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natural oncology

X Serra-Aracil, A Zárate, L Mora, S Serra-Pla, A Pallisera, J Bonfill, J Bargalló, A Pando, S Delgado, E Balleteros, C Pericay
PURPOSE: Compared with the open approach, laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) achieves faster patient recovery, reduces morbidity rates, and shortens hospital stay. However, in laparoscopic low anterior resection (L-LAR), conversion to open surgery is required in almost 20% of cases. Transanal TME (Ta-TME) combined with laparoscopy, also called hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), is a less invasive procedure that can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Ari Rosenberg, Mark Agulnik
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare sarcoma, as such it can pose a clinical dilemma based solely on its rarity. Also, the spectrum of disease varies greatly between an indolent disease and aggressive disease with widespread metastases. In our clinical practice, the primary focus has been to get a handle on the aggressive nature of the disease, which will then dictate how urgently one needs to treat the patient. Pathological review with immunohistochemistry and molecular characterization is paramount...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Mohamed E M Saeed, Nuha Mahmoud, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Thomas Efferth, Heba Abdel-Aziz
For decades, natural products represented a significant source of diverse and unique bioactive lead compounds in drug discovery field. In Clinical oncology, complete tumors remission is hampered by the development of drug-resistance. Therefore, development of cytotoxic agents that may overcome drug resistance is urgently needed. Here, the natural benzophenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine has been studied for its cytotoxic activity against multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer cells. We investigated the role of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters BCRP/ABCG2, P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and its close relative ABCB5 in drug resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Amal Lahiani, Eldad Klaiman, Oliver Grimm
Context: Medical diagnosis and clinical decisions rely heavily on the histopathological evaluation of tissue samples, especially in oncology. Historically, classical histopathology has been the gold standard for tissue evaluation and assessment by pathologists. The most widely and commonly used dyes in histopathology are hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) as most malignancies diagnosis is largely based on this protocol. H&E staining has been used for more than a century to identify tissue characteristics and structures morphologies that are needed for tumor diagnosis...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Jessica M Scott, Tormod S Nilsen, Dipti Gupta, Lee W Jones
Cardio-oncology is an emerging discipline focused predominantly on the detection and management of cancer treatment-induced cardiac dysfunction (cardiotoxicity), which predisposes to development of overt heart failure or coronary artery disease. The direct adverse consequences, as well as those secondary to anticancer therapeutics, extend beyond the heart, however, to affect the entire cardiovascular-skeletal muscle axis (ie, whole-organism cardiovascular toxicity). The global nature of impairment creates a strong rationale for treatment strategies that augment or preserve global cardiovascular reserve capacity...
March 13, 2018: Circulation
Rita Azevedo, Janine Soares, Andreia Peixoto, Sofia Cotton, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
CONTEXT: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of cancer patients provide an opportunity for real-time liquid biopsies capable of aiding early intervention, therapeutic decision, response to therapy, and prognostication. Nevertheless, the rare and potentially heterogeneous molecular nature of CTC has delayed the standardization of robust high-throughput capture/enrichment and characterization technologies. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to systematize emerging solutions for CTC analysis in bladder cancer (BC), their opportunities and limitations, while providing key insights on specific technologic aspects that may ultimately guide molecular studies and clinical implementation...
March 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Khadega A Abuelgasim, Yousef Alsharhan, Tariq Alenzi, Abdulaziz Alhazzani, Yosra Z Ali, Abdul Rahman Jazieh
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) along with conventional therapies (CT), whereas a smaller proportion delay or defer CT in favor of CAM. Previous studies exploring CAM use among cancer patients in the Middle East region have shown discrepant results. This study investigates the prevalence and pattern of CAM use by Saudi cancer patients. It also discusses the possible benefits and harm related to CAM use by cancer patients, and it explores the beliefs patients hold and their transparency with health care providers regarding their CAM use...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
James A Hanley
My early years as a statistician were with the Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group and the Radiation Oncology Therapy Group; three of these years were spent at the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute. Later, I collaborated widely with investigators in many clinical research areas. I reflect on the "statistical interrogations of nature" I saw (and helped some of these) investigators plan and carry out. I look back on their (and my own) statistical behaviors when interpreting the information these interrogations produced and-using a few vignettes and some computer-generated observations-draw some lessons from them...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Sampa Ghoshal-Gupta, Ammar Kutiyanawalla, Byung Rho Lee, Juhi Ojha, Aliya Nurani, Ashis K Mondal, Ravindra Kolhe, Amyn M Rojiani, Mumtaz V Rojiani
Matrix metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors (TIMPs) are important elements in a wide range of oncology settings. Elevated levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) have often been associated with increased tumorigenesis. This has been demonstrated in a number of clinical and experimental models which include breast, gastric, colorectal and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Our earlier studies have identified increased angiogenic activity and aggressive tumor kinetics in TIMP-1 overexpressing H2009 lung adenocarcinoma cells...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Omer M Toor, Zaheer Ahmed, Waled Bahaj, Urooge Boda, Lee S Cummings, Megan E McNally, Kevin F Kennedy, Timothy J Pluard, Arif Hussain, Janakiraman Subramanian, Ashiq Masood
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of cancer tissues is increasingly being carried out to identify somatic genomic alterations that may guide physicians to make therapeutic decisions. However, a single tissue biopsy may not reflect complete genomic architecture due to the heterogeneous nature of tumors. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis is a robust noninvasive method to detect and monitor genomic alterations in blood in real time. We analyzed 28 matched tissue NGS and ctDNA from gastrointestinal and lung cancers for concordance of somatic genomic alterations, driver and actionable alterations...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
C René Leemans, Peter J F Snijders, Ruud H Brakenhoff
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) arise in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract and are unexpectedly heterogeneous in nature. Classical risk factors are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and in recent years, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) has emerged, particularly in oropharyngeal tumours. HPV-induced oropharyngeal tumours are considered a separate disease entity, which recently has manifested in an adapted prognostic staging system while the results of de-intensified treatment trials are awaited...
March 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Rebecca J Thorne, Rosanne J Bruggink, Stephen J Kelly, Sarah Jl Payne, Simon J Purcell, David A Montgomery
Since 2013, once a medicine receives marketing authorisation in the European Union, it is labelled with an inverted black triangle indicating all adverse reactions should be reported. Our aim was to explore understanding of the black triangle and compliance with adverse event (AE) reporting requirements by UK oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs). A questionnaire was electronically distributed to oncology pharmacists (P) via the British Oncology Pharmacy Association, to oncologists (O) through the Association of Cancer Physicians and also to nurses (N) via the UK Oncology Nursing Society...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Surabhi Ranjan, Martha Quezado, Nancy Garren, Lisa Boris, Christine Siegel, Osorio Lopes Abath Neto, Brett J Theeler, Deric M Park, Edjah Nduom, Kareem A Zaghloul, Mark R Gilbert, Jing Wu
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are being investigated in clinical trials for patients with glioblastoma. While these therapies hold great promise, management of the patients receiving such treatment can be complicated due to the challenges in recognizing immune-related adverse events caused by checkpoint inhibitor treatment. Brain imaging changes that are the consequence of an inflammatory response may be misinterpreted as disease progression leading to inappropriate premature cessation of treatment...
March 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
Gustavo Chavez, Ilana B Richman, Rajani Kaimal, Jason Bentley, Lee Ann Yasukawa, Russ B Altman, Vyjeyanthi S Periyakoil, Jonathan H Chen
IMPORTANCE: Critically ill patients often receive high-intensity life sustaining treatments (LST) in the intensive care unit (ICU), although they can be ineffective and eventually undesired. Determining the risk factors associated with reversals in LST goals can improve patient and provider appreciation for the natural history and epidemiology of critical care and inform decision making around the (continued) use of LSTs. METHODS: This is a single institution retrospective cohort study of patients receiving life sustaining treatment in an academic tertiary hospital from 2009 to 2013...
2018: PloS One
Matthew Mireles, Ramiro Pino, Bin S Teh, Andrew Farach, Adrienne Joseph, E Brian Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Dharma Ram, Suhas K Rajappa, Sudhir Rawal, Amitabh Singh, Prem B Singh, Ajay K Dewan
Introduction: Open radical cystectomy (ORC) has been the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) has been proposed as minimally invasive alternative with improved morbidity and acceptable oncological outcomes, but a large series featuring RARC and their comparison with ORC is still lacking in India despite more than a decade of its inception. We have conducted this study with an objective to see the feasibility of RARC in the Indian context and compare it with contemporary standard...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Ori Barzilai, Charles G Fisher, Mark H Bilsky
Treatment paradigms for patients with spine metastases have evolved significantly over the past decade. Incorporating stereotactic radiosurgery into these paradigms has been particularly transformative, offering precise delivery of tumoricidal radiation doses with sparing of adjacent tissues. Evidence supports the safety and efficacy of radiosurgery as it currently offers durable local tumor control with low complication rates even for tumors previously considered radioresistant to conventional radiation. The role for surgical intervention remains consistent, but a trend has been observed toward less aggressive, often minimally invasive, techniques...
February 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
Matthew A Kemertzis, Harene Ranjithakumaran, Meredith Hand, Michelle Peate, Lynn Gillam, Maria McCarthy, Leanne Super, Sarah McQuillan, Sarah Drew, Yasmin Jayasinghe, Lisa Orme
PURPOSE: Fertility preservation (FP) discussions in children with cancer presents unique challenges due to ethical considerations, lack of models-of-care, and the triadic nature of discussions. This study evaluated a fertility toolkit for clinicians involved in FP discussions with pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients and parents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey-based, longitudinal study of clinicians at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne involved in FP discussions undertaken at 3 time-points: 2014, alongside an education session for baseline assessment of oncofertility practices (survey 1); after each toolkit use to evaluate case-specific implementation (survey 2); 2016, to evaluate impact on clinical practice (survey 3)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Samantha J Van Nest, Leah M Nicholson, Lindsay DeVorkin, Alexandre G Brolo, Julian J Lum, Andrew Jirasek
Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues. In this study, we used established Raman spectroscopic approaches to investigate the biochemical nature and temporal evolution of spectral changes in human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts after in vivo irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Manish R Patel
Immune therapy has now been incorporated into the standard of care for non-small-cell lung cancer based on randomized trials showing superiority of anti-PD1 antibodies compared with chemotherapy. Thus there is a renewed interest in immune approaches to treating lung cancer. One promising approach is with oncolytic viruses that either naturally or through engineering, preferentially infect or kill cancer cells. In preclinical models of different thoracic cancers, it has been found that these viruses can induce immune responses through multiple mechanisms...
April 2018: Immunotherapy
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