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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221933/thermal-inactivation-kinetics-of-sporolactobacillus-nakayamae-spores-a-spoilage-bacterium-isolated-from-a-model-mashed-potato-scallion-mixture
#1
Hayriye Bozkurt, Jairus R D David, Ryan J Talley, D Scott Lineback, P Michael Davidson
Sporolactobacillus species have been occasionally isolated from spoiled foods and environmental sources. Thus, food processors should be aware of their potential presence and characteristics. In this study, the heat resistance and influence of the growth and recovery media on apparent heat resistance of Sporolactobacillus nakayamae spores were studied and described mathematically. For each medium, survivor curves and thermal death curves were generated for different treatment times (0 to 25 min) at different temperatures (70, 75, and 80°C) and Weibull and first-order models were compared...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220439/effectoromics-based-identification-of-cell-surface-receptors-in-potato
#2
Emmanouil Domazakis, Xiao Lin, Carolina Aguilera-Galvez, Doret Wouters, Gerard Bijsterbosch, Pieter J Wolters, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
In modern resistance breeding, effectors have emerged as tools for accelerating and improving the identification of immune receptors. Effector-assisted breeding was pioneered for identifying resistance genes (R genes) against Phytophthora infestans in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here we show that effectoromics approaches are also well suitable for identifying pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize apoplastic effectors. To detect genotypes that recognize apoplastic proteins of P. infestans, routine agroinfiltration and potato virus X (PVX) agroinfection methods can be applied...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220324/virus-surveys-of-capsicum-spp-in-the-republic-of-benin-reveal-the-prevalence-of-pepper-vein-yellows-virus-and-the-identification-of-a-previously-uncharacterised-polerovirus-species
#3
Leonard Afouda, Daouda Kone, Valerien Zinsou, Laurence Dossou, Lawrence Kenyon, Stephan Winter, Dennis Knierim
Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin...
February 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217886/the-use-of-newly-isolated-streptomyces-strain-tn258-as-potential-biocontrol-agent-of-potato-tubers-leak-caused-by-pythium-ultimum
#4
Imen Sellem, Mohamed Ali Triki, Lobna Elleuch, Manel Cheffi, Ahlem Chakchouk, Slim Smaoui, Lotfi Mellouli
An actinomycete strain designated TN258, was isolated from Tunisian Sahara soil and selected for its antagonistic activity, especially against Pythium ultimum (P. ultimum) causing potato tubers leak. Based on the results of cultural characteristic of TN258 strain, the 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence (1433 bp, accession n° HE600071) and the phylogenetic analysis, we propose the assignment of our new isolate bacterium as Streptomyces TN258 strain. After culture optimization, the inhibitory effect of TN258 free cell supernatant against P...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217131/incomplete-infection-of-secondarily-infected-potato-plants-an-environment-dependent-underestimated-mechanism-in-plant-virology
#5
Lukas Bertschinger, Lukas Bühler, Brice Dupuis, Brion Duffy, Cesare Gessler, Gregory A Forbes, Ernst R Keller, Urs C Scheidegger, Paul C Struik
The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216607/the-cell-death-triggered-by-the-nuclear-localized-rxlr-effector-pitg_22798-from-phytophthora-infestans-is-suppressed-by-the-effector-avr3b
#6
Hongyang Wang, Yajuan Ren, Jing Zhou, Juan Du, Juan Hou, Rui Jiang, Haixia Wang, Zhendong Tian, Conghua Xie
Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, potentially secrete many RxLR effector proteins into plant cells to modulate plant immune responses and promote colonization. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these RxLR effectors suppress plant immune responses are largely unknown. Here we describe an RxLR effector PITG_22798 (Gene accession: XM_002998349) that was upregulated during early infection of potato by P. infestans. By employment of agroinfiltration, we observed that PITG_22798 triggers cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215419/comparative-metabolite-and-genome-analysis-of-tuber-bearing-potato-species
#7
Riccardo Aversano, Felice Contaldi, Maria Grazia Adelfi, Vincenzo D'Amelia, Gianfranco Diretto, Nunziatina De Tommasi, Carmen Vaccaro, Antonio Vassallo, Domenico Carputo
The cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum is unrivalled among crop plants for its wild relatives, which potentially represent an important source of genetic diversity to improve the nutritional value of potato varieties and understand metabolism regulation. The main aim of this research was to profile human health-related metabolites in a number of clones from 13 Solanum species. Results from HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS analyses highlighted a high interspecific variability in the level of metabolites analysed. Ascorbic acid was confirmed to be the most abundant antioxidant in potato and chlorogenic acid the primary polyphenol...
February 16, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215169/bioactive-constituents-from-an-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-polonicum-nfw9-associated-with-taxus-fauna
#8
Nighat Fatima, Tawanun Sripisut, Ui Joung Youn, Safia Ahmed, Ihsan Ul-Haq, Ulyana Muñoz-Acuña, Charles J Simmons, Muneer Ahmed Qazi, Muniba Jadoon, Ghee Teng Tan, Esperanza J Carcache de Blanco, Leng Chee Chang
BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi are being recognized as vital and untapped sources of a variety of structurally novel and unique bioactive secondary metabolites in the field of natural products drug discovery. Herein, this study reports the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum (NFW9) associated with Taxus fuana. METHODS: Extracts of the endophytic fungus cultured on potato dextrose agar were purified using several chromatographic techniques...
February 16, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215072/encapsulation-of-ethylene-gas-into-granular-cold-water-soluble-starch-structure-and-release-kinetics
#9
Linfan Shi, Xiong Fu, Chin Ping Tan, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
Ethylene gas was introduced into granular cold-water soluble (GCWS) starches using a solid encapsulation method. The morphological and structural properties of the novel inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The V-type single helix of GCWS starches was formed through controlled gelatinization and ethanol precipitation, and was approved to host ethylene gas. The controlled release characteristics of ICs were also investigated at various temperature and relative humidity conditions...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215068/comprehensive-ms-and-solid-state-nmr-metabolomic-profiling-reveals-molecular-variations-in-native-periderms-from-four-solanum-tuberosum-potato-cultivars
#10
Wenlin Huang, Olga Serra, Keyvan Dastmalchi, Liqing Jin, Lijia Yang, Ruth E Stark
The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ranks third in worldwide consumption among food crops. Whereas disposal of potato peels poses significant challenges for the food industry, secondary metabolites in these tissues are also bioactive and essential to crop development. The diverse primary and secondary metabolites reported in whole tubers and wound-healing tissues prompted a comprehensive profiling study of native periderms from four cultivars with distinctive skin morphologies and commercial food uses. Polar and nonpolar soluble metabolites were extracted concurrently, analyzed chromatographically, and characterized with mass spectrometry; the corresponding solid interfacial polymeric residue was examined by solid-state 13C NMR...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213920/potato-aphid-macrosiphum-euphorbiae-performance-is-determined-by-aphid-genotype-and-not-mycorrhizal-fungi-or-water-availability
#11
Alison Jane Karley, Matthew Emslie-Smith, Alison Elizabeth Bennett
Intra- and inter-specific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated S. tuberosum and wild S. berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212860/comparative-structure-function-characterization-of-the-saposin-like-domains-from-potato-barley-cardoon-and-arabidopsis-aspartic-proteases
#12
Brian C Bryksa, Douglas A Grahame, Rickey Y Yada
The present study characterized the aspartic protease saposin-like domains of four plant species, Solanum tuberosum (potato), Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon; artichoke thistle) and Arabidopsis thaliana, in terms of bilayer disruption and fusion, and structure pH-dependence. Comparison of the recombinant saposin-like domains revealed that each induced leakage of bilayer vesicles composed of a simple phospholipid mixture with relative rates Arabidopsis>barley>cardoon>potato...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208608/multiple-mobile-mrna-signals-regulate-tuber-development-in-potato
#13
REVIEW
David J Hannapel, Anjan K Banerjee
Included among the many signals that traffic through the sieve element system are full-length mRNAs that function to respond to the environment and to regulate development. In potato, several mRNAs that encode transcription factors from the three-amino-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily move from leaves to roots and stolons via the phloem to control growth and signal the onset of tuber formation. This RNA transport is enhanced by short-day conditions and is facilitated by RNA-binding proteins from the polypyrimidine tract-binding family of proteins...
February 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205516/a-viral-protease-relocalizes-in-the-presence-of-the-vector-to-promote-vector-performance
#14
Aurélie Bak, Andrea L Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A Whitham, Clare L Casteel
Vector-borne pathogens influence host characteristics relevant to host-vector contact, increasing pathogen transmission and survival. Previously, we demonstrated that infection with Turnip mosaic virus, a member of one of the largest families of plant-infecting viruses, increases vector attraction and reproduction on infected hosts. These changes were due to a single viral protein, NIa-Pro. Here we show that NIa-Pro responds to the presence of the aphid vector during infection by relocalizing to the vacuole...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205115/a-fixed-precision-sequential-sampling-plan-for-the-potato-tuberworm-moth-phthorimaea-operculella-zeller-lepidoptera-gelechidae-on-potato-cultivars
#15
M Shahbi, A Rajabpour
Phthorimaea operculella Zeller is an important pest of potato in Iran. Spatial distribution and fixed-precision sequential sampling for population estimation of the pest on two potato cultivars, Arinda(®) and Sante(®), were studied in two separate potato fields during two growing seasons (2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Spatial distribution was investigated by Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. Results showed that the spatial distribution of eggs and larvae was random. In contrast to Iwao's patchiness, Taylor's power law provided a highly significant relationship between variance and mean density...
February 15, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204952/a-preliminary-report-of-indigenous-fungal-isolates-from-contaminated-municipal-solid-waste-site-in-india
#16
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Akhilesh Kumar Pandey, Jamaluddin Khan
Municipal solid waste (MSW) containing harmful substances is a major concern in waste management and can cause adverse effects on diversity of fungi in soil. The main objective was to evaluate the fungal diversity inhabiting in the soil nearby MSW disposal site. The fungal strains were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), media at temperatures 28 ± 1 °C by using standard serial dilution pour plate method, and appeared fungal colonies identified based on morphological characteristics. The overall most fungal diversity was found in soil sample collected from S5, followed by S4, S3, S1, and least in S2 site...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204884/selection-of-bacillus-species-for-targeted-in-situ-release-of-prebiotic-galacto-rhamnogalacturonan-from-potato-pulp-in-piglets
#17
Carsten Jers, Mikael L Strube, Mette D Cantor, Bea K K Nielsen, Ole B Sørensen, Mette Boye, Anne S Meyer
We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase but no or limited secretion of galactanase and β-galactosidase...
February 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194691/rnai-mediated-simultaneous-resistance-against-three-rna-viruses-in-potato
#18
Amir Hameed, Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Shaheen Asad, Rakhshanda Bilal, Joyce Van Eck, Georg Jander, Shahid Mansoor
RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been successfully applied in stacking resistance against viruses in numerous crop plants. During RNAi, the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from template double-standard RNA (dsRNA) derived from expression constructs provides an on-switch for triggering homology-based targeting of cognate viral transcripts, hence generating a pre-programmed immunity in transgenic plants prior to virus infection. In the current study, transgenic potato lines (Solanum tuberosum cv...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193578/a-food-based-approach-that-targets-interleukin-6-a-key-regulator-of-chronic-intestinal-inflammation-and-colon-carcinogenesis
#19
Abigail Sido, Sridhar Radhakrishnan, Sung Woo Kim, Elisabeth Eriksson, Frank Shen, Qunhua Li, Vadiraja Bhat, Lavanya Reddivari, Jairam K P Vanamala
Studies have shown a causal link between high-calorie diet (HCD) and colon cancer. However, molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To understand etiology of HCD-induced colon carcinogenesis, we screened 10 pathways linked to elevated colonic cell proliferation and chronic inflammation in an HCD-consuming human-relevant pig model. We observed elevated colonic mucosal interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in HCD-consuming pigs compared to standard diet controls (SD, P=.04), and IL-6 strongly correlated with Ki-67 proliferative index and zone, early biomarkers of colon cancer risk (r=0...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188331/urnula-sp-an-endophyte-of-dicksonia-antarctica-making-a-fragrant-mixture-of-biologically-active-volatile-organic-compounds
#20
Gary Strobel, Amy Ericksen, Joe Sears, Jie Xie, Brad Geary, Bryan Blatt
Urnula sp. was isolated as an endophyte of Dicksonia antarctica and identified primarily on the basis of its ITS sequence and morphological features. The anamorphic state of the fungus appeared as a hyphomyceteous-like fungus as based on its features in culture and scanning electron microscopy examination of its spores. On potato dextrose agar (PDA), the organism makes a characteristic fragrance resembling peach pie with vanilla overtones. A GC/MS analysis done on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism, trapped by carbotrap methodology, revealed over 150 compounds with high MS matching quality being noted for 44 of these...
February 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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