a frequent limitation is the inability to validate results. Here, we aim to assess the reliability of CSD for forecasting species occurrence in response to national forest management projections (representing 160,366 km(2)) by comparison against forecasts from a model based on systematically collected colonization-extinction data. We fitted species distribution models using citizen science observations of an old-forest indicator fungus Phellinus ferrugineofuscus...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069307/finding-clean-water-habitats-in-urban-landscapes-professional-researcher-vs-citizen-science-approaches
#6
Elaine McGoff, Francesca Dunn, Luis Moliner Cachazo, Penny Williams, Jeremy Biggs, Pascale Nicolet, Naomi C Ewald
This study investigated patterns of nutrient pollution in waterbody types across Greater London. Nitrate and phosphate data were collected by both citizen scientists and professional ecologists and their results were compared. The professional survey comprised 495 randomly selected pond, lake, river, stream and ditch sites. Citizen science survey sites were self-selected and comprised 76 ponds, lakes, rivers and streams. At each site, nutrient concentrations were assessed using field chemistry kits to measure nitrate-N and phosphate-P...
January 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060818/a-webcast-of-bird-nesting-as-a-state-of-the-art-citizen-science
#7
Markéta Zárybnická, Petr Sklenicka, Piotr Tryjanowski
The quality of people's knowledge of nature has always had a significant influence on their approach to wildlife and nature conservation. However, direct interactions of people with nature are greatly limited nowadays, especially because of urbanization and modern lifestyles. As a result, our isolation from the natural world has been growing. Here, we present an example of a state-of-the-art Citizen Science project with its educational, scientific, and popularizing benefits. We conclude that modern media and new forms of education offer an effective opportunity for inspiring children and others to have fun learning to act like scientists...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053880/adapting-axelrod-s-cultural-dissemination-model-for-simulating-peer-effects
#8
Christian Hofer, Gernot Lechner, Thomas Brudermann, Manfred Füllsack
We present a generic method for considering incomplete but gradually expandable sociological data in agent-based modeling based on the classic model of cultural dissemination by Axelrod. Our method extension was inspired by research on the diffusion of citizen photovoltaic initiatives, i.e. by initiatives in which citizens collectively invest in photovoltaic plants and share the profits. Owing to the absence of empirical interaction parameters, the Axelrod model was used as basis for considering peer effects with contrived interaction data that can be updated from empirical surveys later on...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052398/multi-state-multi-stage-modeling-of-nest-success-suggests-interaction-between-weather-and-land-use
#9
Mark W Miller, David I Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Robert A Robinson
Many factors may affect daily nest survival. We present a novel multi-state, multi-stage model to estimate daily survival for each nest stage, daily hatching probability and probability that a failed nest died during a specific stage when stage of failure is unknown. The model does not require that hatching date be known. We used data from a large citizen science dataset to demonstrate the application of this approach, exploring the impact of laying dates, weather conditions, conserved soil moisture, soil carbon, habitat type and urbanization on failure rates of common blackbird (Turdus merula) nests...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038970/can-commercial-low-cost-sensor-platforms-contribute-to-air-quality-monitoring-and-exposure-estimates
#10
Nuria Castell, Franck R Dauge, Philipp Schneider, Matthias Vogt, Uri Lerner, Barak Fishbain, David Broday, Alena Bartonova
The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms enable observations at high spatial resolution in near-real-time and provide new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems, as well as engage citizens in active environmental monitoring. This provides a whole new set of capabilities in the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. However, the data generated by these platforms are often of questionable quality. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of 24 identical units of a commercial low-cost sensor platform against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analyzers, evaluating their measurement capability over time and a range of environmental conditions...
December 27, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032412/grip-on-health-a-complex-systems-approach-to-transform-health-care
#11
Herman A van Wietmarschen, Heleen M Wortelboer, Jan van der Greef
This article addresses the urgent need for a transition in health care to deal with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and associated rapid rise of health care costs. Chronic diseases evolve and are predominantly related to lifestyle and environment. A shift is needed from a reductionist repair mode of thinking, toward a more integrated biopsychosocial way of thinking about health. The aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities that complexity science offer for transforming health care toward optimal treatment and prevention of chronic lifestyle diseases...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024746/citizen-science-based-water-quality-monitoring-constructing-a-large-database-to-characterize-the-impacts-of-combined-sewer-overflow-in-new-york-city
#12
David J Farnham, Rebecca A Gibson, Diana Y Hsueh, Wade R McGillis, Patricia J Culligan, Nina Zain, Rob Buchanan
To protect recreational water users from waterborne pathogen exposure, it is crucial that waterways are monitored for the presence of harmful bacteria. In NYC, a citizen science campaign is monitoring waterways impacted by inputs of storm water and untreated sewage during periods of rainfall. However, the spatial and temporal scales over which the monitoring program can sample are constrained by cost and time, thus hindering the construction of databases that benefit both scientists and citizens. In this study, we first illustrate the scientific value of a citizen scientist monitoring campaign by using the data collected through the campaign to characterize the seasonal variability of sampled bacterial concentration as well as its response to antecedent rainfall...
December 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011657/citizen-science-for-public-health
#13
Lea Den Broeder, Jeroen Devilee, Hans Van Oers, A Jantine Schuit, Annemarie Wagemakers
Community engagement in public health policy is easier said than done. One reason is that public health policy is produced in a complex process resulting in policies that may appear not to link up to citizen perspectives. We therefore address the central question as to whether citizen engagement in knowledge production could enable inclusive health policy making. Building on non-health work fields, we describe different types of citizen engagement in scientific research, or 'Citizen Science'. We describe the challenges that Citizen Science poses for public health, and how these could be addressed...
December 23, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003835/a-citizen-science-study-documents-environmental-exposures-and-asthma-prevalence-in-two-communities
#14
Samantha Eiffert, Yomi Noibi, Stephen Vesper, Jonathan Downs, Florence Fulk, Juanita Wallace, Melanie Pearson, Andrea Winquist
A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI)...
2016: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941038/globalizing-and-crowdsourcing-biomedical-research
#15
REVIEW
Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Sofia Ahsanuddin, Christopher E Mason
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: Crowdfunding and crowdsourcing of medical research has emerged as a novel paradigm for many biomedical disciplines to rapidly collect, process and interpret data from high-throughput and high-dimensional experiments. The novelty and promise of these approaches have led to fundamental discoveries about RNA mechanisms, microbiome dynamics and even patient interpretation of test results. However, these methods require robust training protocols, uniform sampling methods and experimental rigor in order to be useful for subsequent research efforts...
December 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939716/democratizing-evolutionary-biology-lessons-from-insects
#16
REVIEW
Robert R Dunn, DeAnna E Beasley
The engagement of the public in the scientific process is an old practice. Yet with recent advances in technology, the role of the citizen scientist in studying evolutionary processes has increased. Insects provide ideal models for understanding these evolutionary processes at large scales. This review highlights how insect-based citizen science has led to the expansion of specimen collections and reframed research questions in light of new observations and unexpected discoveries. Given the rapid expansion of human-modified (and inhabited) environments, the degree to which the public can participate in insect-based citizen science will allow us to track and monitor evolutionary trends at a global scale...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932909/cigesmed-for-divers-establishing-a-citizen-science-initiative-for-the-mapping-and-monitoring-of-coralligenous-assemblages-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#17
Vasilis Gerovasileiou, Thanos Dailianis, Emmanouela Panteri, Nikitas Michalakis, Giulia Gatti, Maria Sini, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Yiannis Issaris, Maria Salomidi, Irene Filiopoulou, Alper Doğan, Laure Thierry de Ville d'Avray, Romain David, Melih Ertan Ҫinar, Drosos Koutsoubas, Jean-Pierre Féral, Christos Arvanitidis
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, inventorying and monitoring of marine biodiversity has significantly benefited from the active engagement of volunteers. Although several Citizen Science projects concern tropical reef ecosystems worldwide, none of the existing initiatives has yet specifically focused on their Mediterranean equivalents. Mediterranean coralline reefs, known as "coralligenous", are bioherms primarily built by calcifying rhodophytes on hard substrates under dim-light conditions; they are considered hotspots of biodiversity and are extremely popular among divers due to their complex structure, conspicuous biological wealth and high aesthetic value...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917564/mind-the-gap-in-clinical-trials-a-participatory-action-analysis-with-citizen-collaborators
#18
Amy Price, Su May Liew, Jo Kirkpatrick, Jazmin Price, Taylor Lopreto, Yasmin Nelken
What are the strengths, gaps, expectations, and barriers to research engagement in clinical trials as communicated through social media? Clinical trials test treatments to provide reliable information for safety and effectiveness. Trials are building blocks in which what is learned in earlier research can be used to improve treatments, compare alternatives, and improve quality of life. For 20 years, the percentages of clinical trials volunteers have decreased whereas the costs of running clinical trials have multiplied...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914646/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-assessing-the-water-quality-of-shoreline-parks-around-the-island-of-montreal-through-citizen-science
#19
D Lévesque, A Cattaneo, G Deschamps, C Hudon
As a part of the FreshWater Watch project aiming to promote volunteers' water monitoring in 25 cities around the world, St. Lawrence River water quality was characterized at 28 public shoreline parks around Montreal Island, Quebec, Canada. This involved training of 69 citizen scientists by researchers of the Université de Montréal in five one-day sessions. Shoreline sampling yielded 174 data points over three summers (May 2013 to November 2015). Water turbidity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were measured in situ, together with the thickness and type of beach-cast vegetation, and the relative abundance of different types of beach litter...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913017/marine-anthropogenic-litter-on-british-beaches-a-10-year-nationwide-assessment-using-citizen-science-data
#20
S E Nelms, C Coombes, L C Foster, T S Galloway, B J Godley, P K Lindeque, M J Witt
Growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic litter, particularly plastic, represents a highly pervasive and persistent threat to global marine ecosystems. Multinational research is progressing to characterise its sources, distribution and abundance so that interventions aimed at reducing future inputs and clearing extant litter can be developed. Citizen science projects, whereby members of the public gather information, offer a low-cost method of collecting large volumes of data with considerable temporal and spatial coverage...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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