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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103254/a-highly-active-endo-levanase-bt1760-of-a-dominant-mammalian-gut-commensal-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-cleaves-not-only-various-bacterial-levans-but-also-levan-of-timothy-grass
#1
Karin Mardo, Triinu Visnapuu, Heiki Vija, Anneli Aasamets, Katrin Viigand, Tiina Alamäe
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, an abundant commensal of the human gut, degrades numerous complex carbohydrates. Recently, it was reported to grow on a β-2,6-linked polyfructan levan produced by Zymomonas mobilis degrading the polymer into fructooligosaccharides (FOS) with a cell surface bound endo-levanase BT1760. The FOS are consumed by B. thetaiotaomicron, but also by other gut bacteria, including health-promoting bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Here we characterize biochemical properties of BT1760, including the activity of BT1760 on six bacterial levans synthesized by the levansucrase Lsc3 of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100609/sterol-binding-by-the-tombusviral-replication-proteins-is-essential-for-replication-in-yeast-and-plants
#2
Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
: Membranous structures derived from various organelles are important for replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. Although the important roles of co-opted host proteins in RNA virus replication have been appreciated for a decade, the equally important functions of cellular lipids in virus replication are gaining full attention only recently. Previous works with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in model host yeast have revealed essential roles for phosphatidylethanolamine and sterols in viral replication...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100489/tale-induced-bhlh-transcription-factors-that-activate-a-pectate-lyase-contribute-to-water-soaking-in-bacterial-spot-of-tomato
#3
Allison R Schwartz, Robert Morbitzer, Thomas Lahaye, Brian J Staskawicz
AvrHah1 [avirulence (avr) gene homologous to avrBs3 and hax2, no. 1] is a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector (TALE) in Xanthomonas gardneri that induces water-soaked disease lesions on fruits and leaves during bacterial spot of tomato. We observe that water from outside the leaf is drawn into the apoplast in X. gardneri-infected, but not X. gardneriΔavrHah1 (XgΔavrHah1)-infected, plants, conferring a dark, water-soaked appearance. The pull of water can facilitate entry of additional bacterial cells into the apoplast...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097164/molecular-characterization-and-construction-of-an-infectious-clone-of-a-pepper-isolate-of-beet-curly-top-iran-virus
#4
Omid Eini, Ghazal Ebadzad Sahraei, Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia
Geminiviruses cause curly top disease, in dicotyledonous plants which constrains host crop production. Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a widespread Becurtovirus (family Geminiviridae) in numerous areas within Iran. In this study, we isolated and analyzed a full-length genomic DNA of a new variant of BCTIV from pepper crops in the Kaftark region, east of Shiraz (proposed acronym: BCTIV-Kaf [IR: Kaf:2016:Pepper]). Infected pepper plants showed shortening of internodes, severe interveinal chlorosis, upward leaf rolling and leaf curling...
June 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096780/molecular-breeding-of-a-novel-orange-brown-tomato-fruit-with-enhanced-beta-carotene-and-chlorophyll-accumulation
#5
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Hee-Jeong Jung, Indeok Hwang, Namhee Jeong, Kang Hee Kho, Mi-Young Chung, Ill-Sup Nou
BACKGROUND: Tomatoes provide a significant dietary source of the carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene. During ripening, carotenoid accumulation determines the fruit colors while chlorophyll degradation. These traits have been, and continue to be, a significant focus for plant breeding efforts. Previous work has found strong evidence for a relationship between CYC-B gene expression and the orange color of fleshy fruit. Other work has identified a point mutation in SGR that impedes chlorophyll degradation and causes brown flesh color to be retained in some tomato varieties...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095626/hsfa1a-upregulates-melatonin-biosynthesis-to-confer-cadmium-tolerance-in-tomato-plants
#6
Shu-Yu Cai, Yun Zhang, You-Ping Xu, Zhen-Yu Qi, Meng-Qi Li, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Xiao-Jian Xia, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, Russel J Reiter, Jing-Quan Yu, Jie Zhou
Melatonin regulates broad aspects of plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses, but the upstream regulation of melatonin biosynthesis by these stresses remains largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that transcription factor heat shock factor A1a (HsfA1a) conferred cadmium (Cd) tolerance to tomato plants, in part through its positive role in inducing melatonin biosynthesis under Cd stress. Analysis of leaf phenotype, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency revealed that silencing of the HsfA1a gene decreased Cd tolerance, whereas its overexpression enhanced plant tolerance to Cd...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095207/the-constitutive-endopolygalacturonase-tvpg2-regulates-the-induction-of-plant-systemic-resistance-by-trichoderma-virens
#7
Sabrina Sarrocco, Fabiola Matarese, Riccardo Baroncelli, Giovanni Vannacci, Verena Seidl-Seiboth, Christian Peter Kubicek, Mariarosaria Vergara
Trichoderma spp. are opportunistic fungi some of which are commonly present in the rhizosphere. Several species, such as Trichoderma virens, are also efficient biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi and exert beneficial effects on plants. These effects are the consequence of interactions between Trichoderma and plant roots, which trigger enhanced plant growth and induce plant resistance. We have previously shown that T. virens I10 expresses two endopolygalacturonase genes, tvpg1 and tvpg2, during the interaction with plant roots; tvpg1 is inducible while tvpg2 is constitutively transcribed...
January 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093838/fusaric-acid-contributes-to-virulence-of-fusarium-oxysporum-on-plant-and-mammalian-hosts
#8
Cristina López-Díaz, Vahid Rahjoo, Michael Sulyok, Veronica Ghionna, Adela Martín-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Antonio Di Pietro, Manuel S López-Berges
Fusaric acid (FA) is among the oldest identified secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species, known for a long time to display strong phytotoxicity and moderate toxicity to animal cells; however, the cellular targets of FA as well as its function in fungal pathogenicity remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FA in Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne cross-kingdom pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than a hundred plant species and opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted deletion of fub1, encoding a predicted orthologue of the polyketide synthase involved in FA biosynthesis in F...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092850/tomato-slggp-like-gene-participates-in-plant-responses-to-chilling-stress-and-pathogenic-infection
#9
Dong-Yue Yang, Meng Li, Na-Na Ma, Xing-Hong Yang, Qing-Wei Meng
Plants are always exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses which can adversely affect their growth and development. As an important antioxidant, AsA plays a vital role in plant defence against damage caused by stresses. In this study, we cloned a tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase-like (SlGGP-LIKE) gene and investigated its role in resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses by using antisense transgenic (AS) tomato lines. The AsA content in AS plants was lower than that in WT plants. Under chilling stress, the growth of AS plants was inhibited significantly, and they yielded higher levels of ROS, REC and MDA but demonstrated weaker APX activity than that shown by WT plants...
January 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092761/chlorinated-and-ultraviolet-radiation-treated-reclaimed-irrigation-water-is-the-source-of-aeromonas-found-in-vegetables-used-for-human-consumption
#10
Fadua Latif-Eugenín, Roxana Beaz-Hidalgo, Carolina Silvera-Simón, Xavi Fernandez-Cassi, María J Figueras
Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089203/carbon-footprint-and-energy-use-of-food-waste-management-options-for-fresh-fruit-and-vegetables-from-supermarkets
#11
Mattias Eriksson, Johanna Spångberg
Food waste is a problem with economic, environmental and social implications, making it both important and complex. Previous studies have addressed food waste management options at the less prioritised end of the waste hierarchy, but information on more prioritised levels is also needed when selecting the best available waste management options. Investigating the global warming potential and primary energy use of different waste management options offers a limited perspective, but is still important for validating impacts from the waste hierarchy in a local context...
January 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073812/the-conserved-hypothetical-protein-pspto_3957-is-essential-for-virulence-in-the-plant-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#12
Katherine D'Amico, Melanie J Filiatrault
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae accounts for substantial crop losses and is considered an important agricultural issue. To better manage disease in the field, it is important to have an understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms that mediate virulence. There are a substantial number of genes in sequenced bacterial genomes, including P. syringae, that encode for conserved hypothetical proteins; some of these have been functionally characterized in other Pseudomonads and have been demonstrated to play important roles in disease...
January 10, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071978/nup82-functions-redundantly-with-nup136-in-a-salicylic-acid-dependent-defense-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Kentaro Tamura, Yoichiro Fukao, Noriyuki Hatsugai, Fumiaki Katagiri, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) comprises more than 30 nucleoporins (Nups). NPC mediates macromolecular trafficking between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, but specific roles of individual Nups are poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that the novel nucleoporin unique to angiosperm plants (designated as Nup82) functions in a salicylic acid-dependent defense in a redundant manner with Nup136, which is a component of the nuclear basket in the NPC. Arabidopsis thaliana Nup82 had a similar amino acid sequence to the N-terminal half of Nup136 and a Nup82-GFP fusion was localized on the nuclear envelope...
January 10, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071749/tomato-progeny-inherit-resistance-to-the-nematode-meloidogyne-javanica-linked-to-plant-growth-induced-by-the-biocontrol-fungus-trichoderma-atroviride
#14
Hugo Agripino de Medeiros, Jerônimo Vieira de Araújo Filho, Leandro Grassi de Freitas, Pablo Castillo, María Belén Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique Monte
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%)...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070852/functional-characterization-of-the-powdery-mildew-susceptibility-gene-smmlo1-in-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l
#15
Valentina Bracuto, Michela Appiano, Luigi Ricciardi, Deniz Göl, Richard G F Visser, Yuling Bai, Stefano Pavan
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most important vegetables among the Solanaceae and can be a host to fungal species causing powdery mildew (PM) disease. Specific homologs of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) gene family are PM susceptibility factors, as their loss of function results in a recessive form of resistance known as mlo resistance. In a previous work, we isolated the eggplant MLO homolog SmMLO1. SmMLO1 is closely related to MLO susceptibility genes characterized in other plant species. However, it displays a peculiar non-synonymous substitution that leads to a T → M amino acid change at protein position 422, in correspondence of the MLO calmodulin-binding domain...
January 9, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070648/deinbollia-mosaic-virus-a-novel-begomovirus-infecting-the-sapindaceous-weed-deinbollia-borbonica-in-kenya-and-tanzania
#16
Martina Kyallo, Peter Sseruwagi, Robert A Skilton, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula, Peter Wasswa, Joseph Ndunguru
Four isolates of a bipartite begomovirus from naturally infected Deinbollia borbonica plants exhibiting yellow mosaic symptoms in Kenya and Tanzania were molecularly characterised. The DNA-A was most closely related to that of tomato leaf curl Mayotte virus (AM701764; 82%), while the DNA-B shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with that of East African cassava mosaic virus (AJ704953) at 65%. Based on the current ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91% sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), we report the full-length genome sequence of this novel bipartite begomovirus...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069124/combined-microplate-abts-and-hplc-abts-analysis-of-tomato-and-pepper-extracts-reveals-synergetic-and-antagonist-effects-of-their-lipophilic-antioxidative-components
#17
Julie Le Grandois, Delphine Guffond, Erwann Hamon, Eric Marchioni, Dalal Werner
The antioxidant capacity of 9 pure lipophilic compounds was examined by microplate-ABTS and HPLC-ABTS, using similar experimental conditions. Results obtained showed that HPLC-ABTS method can be used for a rapid determination of individual antioxidant capacity of compounds in standard solutions or complex mixtures. The application of both methods to real lipophilic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), green and red peppers (Capsicum annuum) reveals possible interactions between antioxidants. Thus, synthetic mixtures of two compounds identified in tomato and peppers were measured using microplate-ABTS and HPLC-ABTS...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069089/dietary-calcium-impairs-tomato-lycopene-bioavailability-in-healthy-humans
#18
Patrick Borel, C Desmarchelier, U Dumont, C Halimi, D Lairon, D Page, J L Sébédio, C Buisson, C Buffière, D Rémond
Lycopene (LYC) bioavailability is relatively low and highly variable, because of the influence of several factors. Recent in vitro data have suggested that dietary Ca can impair LYC micellarisation, but there is no evidence whether this can lead to decreased LYC absorption efficiency in humans. Our objective was to assess whether a nutritional dose of Ca impairs dietary LYC bioavailability and to study the mechanism(s) involved. First, in a randomised, two-way cross-over study, ten healthy adults consumed either a test meal that provided 19-mg (all-E)-LYC from tomato paste or the same meal plus 500-mg calcium carbonate as a supplement...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068641/oil-palm-drought-inducible-dreb1-induced-expression-of-dre-crt-and-non-dre-crt-containing-genes-in-lowland-transgenic-tomato-under-cold-and-peg-treatments
#19
Azzreena Mohamad Azzeme, Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah, Maheran Abd Aziz, Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab
Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factor plays an important role in controlling the expression of abiotic stress responsive genes. An intronless oil palm EgDREB1 was isolated and confirmed to be a nuclear localized protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift and yeast one-hybrid assays validated its ability to interact with DRE/CRT motif. Its close evolutionary relation to the dicot NtDREB2 suggests a universal regulatory role. In order to determine its involvement in abiotic stress response, functional characterization was performed in oil palm seedlings subjected to different levels of drought severity and in EgDREB1 transgenic tomato seedlings treated by abiotic stresses...
December 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068488/side-streams-of-plant-food-processing-as-a-source-of-valuable-compounds-selected-examples
#20
Andreas Schieber
Industrial processing of plant-derived raw materials generates enormous amounts of by-products. On one hand, these by-products constitute a serious disposal issue because they often emerge seasonally and are prone to microbial decay. On the other hand, they are an abundant source of valuable compounds, in particular secondary plant metabolites and cell wall materials, which may be recovered and used to functionalize foods and replace synthetic additives with ingredients of natural origin. This review covers 150 references and presents select studies performed between 2001 and 2016 on the recovery, characterization, and application of valuable constituents from grape pomace, apple pomace, potato peels, tomato pomace, carrot pomace, onion peels, by-products of citrus, mango, banana, and pineapple processing, side streams of olive oil production, and cereal by-products...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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