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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107530/broad-scale-genetic-diversity-of-cannabis-for-forensic-applications
#2
Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet, Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107471/high-serum-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-level-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-viral-infection-is-reduced-by-anti-viral-treatments
#3
Hsiao-Ching Nien, Shih-Jer Hsu, Tung-Hung Su, Po-Jen Yang, Jin-Chuan Sheu, Jin-Town Wang, Lu-Ping Chow, Chi-Ling Chen, Jia-Horng Kao, Wei-Shiung Yang
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been reported to associate with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Since chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with metabolic derangements, the relationship between LBP and HCV deserves additional studies. This study aimed to determine the serum LBP level in subjects with or without HCV infection and investigate the change of its level after anti-viral treatments with or without interferon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107394/quality-of-documentation-as-a-surrogate-marker-for-awareness-and-training-effectiveness-of-phtls-courses-part-of-the-prospective-longitudinal-mixed-methods-epptc-trial
#4
David Häske, Stefan K Beckers, Marzellus Hofmann, Rolf Lefering, Bernhard Gliwitzky, Christoph C Wölfl, Paul Grützner, Ulrich Stöckle, Marc Dieroff, Matthias Münzberg
OBJECTIVE: Care for severely injured patients requires multidisciplinary teamwork. A decrease in the number of accident victims ultimately affects the routine and skills. PHTLS ("Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support") courses are established two-day courses for medical and non-medical rescue service personnel, aimed at improving the pre-hospital care of trauma patients worldwide. The study aims the examination of the quality of documentation before and after PHTLS courses as a surrogate endpoint of training effectiveness and awareness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107391/recreational-drug-use-among-chinese-msm-and-transgender-individuals-results-from-a-national-online-cross-sectional-study
#5
Peizhen Zhao, Songyuan Tang, Cheng Wang, Ye Zhang, John Best, Thitikarn May Tangthanasup, Shujie Huang, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: Recreational drug use has increased considerably among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The phenomenon has the potentially to increase HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use among Chinese MSM, and 2) to explore the correlation between gay smartphone based sex-seeking applications (gay apps), HIV/STIs testing, group sex, commercial sex, sexual roles and poppers use among Chinese MSM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107347/whole-genome-amplification-and-reduced-representation-genome-sequencing-of-schistosoma-japonicum-miracidia
#6
Jonathan A Shortt, Daren C Card, Drew R Schield, Yang Liu, Bo Zhong, Todd A Castoe, Elizabeth J Carlton, David D Pollock
BACKGROUND: In areas where schistosomiasis control programs have been implemented, morbidity and prevalence have been greatly reduced. However, to sustain these reductions and move towards interruption of transmission, new tools for disease surveillance are needed. Genomic methods have the potential to help trace the sources of new infections, and allow us to monitor drug resistance. Large-scale genotyping efforts for schistosome species have been hindered by cost, limited numbers of established target loci, and the small amount of DNA obtained from miracidia, the life stage most readily acquired from humans...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106833/influence-of-temperature-on-transdermal-penetration-enhancing-mechanism-of-borneol-a-multi-scale-study
#7
Qianqian Yin, Ran Wang, Shufang Yang, Zhimin Wu, Shujuan Guo, Xingxing Dai, Yanjiang Qiao, Xinyuan Shi
The influence of temperature on the transdermal permeation enhancing mechanism of borneol (BO) was investigated using a multi-scale method, containing a coarse-grained molecular dynamic (CG-MD) simulation, an in vitro permeation experiment, and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) study. The results showed that BO has the potential to be used as a transdermal penetration enhancer to help osthole (OST) penetrate into the bilayer. With the increasing temperature, the stratum corneum (SC) becomes more flexible, proving to be synergistic with the permeation enhancement of BO, and the lag time (TLag) of BO and OST are shortened...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106793/hybrid-intelligent-system-to-perform-fault-detection-on-bis-sensor-during-surgeries
#8
José-Luis Casteleiro-Roca, José Luis Calvo-Rolle, Juan Albino Méndez Pérez, Nieves Roqueñí Gutiérrez, Francisco Javier de Cos Juez
This paper presents a new fault detection system in hypnotic sensors used for general anesthesia during surgery. Drug infusion during surgery is based on information received from patient monitoring devices; accordingly, faults in sensor devices can put patient safety at risk. Our research offers a solution to cope with these undesirable scenarios. We focus on the anesthesia process using intravenous propofol as the hypnotic drug and employing a Bispectral Index (BIS(TM)) monitor to estimate the patient's unconsciousness level...
January 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105877/academic-detailing-among-psychiatrists-feasibility-and-acceptability
#9
Kamini Vasudev, Joel Lamoure, Michael Beyaert, Varinder Dua, David Dixon, Jason Eadie, Larissa Husarewych, Ragu Dhir, Jatinder Takhar
Purpose Research has shown that academic detailing (AD), which includes repeated in-person educational messages in an interactive format in a physician's office, is among the most effective continuing medical education (CME) forms for improving prescribing practices and reducing drug costs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate AD's feasibility and acceptability as an educational tool among psychiatrists and its ability to facilitate positive changes in antipsychotic prescribing. Design/methodology/approach All psychiatrists practicing in Southwestern Ontario, Canada were invited to participate...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105790/a-qualitative-study-of-patients-knowledge-and-views-of-about-oral-health-and-acceptability-of-related-intervention-in-an-australian-inpatient-alcohol-and-drug-treatment-facility
#10
Alison Li Sun Cheah, Ram Pandey, Mark Daglish, Pauline J Ford, Sue Patterson
Social factors, health behaviours and the direct effects of substances contribute to the poor oral health and restricted access to dental services experienced by people who are dependent on drugs and/or alcohol. Admission for inpatient withdrawal management provides an opportunity for intervention to promote oral health but to be effective it must be acceptable to patients. To support intervention design, we examined patients' views about oral health, practices and treatment access, and appropriateness of health-promoting intervention in this context...
January 20, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105176/dihydroartemisinin-transiently-activates-the-jnk-sapk-signaling-pathway-in-endothelial-cells
#11
Fengyun Dong, Ju Han, Guoxian Jing, Xiaocui Chen, Suhua Yan, Longtao Yue, Zhiqun Cao, Xiaochun Liu, Guozhao Ma, Ju Liu
Artemisinin and its derivatives are well-known anti-malaria drugs and in the early stages of research for cancer treatment. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a more water-soluble derivative of artemisinin, has demonstrated strong anti-angiogenic activity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the effect of DHA on angiogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with DHA were examined for apoptosis and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, one of the major mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105152/evaluation-by-quantitative-image-analysis-of-anticancer-drug-activity-on-multicellular-spheroids-grown-in-3d-matrices
#12
Aurélie Gomes, Adrien Russo, Guillaume Vidal, Elise Demange, Pauline Pannetier, Zied Souguir, Jean-Michel Lagarde, Bernard Ducommun, Valérie Lobjois
Pharmacological evaluation of anticancer drugs using 3D in vitro models provides invaluable information for predicting in vivo activity. Artificial matrices are currently available that scale up and increase the power of such 3D models. The aim of the present study was to propose an efficient and robust imaging and analysis pipeline to assess with quantitative parameters the efficacy of a particular cytotoxic drug. HCT116 colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cell multispheres were grown in a 3D physiological hyaluronic acid matrix...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104969/assessment-of-a-clinical-pharmacy-activity-in-a-pediatric-inpatient-department-in-cote-d-ivoire
#13
Danho Pascal Abrogoua, César Pacôme Békégnran, Bi Marius Gro, Elisée Doffou, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet
BACKGROUND: Clinical pharmacy activities in a pediatric inpatient department help to improve the management of patients clinically and economically. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relevance of pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) in a pediatric inpatient department in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional, descriptive study from February to September 2014. The information collected was classified according to the classification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and PIs of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy...
December 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104967/a-survey-of-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-consumers-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-regarding-the-disposal-of-unused-medicines
#14
Supriya Sonowal, Chetna Desai, Jigar D Kapadia, Mira K Desai
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of consumers in India about disposal of unused medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire comprising 11 questions evaluating the Knowledge (2), Attitude (3) and Practice (6) of unused medicines was prepared and pre validated before administering to 200 consumers of medicines attending the outpatient department of Civil Hospital Ahmedabad, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Western India. Requisite permissions from Institutional Ethics Committee and informed consent were obtained prior to recruiting them for the study...
December 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104906/interrogating-open-issues-in-cancer-precision-medicine-with-patient-derived-xenografts
#15
Annette T Byrne, Denis G Alférez, Frédéric Amant, Daniela Annibali, Joaquín Arribas, Andrew V Biankin, Alejandra Bruna, Eva Budinská, Carlos Caldas, David K Chang, Robert B Clarke, Hans Clevers, George Coukos, Virginie Dangles-Marie, S Gail Eckhardt, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Els Hermans, Manuel Hidalgo, Monika A Jarzabek, Steven de Jong, Jos Jonkers, Kristel Kemper, Luisa Lanfrancone, Gunhild Mari Mælandsmo, Elisabetta Marangoni, Jean-Christophe Marine, Enzo Medico, Jens Henrik Norum, Héctor G Palmer, Daniel S Peeper, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Alejandro Piris-Gimenez, Sergio Roman-Roman, Oscar M Rueda, Joan Seoane, Violeta Serra, Laura Soucek, Dominique Vanhecke, Alberto Villanueva, Emilie Vinolo, Andrea Bertotti, Livio Trusolino
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have emerged as an important platform to elucidate new treatments and biomarkers in oncology. PDX models are used to address clinically relevant questions, including the contribution of tumour heterogeneity to therapeutic responsiveness, the patterns of cancer evolutionary dynamics during tumour progression and under drug pressure, and the mechanisms of resistance to treatment. The ability of PDX models to predict clinical outcomes is being improved through mouse humanization strategies and the implementation of co-clinical trials, within which patients and PDXs reciprocally inform therapeutic decisions...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104736/pharmacological-treatment-and-risk-of-psychiatric-hospital-admission-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Erik Joas, Alina Karanti, Jie Song, Guy M Goodwin, Paul Lichtenstein, Mikael Landén
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have examined the efficacy of drugs to prevent relapse in patients with bipolar disorder, however, their design often limits generalisation to routine clinical practice. AIMS: To estimate the effectiveness of drugs used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. METHOD: We used national registers to identify 35 022 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and information on lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, quetiapine and olanzapine treatment from 2006 to 2009...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104709/utility-of-social-media-and-crowd-sourced-data-for-pharmacovigilance-a-scoping-review-protocol
#17
Andrea C Tricco, Wasifa Zarin, Erin Lillie, Ba Pham, Sharon E Straus
INTRODUCTION: Adverse events associated with medications are under-reported in postmarketing surveillance systems. A systematic review of published data from 37 studies worldwide (including Canada) found the median under-reporting rate of adverse events to be 94% in spontaneous reporting systems. This scoping review aims to assess the utility of social media and crowd-sourced data to detect and monitor adverse events related to health products including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, biologics and natural health products...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104571/non-violent-threats-and-promises-among-closed-market-drug-dealers
#18
Timothy Dickinson
BACKGROUND: An unintended consequence of drug prohibitions is that they often fail to absolutely deter potential drug dealers and users and instead restrictively deter them. One way in which dealers sometimes alter their behaviour in response to these prohibitions is by using violent forms of social control to prevent their customers from committing careless behaviour or from becoming police informants. Many dealers, however, are reluctant to use violent forms of social control for various reasons...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104450/polymerases-of-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses
#19
REVIEW
Rachel Fearns, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxo- and pneumoviruses are members of the order Mononegavirales, a group of viruses with non-segmented, negative strand RNA genomes. The polymerases of these viruses are multi-functional complexes, capable of transcribing subgenomic capped and polyadenylated mRNAs and replicating the genome. Although there is no native structure available for any complete paramyxo- or pneumovirus polymerase, functional and structural studies of a fragment of a pneumovirus polymerase protein and mutation analyses and resistance profiling of small-molecule inhibitors have generated a wealth of mechanistic information...
January 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104042/electronic-health-records-and-online-medical-records-an-asset-or-a-liability-under-current-conditions
#20
Judith Allen-Graham, Lauren Mitchell, Natalie Heriot, Roksana Armani, David Langton, Michele Levinson, Alan Young, Julian A Smith, Tom Kotsimbos, John W Wilson
Objective The aim of the present study was to audit the current use of medical records to determine completeness and concordance with other sources of medical information.Methods Medical records for 40 patients from each of five Melbourne major metropolitan hospitals were randomly selected (n=200). A quantitative audit was performed for detailed patient information and medical record keeping, as well as data collection, storage and utilisation. Using each hospital's current online clinical database, scanned files and paperwork available for each patient audited, the reviewers sourced as much relevant information as possible within a 30-min time allocation from both the record and the discharge summary...
January 20, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
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