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Pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder

Matthew J Gazzellone, Mehdi Zarrei, Christie L Burton, Susan Walker, Mohammed Uddin, S M Shaheen, Julie Coste, Rageen Rajendram, Reva J Schachter, Marlena Colasanto, Gregory L Hanna, David R Rosenberg, Noam Soreni, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christian R Marshall, Janet A Buchanan, Daniele Merico, Paul D Arnold, Stephen W Scherer
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition, thought to have a significant genetic component. When onset occurs in childhood, affected individuals generally exhibit different characteristics from adult-onset OCD, including higher prevalence in males and increased heritability. Since neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with copy number variations (CNVs), we considered their potential role in the etiology of OCD. METHODS: We genotyped 307 unrelated pediatric probands with idiopathic OCD (including 174 that were part of complete parent-child trios) and compared their genotypes with those of 3861 population controls, to identify rare CNVs (<0...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Behiye Alyanak
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions). Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are widely used to treat OCD, only half of the patients respond well. Several potentiation strategies including off-label use of antipsychotics (mostly risperidone, quetiapine) have been tried. Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic with the best affinity ratio of 5 HT 2A/D2 and 5HT2C/D2 receptors. There is a limited data on ziprasidone in pediatric groups...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Bernhard Weidle, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson
Motivation is a key ingredient in the successful treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As a first-line treatment, cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) requires extensive client engagement, including participating in exposures and doing homework tasks. A lack of motivation to comply with these tasks may seriously affect treatment outcome. This case study identifies factors interfering with motivation and illustrates motivational strategies to enhance compliance of a child with OCD. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with severe OCD and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Georgina Krebs, Kim Murray, Amita Jassi
There is a high rate of comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Standard cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) protocols have been shown to be less effective in treating OCD in young people with ASD than in typically developing youth. This case study describes the treatment of an adolescent boy with severe, treatment-resistant OCD and ASD using a modified CBT approach. Modifications to a standard evidence-based CBT for OCD protocol included extended psychoeducation about anxiety; regular home-based sessions; and increased involvement of systems, including family and school...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Lara J Farrell, Rachel Sluis, Allison M Waters
While cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) either alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) has received strong empirical support for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; Geller & March, 2012), this treatment is often inaccessible for children and their families. Barriers to accessing CBT include a lack of trained therapists, clinician and patient beliefs about CBT, and geographical and financial barriers (Goisman et al., 1993; Marques et al., 2010; Turner, Heyman, Futh, & Lovell, 2009)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Naoko Kishimoto, Yoko Nakanishi, Toshifumi Kishimoto
AIMS: Increasing clinical evidence points to impulsivity as a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about its persistence over time. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the performance of 12 pediatric patients with OCD on the Stroop color-word task, which assesses impulsivity and compared this with age- and sex-matched controls. In parallel, we measured changes in hemodynamic responses during the task, using near-infrared spectroscopy...
October 4, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ceyla Erhan, Gresa Çarkaxhiu Bulut, Sebla Gökçe, Duru Ozbas, Esin Turkakin, Onur Burak Dursun, Yanki Yazgan, Fuat Balcı
BACKGROUND: Decision-making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has typically been investigated in the adult population. Computational approaches have recently started to get integrated into these studies. However, decision-making research in pediatric OCD populations is scarce. METHODS: We investigated latent decision processes in 21 medication-free pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy control participants. We hypothesized that OCD patients would be more cautious and less efficient in evidence accumulation than controls in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gregory L Hanna, Yanni Liu, Yona E Isaacs, Angela M Ayoub, Jose J Torres, Nolan B O'Hara, William J Gehring
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves increased activity in corticostriatal circuits connecting the anterior cingulate cortex with other brain regions. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response that is believed to reflect anterior cingulate cortex activity. This study examined the relation of the ERN to OCD symptom dimensions and other childhood symptom dimensions. METHOD: The ERN, correct response negativity, and accuracy were measured during a flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 80 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 80 matched healthy comparison participants ranging from 8 to 18 years old...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Kyle A Williams, Susan E Swedo, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Grantz, Paul J Grant, Precilla D'Souza, Rebecca Hommer, Liliya Katsovich, Robert A King, James F Leckman
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are hypothesized to occur as a result of cross-reactive antibodies produced in response to group A streptococcal infections. Previous research suggests that immunomodulatory therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), may lead to rapid and sustained symptom improvement in patients with PANDAS. METHOD: A total of 35 children meeting criteria for PANDAS and moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were enrolled in a randomized-entry, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week trial of IVIG (1 g/kg/day on 2 consecutive days), followed by optional open-label treatment for nonresponders, with follow-up at 12 and 24 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Anjali L Varigonda, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the following: the time course of response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); whether higher doses of SSRIs are associated with an improved response in pediatric OCD; differences in efficacy among SSRI agents; differences in efficacy between SSRIs and clomipramine; and whether the time course and magnitude of response to SSRIs are different in pediatric and adult patients with OCD...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jonathan W Mink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Monica S Wu, Eric A Storch
Harm-related, or "aggressive," obsessions are a symptom subtype in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the violent nature of these thoughts, the stark contrast between the child's character and the content of these obsessions often results in high levels of distress for not only the patient but also the family. This case report illustrates the application of family-based exposure and response prevention (ERP) for a 15-year-old male presenting with harm-related obsessions and mild depressive symptoms secondary to the OCD...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Eric A Storch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Aldrich Leung, Clare Bleakley, Adrian Loh, Kelly Saran, S Evelyn Stewart
We present the case of an 11 year-old boy with a previous history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who experienced a dramatic and acute worsening of OCD symptoms in temporal association with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a tectal low-grade glioma. Management and resolution of the hydrocephalus was temporally associated with an improvement in his OCD compulsion symptoms. The present case does not establish proof of cause and effect, but highlights potential multifactorial influences on OCD onset and clinical course...
September 8, 2016: Pediatrics
Premika S W Boedhoe, Lianne Schmaal, Yoshinari Abe, Stephanie H Ameis, Paul D Arnold, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, Francesco Benedetti, Jan C Beucke, Irene Bollettini, Anushree Bose, Silvia Brem, Anna Calvo, Yuqi Cheng, Kang Ik K Cho, Sara Dallaspezia, Damiaan Denys, Kate D Fitzgerald, Jean-Paul Fouche, Mònica Giménez, Patricia Gruner, Gregory L Hanna, Derrek P Hibar, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Hao Hu, Chaim Huyser, Keisuke Ikari, Neda Jahanshad, Norbert Kathmann, Christian Kaufmann, Kathrin Koch, Jun Soo Kwon, Luisa Lazaro, Yanni Liu, Christine Lochner, Rachel Marsh, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, David Mataix-Cols, José M Menchón, Luciano Minuzzi, Takashi Nakamae, Tomohiro Nakao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Christopher Pittenger, Y C Janardhan Reddy, Joao R Sato, H Blair Simpson, Noam Soreni, Carles Soriano-Mas, Gianfranco Spalletta, Michael C Stevens, Philip R Szeszko, David F Tolin, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Susanne Walitza, Zhen Wang, Guido A van Wingen, Jian Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Je-Yeon Yun, Qing Zhao, Paul M Thompson, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVE: Structural brain imaging studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in illness profile and developmental stage. To address these limitations, the authors conducted meta- and mega-analyses of data from OCD sites worldwide. METHOD: T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 control subjects were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ between OCD patients and healthy subjects...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Monica S Wu, Joseph F McGuire, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: Although anxiety sensitivity (AS) presents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it has received minimal empirical attention. There are postulated connections between AS and family accommodation, but this relationship has yet to be formally examined. METHODS: The present study included 58 adults with OCD who completed a clinician-rated measure of OCD symptom severity, as well as self-report measures assessing AS, family variables, impairment, and co-occurring psychopathology...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Heidi A Browne, Amirhossein Modabbernia, Joseph D Buxbaum, Stefan N Hansen, Diana E Schendel, Erik T Parner, Abraham Reichenberg, Dorothy E Grice
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence rates (IR) per 1,000 person-year for TS/CT and OCD. We then determined crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs associated with prenatal maternal smoking, considering smoking as a dichotomous (yes/no) variable or a stratified variable (no smoking, light smoking, and heavy smoking [≥10 cigarettes/day])...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Naoko Kishimoto, Yoko Nakanishi, Hiroki Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Uratani, Kosuke Okazaki, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behaviors, involving specific cognition and/or information processing disorders. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are commonly used as physiological measures of cognitive function. In conscious patients, ERPs are easily and non-invasively measured. Previous ERP studies have revealed differences between OCD patients and control subjects. Whether ERPs reflect the pharmacological effects of OCD treatment, particularly in treatment-naïve pediatric patients, remains unknown...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Cassie H Lavell, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Jacinda Cadman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental health disorder, occurring in 1-2% of children and adolescents. Current evidence-based treatments produce promising rates of remission; however, many children and youth do not fully remit from symptoms. The current study explored predictors of treatment response to a group cognitive-behavioural treatment program for pediatric OCD (N=43). Higher levels of child depression and parental rejection at baseline were found to be associated with higher OCD symptoms at post-treatment...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Han-Cheng Wang, Chi-Ieong Lau, Che-Chen Lin, Anna Chang, Chia-Hung Kao
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the association between group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and the risks of developing tic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a follow-up cohort study in 2014 using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort consisted of patients younger than 18 years with newly diagnosed GAS infection (ICD-9-CM codes 034 [streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever] and 482...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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