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Functional Oncology

Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Velda J Gonzalez, Susan McMillan, Elsa Pedro, Maribel Tirado-Gomez, Leorey N Saligan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the health related quality of life (HRQOL) experienced by 79 Puerto Rican adults during cancer treatments. METHODS: This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design. Participants completed a demographics form and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General QOL questionnaire (FACT-G). Descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: Participants were ages 28-78; most of the participants had breast (38.0%), prostate (14...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Clémence Granier, Alain Gey, Charles Dariane, Arnaud Mejean, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Charlotte Blanc, Virginie Verkarre, Camélia Radulescu, Elisabeth Fabre, Yann Vano, Stéphane Oudard, Cécile Badoual, Éric Tartour
T cells harboring multiple co-inhibitory molecules lose their anti-tumoral functionality. PD-1 is a clinically approved target in cancer therapy, but its expression alone does not mean dysfunctionality. The expression of Tim-3 on numerous cell types (T cell, Treg, dendritic cell, myeloid cells) favors tumor escape to immune cells. Within many tumors, PD-1/Tim-3 coexpressing CD8-T cells lose their ability to secrete cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα) and their intratumoral infiltration correlates with a bad prognosis...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Andrés Retamal C, Giancarlo Schiappacasse F, Lizbet Pérez M, Pablo Alvayay Q, Isabel Schild W
Pediatric cancer is the second cause of death in children older than 5 years in our country, after trauma. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a hybrid technique that involves radiation, which has been used for some time in adults and is being progressively imple mented in children. This technique allows morphological and functional assessments of the body with applications in neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. Its main role in oncology is in the evaluation and control of lymphomas, sarcomas and neuroblastomas, among others...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
X Serra-Aracil, A Zárate, L Mora, S Serra-Pla, A Pallisera, J Bonfill, J Bargalló, A Pando, S Delgado, E Balleteros, C Pericay
PURPOSE: Compared with the open approach, laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) achieves faster patient recovery, reduces morbidity rates, and shortens hospital stay. However, in laparoscopic low anterior resection (L-LAR), conversion to open surgery is required in almost 20% of cases. Transanal TME (Ta-TME) combined with laparoscopy, also called hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), is a less invasive procedure that can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Gary R Zirpoli, Susan E McCann, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Dawn L Hershman, Gregory Ciupak, Warren Davis, Joseph M Unger, Halle C F Moore, James A Stewart, Claudine Isaacs, Timothy J Hobday, Muhammad Salim, Gabriel N Hortobagyi, Julie R Gralow, G Thomas Budd, Kathy S Albain, Christine B Ambrosone
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) can interfere with daily function and quality of life, and there are no known preventive approaches. In a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving paclitaxel as part of a clinical trial (SWOG 0221), we examined the use of dietary supplements both before diagnosis and during treatment in relation to CIPN. Methods: At registration to S0221, 1225 breast cancer patients completed questionnaires regarding the use of multivitamins and supplements before and at diagnosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Cun-Zhi Lin, Gui-Ling Xiang, Xin-Hong Zhu, Lu-Lu Xiu, Jia-Xing Sun, Xiao-Yuan Zhang
Cancer virotherapy mediated by oncolytic viruses (OV), has emerged as a novel and effective strategy in cancer therapeutics. Preclinical models have demonstrated anticancer activity against numerous types of cancer. Currently, a number of recombinant viruses are in late phase clinical trials, many of which have demonstrated promising results regarding the safety and reliability of the treatments, particularly when combined with standard antineoplastic therapies. In addition to molecular-targeted therapeutics, genetic engineering of the viruses allows functional complementation to chemotherapy or radiotherapy agents...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
David L Chan, Lesley Moody, Eva Segelov, David Metz, Jonathan Strosberg, Nick Pavlakis, Simron Singh
<br>Objectives: There is no consensus regarding optimal follow-up in resected GEP-NETS. We aimed to perform a practice survey to ascertain follow-up patterns by health care practitioners and highlight areas of variation that may benefit from further quantitative research. METHODS: A web-based survey targeted at NET health care providers in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States was developed by a steering committee of medical oncologists and a research methodologist...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Mylène Bolmont, Marie-Laure Amram, Florence Rochon, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
Cancer affects sexual function, sexual health and relationships as well as mental health and quality of life. Due to the importance of sexual health for each individual and in order to ensure optimal and quality care, we have assessed the demand for sexual health and advise not only among cancer patients but also among professionals in this area and nursing staff. The results showed that sexuality was important both for patients and caregivers. Also we did find out that carers want to create a better professional network with the aim of redirecting patients to specialists according to their specific needs...
March 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Wen-Ting K Tsai, Anna M Wu
The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell-surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been employed for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Dezső Kelemen, Zoltán Lőcsei, Róbert Papp, Sándor Ferencz, András Vereczkei
CASE PRESENTATION: After neoadjuvant oncological therapy the surgical treatment of distal pancreatic tumour - infiltrating the celiac axis and the stomach - was reported. During the operation resection of the trunc, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, total gastrectomy, resection of the left adrenal gland and cholecystectomy were carried out. The patient's clinical course was uneventful, only transient alteration of liver functions was detected. Histological work-up revealed R1 resection, so adjuvant oncological therapy was decided...
March 2018: Magyar Sebészet
Lauren E Wilson, Craig Evan Pollack, Melissa A Greiner, Michaela A Dinan
PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether physician-level characteristics were associated with 21-gene recurrence score (RS) genomic testing to evaluate recurrence risk and benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, node-negative breast cancer. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program-Medicare data linked with the American Medical Association physician master file...
March 13, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
E G Tyrsina, S I Nikulitskiy, A N Inshakov, O O Ryabaya
The possibility of using VEGF-R1 receptor for targeted therapy in oncology was investigated. Using the approach to measuring the protein content in intact nuclei of cells, which was developed by us, we showed the presence of this receptor in the nuclei of tumor, but not normal cells. A direct correlation between the level of VEGF-R1 expression in the nucleus and the degree of malignancy of tumor cells, indicating the prognostic value of this parameter, was found. The mechanisms of the functioning of this receptor and the pathways of inhibiting its activity are discussed, and the validity of the selection of VEGF-R1 as a molecular target for anticancer therapy is conformed...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
M Sohn, M Dietrich, A Wirthmann, U M Rieger
BACKGROUND: Due to the rising incidence of penile cancer and increasing life expectancy in western nations, the current international guidelines recommend a less aggressive surgical approach with reduced safety margins and preferably with organ preservation. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to review the current data on stage-dependent reconstructive surgical techniques and their oncological and functional results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five recently published reviews and several single studies and publications on the topic of organ-sparing surgical techniques and penile reconstruction were evaluated to draw conclusions for surgery in penile cancer...
March 13, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Patrick Kwok-Shing Ng, Jun Li, Kang Jin Jeong, Shan Shao, Hu Chen, Yiu Huen Tsang, Sohini Sengupta, Zixing Wang, Venkata Hemanjani Bhavana, Richard Tran, Stephanie Soewito, Darlan Conterno Minussi, Daniela Moreno, Kathleen Kong, Turgut Dogruluk, Hengyu Lu, Jianjiong Gao, Collin Tokheim, Daniel Cui Zhou, Amber M Johnson, Jia Zeng, Carman Ka Man Ip, Zhenlin Ju, Matthew Wester, Shuangxing Yu, Yongsheng Li, Christopher P Vellano, Nikolaus Schultz, Rachel Karchin, Li Ding, Yiling Lu, Lydia Wai Ting Cheung, Ken Chen, Kenna R Shaw, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Kenneth L Scott, Song Yi, Nidhi Sahni, Han Liang, Gordon B Mills
The functional impact of the vast majority of cancer somatic mutations remains unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap for implementing precision oncology. Here, we report the development of a moderate-throughput functional genomic platform consisting of efficient mutant generation, sensitive viability assays using two growth factor-dependent cell models, and functional proteomic profiling of signaling effects for select aberrations. We apply the platform to annotate >1,000 genomic aberrations, including gene amplifications, point mutations, indels, and gene fusions, potentially doubling the number of driver mutations characterized in clinically actionable genes...
March 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
Amal Lahiani, Eldad Klaiman, Oliver Grimm
Context: Medical diagnosis and clinical decisions rely heavily on the histopathological evaluation of tissue samples, especially in oncology. Historically, classical histopathology has been the gold standard for tissue evaluation and assessment by pathologists. The most widely and commonly used dyes in histopathology are hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) as most malignancies diagnosis is largely based on this protocol. H&E staining has been used for more than a century to identify tissue characteristics and structures morphologies that are needed for tumor diagnosis...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Myrick C Shinall, E Wesley Ely, Mohana Karlekar, Samuel G Robbins, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Sara F Martin
BACKGROUND: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative (FACIT-Pal) 14 instrument measures the quality of life in palliative care patients but its psychometric properties are not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To establish the reliability and validity of the FACIT-Pal 14 in an outpatient palliative care clinic population. METHODS: The FACIT-Pal 14 was administered to 227 patients in an outpatient palliative care clinic at a large, urban academic medical center...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Anas Nooh, Krista Goulding, Marc H Isler, Sophie Mottard, Annie Arteau, Norbert Dion, Robert Turcotte
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases represent the most frequent cause of cancer-related pain, affecting health-related quality of life and creating a substantial burden on the healthcare system. Although most bony metastatic lesions can be managed nonoperatively, surgical management can help patients reduce severe pain, avoid impending fracture, and stabilize pathologic fractures. Studies have demonstrated functional improvement postoperatively as early as 6 weeks, but little data exist on the temporal progress of these improvements or on the changes in quality of life over time as a result of surgical intervention...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Germán L Farfalli, Jose I Albergo, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Miguel A Ayerza, D Luis Muscolo, Lucas E Ritacco, Luis A Aponte-Tinao
BACKGROUND: The treatment of locally aggressive bone tumors is a balance between achieving local tumor control and surgical morbidity. Wide resection decreases the likelihood of local recurrence, although wide resection may result in more complications than would happen after curettage. Navigation-assisted surgery may allow more precise resection, perhaps making it possible to expand the procedure's indications and decrease the likelihood of recurrence; however, to our knowledge, comparative studies have not been performed...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Yesi Shi, Xin Pang, Junqing Wang, Gang Liu
TRAIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that can largely trigger apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells, but not in normal cells. However, insufficient exposure to cancer tissues or cells and drug resistance has severely impeded the clinical application of TRAIL. Recently, nanobiotechnology has brought about a revolution in advanced drug delivery for enhanced anticancer therapy using TRAIL. With the help of materials science, immunology, genetic engineering, and protein engineering, substantial progress is made by expressing fusion proteins with TRAIL, engineering TRAIL on biological membranes, and loading TRAIL into functional nanocarriers or conjugating it onto their surfaces...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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