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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155894/estimating-virus-effective-population-size-and-selection-without-neutral-markers
#1
Elsa Rousseau, Benoît Moury, Ludovic Mailleret, Rachid Senoussi, Alain Palloix, Vincent Simon, Sophie Valière, Frédéric Grognard, Frédéric Fabre
By combining high-throughput sequencing (HTS) with experimental evolution, we can observe the within-host dynamics of pathogen variants of biomedical or ecological interest. We studied the evolutionary dynamics of five variants of Potato virus Y (PVY) in 15 doubled-haploid lines of pepper. All plants were inoculated with the same mixture of virus variants and, variant frequencies were determined by HTS in eight plants of each pepper line, at each of six sampling dates. We developed a method for estimating the intensities of selection and genetic drift in a multi-allelic Wright-Fisher model, applicable whether these forces are strong or weak, and in the absence of neutral markers...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151829/validation-of-poiba-how-do-we-eat-questionnaire-in-9-10-years-old-schoolchildren
#2
Carles Ariza, Teresa Arechavala, Sara Valmayor, Gemma Serral, Albert Moncada, Luis Rajmil, Anna Schiaffino, Francesca Sánchez-Martínez
Background: It is difficult to obtain good food reports with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) among children. In addition, validated questionnaires are scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to validate the 'POIBA-How do we eat?' (POIBA-HDWE) FFQ and whether it could be administered to children under 10 years of age. Design: We validated the FFQ POIBA-HDWE as part of the Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (POIBA project) in Barcelona. Forty-two out of 63 primary school students (9-10 years old) answered three questionnaires: FFQ POBA-HDWE; another questionnaire, 'POIBA-How do our children eat?' (POIBA-HDOCE), which was administered to the children's parents; and the 24-h recall computer program 'Young Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment on Computer' (YANA-C), which was used on three different days as a gold standard...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150248/cryopreservation-at-75%C3%A2-c-of-agaricus-subrufescens-on-wheat-grains-with-sucrose
#3
Lienine Luiz Zaghi Júnior, Ana Daniela Lopes, Fábio Aparecido Cordeiro, Itaruã Machri Colla, Míria Benetati Delgado Bertéli, Juliana Silveira do Valle, Giani Andrea Linde, Nelson Barros Colauto
Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20°C and at -75°C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%...
October 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149858/famine-food-of-vegetal-origin-consumed-in-the-netherlands-during-world-war-ii
#4
Tom Vorstenbosch, Ingrid de Zwarte, Leni Duistermaat, Tinde van Andel
BACKGROUND: Periods of extreme food shortages during war force people to eat food that they normally do not consider edible. The last time that countries in Western Europe experienced severe scarcities was during World War II. The so-called Dutch famine or Hunger Winter (1944-1945) made at least 25,000 victims. The Dutch government took action by opening soup kitchens and providing information on wild plants and other famine food sources in "wartime cookbooks." The Dutch wartime diet has never been examined from an ethnobotanical perspective...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148362/pseudomonas-floridensis-sp-nov-a-bacterial-pathogen-isolated-from-tomato
#5
Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, James Preston, Eric A Newberry, Matthews L Paret, Erica M Goss, Jeffrey B Jones, Gary E Vallad
An unusual fluorescent pseudomonad was isolated from tomato exhibiting leaf spot symptoms similar to bacterial speck. Strains were fluorescent, oxidase- and arginine-dihydrolase-negative, elicited a hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and produced a soft rot on potato slices. However, the strains produced an unusual yellow, mucoid growth on media containing 5 % sucrose that is not typical of levan. Based on multilocus sequence analysis using 16S rRNA, gap1, gltA, gyrB and rpoD, these strains formed a distinct phylogenetic group in the genus Pseudomonas and were most closely related to Pseudomonas viridiflava within the Pseudomonassyringae complex...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146328/fried-potatoes-impact-of-prolonged-frying-in-monounsaturated-oils
#6
Carla S P Santos, Lucía Molina-Garcia, Sara C Cunha, Susana Casal
Fresh potatoes were intermittently deep-fried up to recommended limits (175°C, 8h/day, 28h) in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), peanut oil (PO) and canola oil (CO), and compared for diverse chemical components and sensorial attributes, aiming to quantify the impact of prolonged frying on potatoes nutrients, and the potential alterations resulting from the use of different monounsaturated-rich oils. Independently of oil type, its degradation promotes time-dependent losses of important potato nutrients, as vitamin C...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145136/lead-cadmium-and-arsenic-in-human-milk-and-their-socio-demographic-and-lifestyle-determinants-in-lebanon
#7
Maya Bassil, Farah Daou, Hussein Hassan, Osama Yamani, Joelle Abi Kharma, Zouheir Attieh, Jomana Elaridi
INTRODUCTION: Exposure of newborns to toxic metals is of special interest due to their reported contamination in breast milk and potential harm. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with lead, cadmium and arsenic contamination in breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. METHODS: A total of 74 breast milk samples were collected from primaparas according to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. A survey was administered to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145116/conversion-of-sweet-potato-waste-to-solid-fuel-via-hydrothermal-carbonization
#8
Xinfei Chen, Xiaoqian Ma, Xiaowei Peng, Yousheng Lin, Zhongliang Yao
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sweet potato waste was performed to investigate the effect of process parameters including reaction temperature (180-300 °C) and residence time (0-120 min) on the characteristics of hydrochars. The results showed that the increase of reaction temperature and residence time both decreased the yield of hydrochars. With the increase of reaction temperature and residence time, the carbon content of hydrochars increased, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The lower H/C and O/C ratios indicated that dehydration and decarboxylation reactions occurred during HTC...
November 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144204/specific-hypersensitive-response-associated-recognition-of-new-apoplastic-effectors-from-cladosporium-fulvum-in-wild-tomato
#9
Carl H Mesarich, Bilal Ӧkmen, Hanna Rovenich, Scott A Griffiths, Changchun Wang, Mansoor Karimi Jashni, Aleksandar Mihajlovski, Jérôme Collemare, Lukas Hunziker, Cecilia H Deng, Ate van der Burgt, Henriek G Beenen, Matthew D Templeton, Rosie E Bradshaw, Pierre J G M de Wit
Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes that encode receptor-like proteins (RLPs). These RLPs recognize specific SSP effectors to initiate a hypersensitive response (HR) that renders the pathogen avirulent. C. fulvum strains capable of overcoming one or more of all cloned Cf genes have now emerged...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141668/association-of-dietary-patterns-with-diabetes-complications-among-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-gaza-strip-palestine-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Abdel Hamid El Bilbeisi, Saeed Hosseini, Kurosh Djafarian
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising worldwide. When diabetes is uncontrolled, it has dire consequences for health and well-being. However, the role of diet in the origin of diabetes complications is not understood well. This study identifies major dietary patterns among type 2 diabetes patients and its association with diabetes complications in Gaza Strip, Palestine. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 1200 previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (both genders, aged 20-64 years), patients receiving care in primary healthcare centers in Gaza Strip, Palestine...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139580/novel-carbohydrate-binding-modules-in-the-surface-anchored-%C3%AE-amylase-of-eubacterium-rectale-provide-a-molecular-rationale-for-the-range-of-starches-used-by-this-organism-in-the-human-gut
#11
Darrell W Cockburn, Carolyn Suh, Krizia Perez Medina, Rebecca M Duvall, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Bernard Henrissat, Nicole M Koropatkin
Gut bacteria recognize accessible glycan substrates within a complex environment. Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) of cell-surface glycoside hydrolases often drive binding to the target substrate. Eubacterium rectale, an important butyrate-producing organism in the gut, consumes a limited range of substrates, including starch. Host consumption of resistant starch increases the abundance of E. rectale in the intestine, likely because it successfully captures the products of resistant starch degradation by other bacteria...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137768/low-frequency-ultrasonic-assisted-hydrolysis-of-starch-in-the-presence-of-%C3%AE-amylase
#12
Anne Gaquere-Parker, Tamera Taylor, Raihannah Hutson, Ashley Rizzo, Aubrey Folds, Shastina Crittenden, Neelam Zahoor, Bilal Hussein, Aaron Arruda
Hydrolysis of starch is an important process in the food industry and in the production of bioethanol or smaller carbohydrate molecules that can be used as starting blocks for chemical synthesis. Such hydrolysis can be enhanced by lowering the pH, heating the reaction mixture or catalyzing the reaction with enzymes. This study reports the effect of sonication on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis at different temperatures, in the presence or absence of alpha-amylase. Starch Azure, a commercially available potato starch covalently linked with Remazol Brilliant Blue, has been chosen since its hydrolysis releases a blue dye, which concentration can be monitored by UV Vis spectroscopy...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135031/comparative-proteomics-illustrates-the-molecular-mechanism-of-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-tuberization-inhibited-by-exogenous-gibberellins-in-vitro
#13
Lixiang Cheng, Yuping Wang, Yueshan Liu, Qingquan Zhang, Huihui Gao, Zhang Feng
Among the multiple environmental signals and hormonal factors regulating potato tuberization, gibberellins (GAs) are important components of the signaling pathways in these processes. To understand the GAs-signaling response mechanism of potato tuberization, a comparative proteomics approach was applied to analyze proteome change of potato tuberization in vitro subjected to a range of exogenous GA3 treatments (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 μΜ) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Quantitative image analyses showed that a total of 37 protein spots have their abundance significantly altered more than 2-fold...
November 14, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131830/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-sweet-potato-for-the-identification-of-putative-genes-involved-in-the-defense-response-against-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-batatas
#14
Yuli Lin, Weikun Zou, Shiqiang Lin, Dennis Onofua, Zhijian Yang, Haizhou Chen, Songliang Wang, Xuanyang Chen
Sweet potato production is constrained by Fusarium wilt, which is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. batatas (Fob). The identification of genes related to disease resistance and the underlying mechanisms will contribute to improving disease resistance via sweet potato breeding programs. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of sweet potato challenged with Fob using Illumina HiSeq technology. In total, 89,944,188 clean reads were generated from 12 samples and assembled into 101,988 unigenes with an average length of 666 bp; of these unigenes, 62,605 (61...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128592/thermal-properties-and-free-radicals-generation-in-starch-isolated-from-pumpkin-fruits
#15
Izabela Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Krystyna Dyrek, Teresa Fortuna, Elżbieta Wenda, Ewa Bidzińska, Elżbieta Jędrszczyk
The selected thermal and rheological properties of pumpkin starches were compared with values evaluated for corn and potato starch. The pumpkin starches had lower pasting temperatures (by near 3°C and 24°C than potato or corn starch respectively), the peak viscosity (nearly 2300 mPa·s lower than potato starch) and higher final viscosities (by 80-120 mPa·s than those for potato starch and by 1700 mPa·s in relation to corn starch). The thermal profile of pumpkin starches examined by the DSC method were quite similar to those of potato starch but lower than those of corn...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126214/diapause-induced-by-temperature-and-photoperiod-affects-fatty-acid-compositions-and-cold-tolerance-of-phthorimaea-operculella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#16
Chamran Hemmati, Saeid Moharramipour, Ali Asghar Talebi
To find out the potential condition for diapause induction in the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), combination of constant temperatures (15, 20, and 30°C) and photoperiods (8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16 h) were employed from egg to adult emergence. In addition, changes in the total phospholipid fatty acid content and cold tolerance of non-diapausing and diapausing pupae were examined. The critical daylength for diapause induction were 12.43 h at 20°C and lower temperatures that can induce in 50% of population...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125698/engineering-potato-virus-x-particles-for-a-covalent-protein-based-attachment-of-enzymes
#17
Juliane Röder, Rainer Fischer, Ulrich Commandeur
Plant virus nanoparticles are often used to display functional amino acids or small peptides, thus serving as building blocks in application areas as diverse as nanoelectronics, bioimaging, vaccination, drug delivery, and bone differentiation. This is most easily achieved by expressing coat protein fusions, but the assembly of the corresponding virus particles can be hampered by factors such as the fusion protein size, amino acid composition, and post-translational modifications. Size constraints can be overcome by using the Foot and mouth disease virus 2A sequence, but the compositional limitations cannot be avoided without the introduction of time-consuming chemical modifications...
November 10, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124659/varilactones-and-wortmannilactones-produced-by-penicillium-variabile-cultured-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor
#18
Xueqian He, Zhenzhen Zhang, Qian Che, Tianjiao Zhu, Qianqun Gu, Dehai Li
Seven polyketides, including four new ones named as varilactones A-B (1-2) and wortmannilactones M-N (3-4), as well as three biogenetically related known wortmannilactones E, F and H (5-7), were isolated from the fungus Penicillium variabile HXQ-H-1, cultivated in potato-based medium with the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Their structures (1-7) were established by analysis of NMR and MS data, and the absolute configuration of oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane unit was deduced from (1)H-NMR analyses on MPA esters after chemical reduction reaction...
November 9, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124015/the-influence-of-parental-food-preference-and-neophobia-on-children-with-phenylketonuria-pku
#19
Sharon Evans, Anne Daly, Satnam Chahal, Catherine Ashmore, John MacDonald, Anita MacDonald
Background: In a previous case-control study, we demonstrated that children with PKU and non-PKU controls preferred sweet foods. Additionally, children with PKU exhibited food neophobia, with no preference for bitter tasting foods associated with the taste of phenylalanine (Phe)-free L-amino acid supplements. Objective: In an observational extension study, we evaluated the influence of parental food choice and neophobia on their children's taste preferences and food neophobia...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122175/enhancing-taxol-production-in-a-novel-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-aculeatinus-tax-6-isolated-from-taxus-chinensis-var-mairei
#20
Weichuan Qiao, Fei Ling, Lei Yu, Yifang Huang, Ting Wang
Taxol is a curatively effective but rare anti-tumor agent extracted from Taxus (yew) barks; however, the high cost and low production of the extraction method have limited its widespread use. In this study, fungi isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei were tested for their ability to produce taxol. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that Aspergillus aculeatinus Tax-6, one of the endophytic fungi, could produce taxol in potato dextrose agar liquid medium. NaOAc, Cu(2+), and salicylic acid were introduced into the medium to enhance taxol production of strain Tax-6 because NaOAc is an important precursor of taxol, Cu(2+) may enhance the activity of oxidase and catalyze the formation of taxol, and salicylic acid could be an elicitor signal...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
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