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Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Jalal Jamalian, Hana Heshmati, Soroush Haghighi-Manesh
Antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Zataria multiflora (thyme) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) against Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production was studied in potato dextrose agar (PDA) and potato dextrose broth (PDB), as well as in Iranian white cheese as a food model. The results showed that the inhibitory potential of EOs in the PDB medium is more than PDA medium. Clove EO on PDB medium prevented fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production at 300 and 100 ppm, respectively. However, the thyme EO was not able to inhibit fungal growth completely and showed the strongest inhibition effect at 400 ppm...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Omolara R Adegbanke, Toluwase A Dada, Stephen A Akinola, Temitope Akintuyi
Weaning food was produced from the blends of sprouted and unsprouted sorghum-Irish potato, and groundnut flour. In the developed weaning foods, moisture content ranged from 8.44% to 12.70%, crude protein (7.40%-14.53%) crude ash (1.53%-1.77%), crude fiber (6.65%-6.88%), crude fat (3.31%-3.73%) and carbohydrate content (65.10%-69.15%). Sprouting and protein supplementation with groundnut improved the protein content of the formulated meals with values comparable to commercial sample (cereals). Mineral content reduced with sprouting, whereas the addition of Irish potato and groundnut increased the mineral content...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Benjamin Stich, Delphine Van Inghelandt
Genomic prediction is a routine tool in breeding programs of most major animal and plant species. However, its usefulness for potato breeding has not yet been evaluated in detail. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine the prospects of genomic prediction of key performance traits in a diversity panel of tetraploid potato modeling additive, dominance, and epistatic effects, (ii) investigate the effects of size and make up of training set, number of test environments and molecular markers on prediction accuracy, and (iii) assess the effect of including markers from candidate genes on the prediction accuracy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christos Papavagelis, Evaggelia Avgeraki, Areti Augoulea, Kimon Stamatelopoulos, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Mary Yannakoulia
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to explore associations between a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns and obesity indices in a sample of postmenopausal women. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional study involved 481 postmenopausal women, aged 57.7 ± 7.4 years (range 32-77 years), recruited consecutively from the Menopause Clinic of a major public hospital. Basic demographic information, medical history and lifestyle data including physical activity were collected from study participants...
April 2018: Maturitas
Xinwei Chen, Dominika Lewandowska, Miles R Armstrong, Katie Baker, Tze-Yin Lim, Micha Bayer, Brian Harrower, Karen McLean, Florian Jupe, Kamil Witek, Alison K Lees, Jonathan D Jones, Glenn J Bryan, Ingo Hein
A broad-spectrum late blight disease-resistance gene from Solanum verrucosum has been mapped to potato chromosome 9. The gene is distinct from previously identified-resistance genes. We have identified and characterised a broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans from the wild Mexican species Solanum verrucosum. Diagnostic resistance gene enrichment (dRenSeq) revealed that the resistance is not conferred by previously identified nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat genes. Utilising the sequenced potato genome as a reference, two complementary enrichment strategies that target resistance genes (RenSeq) and single/low-copy number genes (Generic-mapping enrichment Sequencing; GenSeq), respectively, were deployed for the rapid, SNP-based mapping of the resistance through bulked-segregant analysis...
March 20, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hinrich Schulenburg
Oomycetes are best known as plant pathogens, causing for example potato blight. Other oomycetes are deadly yet less well studied pathogens of animals including humans. Osman and colleagues now present the nematode C. elegans as a new, genetically tractable host model that should enhance our general understanding of oomycete infections.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Joelle Khairallah, Shima Sadeghi Ekbatan, Kebba Sabally, Michèle M Iskandar, Raza Hussain, Atef Nassar, Lekha Sleno, Laetitia Rodes, Satya Prakash, Danielle J Donnelly, Stan Kubow
A multistage human gastrointestinal model was used to digest a polyphenol-rich potato extract containing chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin as the primary polyphenols, to assess for their microbial biotransformation and to measure changes in antioxidant capacity in up to 24 h of digestion. The biotransformation of polyphenols was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among the colonic reactors, parent (poly)phenols were detected in the ascending (AC), but not the transverse (TC) or descending (DC) colons...
March 20, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Benjamin Zeeb, Merve Yavuz-Düzgun, Johannes Dreher, Jacob Evert, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Beraat Özcelik, Jochen Weiss
The incorporation of novel plant-based proteins into foods is often challenging due to an unacceptable bitter sensation. Typically, a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contributes to the proteins' bitterness. The current study therefore focuses on the development of electrical properties on cationic plant proteins to reduce their overall bitterness in order to improve the perceived sensorial acceptance. As such, we utilized a simple mixing process to induce complex coacervation of oppositely charged biopolymers under acidic conditions...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Tanzeel Ur Rehman, Arif-Ullah Khan, Azar Abbas, Javid Hussain, Farman Ullah Khan, Kimberly Stieglitz, Shamsher Ali
In the present study, we describe various pharmacological effects and computational analysis of nepetolide, a tricyclic clerodane-type diterpene, isolated from Nepeta suavis . Nepetolide concentration-dependently (1.0-1000 µg/mL) exhibited 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with maximum effect of 87.01 ± 1.85%, indicating its antioxidant potential, as shown by standard drug, ascorbic acid. It was moderately active against bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus . In brine shrimp's lethality model, nepetolide potently showed cytotoxic effect, with LC50 value of 8...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Shaista Javaid, Sehrish Naz, Imran Amin, Georg Jander, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Shahid Mansoor
Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carlos Daniel Crocco, Gabriel Gomez-Ocampo, Anita Mantese, Edmundo L Ploschuk, Javier Francisco Botto
B-box (BBX) proteins are zinc-finger transcription factors containing one or two B-box motifs. BBX proteins act as key factors in the networks regulating growth and development. The relevance of BBX21 to light and abscisic acid signaling in seedling development is well stablished, however its importance in adult plant development and agronomic species is poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the effect of heterologous expression of Arabidopsis thaliana BBX21 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) var. Spunta. Three independent AtBBX21-expressing lines and the wild-type control were cultivated under sunlight and at controlled temperatures in a greenhouse...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
David Campos, Rosana Chirinos, Lena Gálvez Ranilla, Romina Pedreschi
The Andes is considered the longest continental mountain range in the world. It covers 7000km long and about 200-700km wide and an average height of about 4000m. Very unique plant species are endemic of this area including fruits (e.g., lucuma, cherimoya, sweet pepino, sauco), roots and tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yacón, chicuru, mashua, olluco, etc.), and seeds (quinoa, amaranth, tarwi, etc.). These crops have been used for centuries by the native population and relatively recently have gained the world attention due to the wide range of nutrients and/or phytochemicals they possess...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Joseph B DeShields, Rachel A Bomberger, James W Woodhall, David L Wheeler, Natalia Moroz, Dennis A Johnson, Kiwamu Tanaka
On-site diagnosis of plant diseases can be a useful tool for growers for timely decisions enabling the earlier implementation of disease management strategies that reduce the impact of the disease. Presently in many diagnostic laboratories, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), particularly real-time PCR, is considered the most sensitive and accurate method for plant pathogen detection. However, laboratory-based PCRs typically require expensive laboratory equipment and skilled personnel. In this study, soil-borne pathogens of potato are used to demonstrate the potential for on-site molecular detection...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Peter Greaves
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of regional diets on the health of the poor in mid-Victorian Britain. Contemporary surveys of regional diets and living condition were reviewed. This information was compared with mortality data from Britain over the same period. Although there was an overall improvement in life expectancy during the latter part of the 19th century, there were large regional differences in lifestyle, diet and mortality rates. Dietary surveys showed that the poor labouring population in isolated rural areas of England, in the mainland and islands of Scotland and in the west of Ireland enjoyed the most nutritious diets...
March 2018: JRSM Open
Chien-Ying Yang, Siang Chen Wu, Ching-Chang Lee, Yang-Hsin Shih
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), recognised emerging contaminants, widely exist and persist in the environment. Samples were taken from a heavily contaminated farm in Taiwan located near a factory known to regularly use PBDEs. Sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas L., a commonly consumed vegetable in Asia) growing in the surrounding farmlands were found to contain a high concentration of PBDEs of 19.36 ng/g. The possibility of PBDEs translocation into sweet potato vines from soil samples was evaluated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sofía I Deperi, Martín E Tagliotti, M Cecilia Bedogni, Norma C Manrique-Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, Ruofang Zhang, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
The reported narrow genetic base of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) can be expanded by the introgression of many related species with large genetic diversity. The analysis of the genetic structure of a potato population is important to broaden the genetic base of breeding programs by the identification of different genetic pools. A panel composed by 231 diverse genotypes was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of the Illumina Infinium Potato SNP Array V2 to identify population structure and assess genetic diversity using discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and pedigree analysis...
2018: PloS One
N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
W Cai, S K Srivastava, M J Stulberg, M K Nakhla, J Rascoe
Here, we report two annotated draft genome sequences of Dickeya dianthicola isolates from potatoes collected in Delaware and West Virginia. The genomes of strains DE440 and WV516 show 99% similarity to each other and 96% and 95% similarity to the European strains IPO 980 and RNS04.9, respectively.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł, Edmund Kozieł, Benham E L Lockhart
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN ) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mariette Andersson, Helle Turesson, Stéphanie Arrivault, Youjun Zhang, Ann-Sofie Fält, Alisdair R Fernie, Per Hofvander
The importance of a plastidial soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase (psPPase) and an ATP/ADP translocator (NTT) for starch composition and tuber formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) was evaluated by individual and simultaneous down-regulation of the corresponding endogenous genes. Starch and amylose content of the transgenic lines were considerably lower, and granule size substantially smaller, with down-regulation of StpsPPase generating the most pronounced effects. Single-gene down-regulation of either StpsPPase or StNTT resulted in increased tuber numbers per plant and higher fresh weight yield...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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