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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522743/forward-to-the-past-the-case-for-quantitative-pet-imaging
#1
Adriaan A Lammertsma
Positron emission tomography (PET) was developed in the 1970's as an in vivo method to measure regional pathophysiological processes. In the 1990's the focus moved to the detection of local increases in uptake, first in the brain (activation studies) and later in oncology (finding metastases), where (18)F-FDG emerged as a highly sensitive staging technique. This focus on sensitivity has overshadowed the other main characteristic of PET, its quantitative nature. In recent years there has been a new shift. PET is now seen as a promising tool for drug development and precision medicine, i...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516202/-plastic-reconstruction-of-radiation-injuries
#2
P M Vogt, T R Mett, C Henkenberens, C Radtke, R Ipaktchi
In addition to surgical and drug therapy, radiotherapy (or radiation therapy) is one of the three mainstays of modern oncological therapy regimes. It uses ionizing radiation to control tumors by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. Although advances have been made in recent years resulting in a reduced dosage to the surrounding tissues, radiation injuries and tissue-related side effects cannot be completely avoided. Knowledge of the pathophysiology, treatment modalities and interdisciplinary treatment approaches are essential for effective therapy whilst limiting side effects...
May 17, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514737/integration-of-phytochemicals-and-phytotherapy-into-cancer-precision-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Mohamed E M Saeed, Elhaj Mirghani, Awadh Alim, Zahir Yassin, Elfatih Saeed, Hassan E Khalid, Salah Daak
Concepts of individualized therapy in the 1970s and 1980s attempted to develop predictive in vitro tests for individual drug responsiveness without reaching clinical routine. Precision medicine attempts to device novel individual cancer therapy strategies. Using bioinformatics, relevant knowledge is extracted from huge data amounts. However, tumor heterogeneity challenges chemotherapy due to genetically and phenotypically different cell subpopulations, which may lead to refractory tumors. Natural products always served as vital resources for cancer therapy (e...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512731/active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer-how-to-do-it-right
#4
REVIEW
Juan D Garisto, Laurence Klotz
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy affecting men. There has been a nearly 70% increase in new prostate cancer cases, mostly classified as low risk, that have been diagnosed in early stages as a consequence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Data regarding the natural history of this disease confirm the clinical insignificance of low-grade prostate cancer, which is associated with scant or no metastatic dissemination. Active surveillance is a conservative management approach, conducted for those patients with "low-risk" or "favorable-risk" disease, which avoids long-term adverse effects on the patient's quality of life...
May 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505195/dose-escalation-study-to-evaluate-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-intravenous-etoposide-phosphate-administration-in-27-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma
#5
Pierre Boyé, François Serres, Laurent Marescaux, Juliette Hordeaux, Emmanuel Bouchaert, Bruno Gomes, Dominique Tierny
Comparative oncology has shown that naturally occurring canine cancers are of valuable and translatable interest for the understanding of human cancer biology and the characterization of new therapies. This work was part of a comparative oncology project assessing a new, clinical-stage topoisomerase II inhibitor and comparing it with etoposide in dogs with spontaneous lymphoma with the objective to translate findings from dogs to humans. Etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor widely used in various humans' solid and hematopoietic cancer, but little data is available concerning its potential antitumor efficacy in dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503639/hepatocellular-carcinoma-implications-for-asia-pacific-oncology-nurses
#6
REVIEW
Deborah A Boyle
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prominent malignancy in the Asia-Pacific region. Despite considerable knowledge about it's scope and nature this malignancy remains incurable. This manuscript reviews the epidemiology of this cancer, its pathogenesis, risk factors, potential prevention, surveillance, treatment, and the oncology nurses' role relative to this malignancy. A literature search from the past decade was performed using the PubMed and CINAHL databases using the search terms "hepatocellular carcinoma," "Asia," and "nursing issues"...
April 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497041/annexin-a3-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-for-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#7
Tao Zhou, Yong Li, Li Yang, Tiantian Tang, Lina Zhang, Jiajie Shi
To validate the correlation between ANXA3 expression and prognosis in breast cancer, a retrospective study encompassing 309 breast cancer patients was performed. The expression of ANXA3 was determined by the immunohistochemical examination of tissue sections by the Max Vision™ method. The ANXA3 levels in the patient samples were validated for the prognosis based on age, menopause status, tumor size, tumor node, metastasis stage, the number of lymphatic metastases, oncology grade, and molecular subtyping. An elevated expression of ANXA3 was detected in breast cancer samples, compared to adjacent tissue samples, and significant correlation depending on the number of lymphatic metastases (P = 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493986/impact-of-treatment-in-long-term-survival-patients-with-follicular-lymphoma-a-spanish-lymphoma-oncology-group-registry
#8
Mariano Provencio, Pilar Sabín, Jose Gomez-Codina, Maria Torrente, Virginia Calvo, Marta Llanos, Josep Gumá, Cristina Quero, Ana Blasco, Miguel Angel Cruz, David Aguiar, Francisco García-Arroyo, Javier Lavernia, Natividad Martinez, Manuel Morales, Alvaro Saez-Cusi, Delvys Rodriguez, Luis de la Cruz, Jose Javier Sanchez, Antonio Rueda
BACKGROUND: Follicular lymphoma is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States and Europe. However, most of the prospective randomized studies have very little follow-up compared to the long natural history of the disease. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the long-term survival of our series of patients with follicular lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1074 patients with newly diagnosed FL were enrolled. Patients diagnosed were prospectively enrolled from 1980 to 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483948/high-affinity-internalizing-human-scfv-fc-antibody-for-targeting-fgfr1-overexpressing-lung-cancer
#9
Aleksandra Sokolowska-Wedzina, Grzegorz Chodaczek, Julia Chudzian, Aleksandra Borek, Malgorzata Zakrzewska, Jacek Otlewski
Targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs using antibodies specific for tumor-associated antigens represents one of the most important approaches in current immuno-oncology research. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has been demonstrated to be a high-frequency targetable oncogene specific for smoking-associated lung cancers, present in over 20% of lung squamous cell carcinoma cases. This report describes the generation of a potent, fully human antibody fragment in scFv-Fc format efficiently targeting FGFR1...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479237/adjuvant-therapy-for-high-risk-localized-kidney-cancer-emerging-evidence-and-future-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Andrew T Lenis, Nicholas M Donin, David C Johnson, Izak Faiena, Amirali Salmasi, Alexandra Drakaki, Arie Belldegrun, Allan Pantuck, Karim Chamie
PURPOSE: We will review the literature on adjuvant therapies for patients with high-risk localized kidney cancer following surgical treatment. Two recently published prospective trials with conflicting results will be reconciled within the context of their respective designs. Finally, we will spotlight upcoming trials that use novel immunotherapy-based checkpoint inhibitors and have the potential to establish a new standard of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search was performed for English language articles using the keywords "renal cell carcinoma," "kidney cancer," "immunotherapy," "targeted therapy," and "adjuvant therapy" published through January 2017...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468864/nodal-signaling-as-a-developmental-therapeutics-target-in-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Aparna Kalyan, Benedito A Carneiro, Sunandana Chandra, Jason Kaplan, Young Kwang Chae, Maria Matsangou, Mary J C Hendrix, Francis Giles
The tumor microenvironment is a vital feature of oncogenesis and tumor progression. There are several parallels between cancer cells and early developmental stem cells, including their plasticity and signaling mechanisms. In early fetal development, Nodal is expressed for endodermal and mesodermal differentiation. This expression has been shown reemerge in the setting of epithelial cancers, such as breast and melanoma. High Nodal expression correlates to an aggressive tumor grade in these malignancies. Nodal signal begins with its interaction with its coreceptor, Cripto-1, leading to activation of Smad2/Smad3 and ultimately downstream transcription and translation...
May 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462894/a-survey-of-residents-experience-with-patient-safety-and-quality-improvement-concepts-in-radiation-oncology
#12
Matthew B Spraker, Matthew Nyflot, Kristi Hendrickson, Eric Ford, Gabrielle Kane, Jing Zeng
PURPOSE: The safety and quality of radiation therapy have recently garnered increased attention in radiation oncology (RO). Although patient safety guidelines expect physicians and physicists to lead clinical safety and quality improvement (QI) programs, trainees' level of exposure to patient safety concepts during training is unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We surveyed active medical and physics RO residents in North America in February 2016. Survey questions involved demographics and program characteristics, exposure to patient safety topics, and residents' attitude regarding their safety education...
December 1, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462642/oncological-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-following-extralevator-versus-standard-abdominoperineal-excision-for-rectal-cancer
#13
D Kamali, A Sharpe, A Musbahi, A Reddy
INTRODUCTION There is increasing and conflicting research debating the oncological benefits of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) compared with standard abdominoperineal excision (SAPE). However, there is very little in the literature on the long-term effects on patients' wellbeing following the two procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the oncological outcomes and long-term quality of life (QoL) of patients at two hospitals having undergone ELAPE or SAPE. METHODS Consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent either ELAPE or SAPE between January 2009 and June 2015 at a single centre were analysed...
May 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462605/editorial-comment-on-end-2016-0830-or-r1
#14
Joseph L Chin
"Focal therapy/Partial Ablation" for prostate cancer now garners significant attention and controversy. Critics and skeptics point to the known multifocality nature of prostate cancer, countered by proponents of focal therapy with the "dominant index lesion versus secondary lesions" theory. Tay et al. used the C.O.L.D. Registry to retrospectively assess oncologic and functional outcomes of partial cryoablation, comparing with a propensity score-matched group who had whole gland ablation. It should be emphasized that the authors selected for partial ablation only patients with low volume, intermediate risk disease...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460635/transcriptomic-profiling-and-quantitative-high-throughput-qhts-drug-screening-of-cdh1-deficient-hereditary-diffuse-gastric-cancer-hdgc-cells-identify-treatment-leads-for-familial-gastric-cancer
#15
Ina Chen, Lesley Mathews-Greiner, Dandan Li, Abisola Abisoye-Ogunniyan, Satyajit Ray, Yansong Bian, Vivek Shukla, Xiaohu Zhang, Raj Guha, Craig Thomas, Berkley Gryder, Athina Zacharia, Joal D Beane, Sarangan Ravichandran, Marc Ferrer, Udo Rudloff
BACKGROUND: Patients with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with germline mutations of the CDH1 (E-cadherin) gene, have few effective treatment options. Despite marked differences in natural history, histopathology, and genetic profile to patients afflicted by sporadic gastric cancer, patients with HDGC receive, in large, identical systemic regimens. The lack of a robust preclinical in vitro system suitable for effective drug screening has been one of the obstacles to date which has hampered therapeutic advances in this rare disease...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460068/in-silico-polypharmacology-of-natural-products
#16
Jiansong Fang, Chuang Liu, Qi Wang, Ping Lin, Feixiong Cheng
Natural products with polypharmacological profiles have demonstrated promise as novel therapeutics for various complex diseases, including cancer. Currently, many gaps exist in our knowledge of which compounds interact with which targets, and experimentally testing all possible interactions is infeasible. Recent advances and developments of systems pharmacology and computational (in silico) approaches provide powerful tools for exploring the polypharmacological profiles of natural products. In this review, we introduce recent progresses and advances of computational tools and systems pharmacology approaches for identifying drug targets of natural products by focusing on the development of targeted cancer therapy...
April 27, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459041/advancing-cancer-therapy-with-present-and-emerging-immuno-oncology-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Jeff Kamta, Maher Chaar, Anusha Ande, Deborah A Altomare, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Immuno-oncology (I-O) is a young and growing field on the frontier of cancer therapy. Contrary to cancer therapies that directly target malignant cells, I-O therapies stimulate the body's immune system to target and attack the tumor, which is otherwise invisible to, or inhibiting the immune response. To this end, several methods have been developed: First, passive therapies that enable T-cells to fight the tumor without direct manipulation, typically through binding and modifying the intracellular signaling of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458958/the-intersection-of-oncology-prognosis-and-cancer-rehabilitation
#18
REVIEW
Sean Robinson Smith, Jasmine Yiqian Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the delivery of rehabilitation care to cancer patients with relation to disease prognosis. This includes the evaluation when patients are referred for rehabilitation services and the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions across the cancer continuum. RECENT FINDINGS: Although prognosticating life expectancy is difficult, referrals for rehabilitation interventions appear to be affected by physician attitudes towards patients with advanced disease, in part because of misconceptions about the nature of rehabilitation for oncology patients...
2017: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443893/trail-np-hybrids-for-cancer-therapy-a-review
#19
REVIEW
H Belkahla, G Herlem, F Picaud, T Gharbi, M Hémadi, S Ammar, O Micheau
Cancer is a worldwide health problem. It is now considered as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. In the last few decades, considerable progress has been made in anti-cancer therapies, allowing the cure of patients suffering from this disease, or at least helping to prolong their lives. Several cancers, such as those of the lung and pancreas, are still devastating in the absence of therapeutic options. In the early 90s, TRAIL (Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), a cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily, attracted major interest in oncology owing to its selective anti-tumor properties...
May 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443462/biib021-a-novel-inhibitor-to-heat-shock-protein-90-addicted-oncology
#20
Liang Yan, Weiming Zhang, Beibei Zhang, Chao Xuan, Daogang Wang
Heat shock protein 90 is induced in response to the cell stress. Its overexpression has been reported in many cancers with poor prognosis. It acts as a chaperone to the client proteins, especially the activated oncoproteins in malignancies to protect them from degradation. Heat shock protein 90 inhibition represented anti-cancer effects in many studies. Previous natural product-based compounds are limited by their association with target toxicities. BIIB021 is an orally available, fully synthetic novel small-molecule heat shock protein 90 inhibitor that has shown strong antitumor activities in a large number of preclinical models and is now under clinical investigation...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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