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Cardiac pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813699/t1-and-t2-mapping-in-cardiology-mapping-the-obscure-object-of-desire
#1
Sophie Mavrogeni, Dimitris Apostolou, Panayiotis Argyriou, Stella Velitsista, Lilika Papa, Stelios Efentakis, Evangelos Vernardos, Mikela Kanoupaki, George Kanoupakis, Athanassios Manginas
The increasing use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is based on its capability to perform biventricular function assessment and tissue characterization without radiation and with high reproducibility. The use of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) gave the potential of non-invasive biopsy for fibrosis quantification. However, LGE is unable to detect diffuse myocardial disease. Native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) provide knowledge about pathologies affecting both the myocardium and interstitium that is otherwise difficult to identify...
August 17, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811528/prenatal-hypoxia-leads-to-hypertension-renal-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-and-exacerbates-salt-induced-pathology-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#2
S L Walton, H Bielefeldt-Ohmann, R R Singh, J Li, T M Paravicini, M H Little, K M Moritz
Prenatal hypoxia is associated with growth restriction and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we describe renal and cardiovascular outcomes in ageing mouse offspring prenatally exposed to hypoxia (12% O2) from embryonic day 14.5 until birth. At 12 months of age, both male and female offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia had elevated mean arterial pressure. Glomerular number was reduced by 25% in hypoxia-exposed male, but not female, offspring and this was associated with increased urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy and renal fibrosis...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810672/cardiomyocyte-renewal-in-the-human-heart-insights-from-the-fall-out
#3
Eniko Lázár, Hesham A Sadek, Olaf Bergmann
The capacity of the mammalian heart to regenerate cardiomyocytes has been debated over the last decades. However, limitations in existing techniques to track and identify nascent cardiomyocytes have often led to inconsistent results. Radiocarbon (14C) birth dating, in combination with other quantitative strategies, allows to establish the number and age of human cardiomyocytes, making it possible to describe their age distribution and turnover dynamics. Accurate estimates of cardiomyocyte generation in the adult heart can provide the foundation for novel regenerative strategies that aim to stimulate cardiomyocyte renewal in various cardiac pathologies...
August 7, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810184/design-and-evaluation-of-a-parametric-model-for-cardiac-sounds
#4
Roilhi F Ibarra-Hernández, Miguel A Alonso-Arévalo, Alejandro Cruz-Gutiérrez, Ana L Licona-Chávez, Salvador Villarreal-Reyes
Heart sound analysis plays an important role in the auscultative diagnosis process to detect the presence of cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we propose a novel parametric heart sound model that accurately represents normal and pathological cardiac audio signals, also known as phonocardiograms (PCG). The proposed model considers that the PCG signal is formed by the sum of two parts: one of them is deterministic and the other one is stochastic. The first part contains most of the acoustic energy. This part is modeled by the Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm, which performs an analysis-synthesis procedure to represent the PCG signal as a linear combination of elementary waveforms...
August 9, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807827/the-endotoxemia-cardiac-dysfunction-is-attenuated-by-ampk-mtor-signaling-pathway-regulating-autophagy
#5
Jie Zhang, Peng Zhao, Nanhu Quan, Lin Wang, Xu Chen, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Ji Li
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, modulates myocardial signaling in the heart. Myocardial dysfunction is a common complication of sepsis. Autophagy is involved in the aging related cardiac dysfunction. However, the role of AMPK in sepsis-induced cardiotoxicity has yet to be clarified, especially in aging. In this study, we explored the role of AMPK on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial dysfunction and elucidated the potential mechanisms of AMPK/mTOR pathway against autophagy in young and aged mice...
August 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807149/muscling-in-on-trp-channels-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-cardiomyocytes
#6
REVIEW
Lucía Alonso-Carbajo, Miklos Kecskes, Griet Jacobs, Andy Pironet, Ninda Syam, Karel Talavera, Rudi Vennekens
The human TRP protein family comprises a family of 27 cation channels with diverse permeation and gating properties. The common theme is that they are very important regulators of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in diverse cell types, either by providing a Ca(2+) influx pathway, or by depolarising the membrane potential, which on one hand triggers the activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, and on the other limits the driving force for Ca(2+) entry. Here we focus on the role of these TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle and cardiac striated muscle...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805979/effects-of-mtor-inhibition-on-cardiac-and-adipose-tissue-pathology-and-glucose-metabolism-in-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Ayako Uchinaka, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulator of metabolism and is implicated in pathological conditions such as obesity and diabetes. We aimed to investigate the role of mTOR in obesity. A new animal model of metabolic syndrome (MetS), named DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa) /Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats was established previously in our laboratory. In this study, we used this model to evaluate the effects of mTOR inhibition on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology and glucose metabolism. DS/obese rats were treated with the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, (0...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805231/the-histone-methyltransferase-mixed-lineage-leukemia-mll-3-may-play-a-potential-role-on-clinical-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#8
Ding-Sheng Jiang, Xin Yi, Rui Li, Yun-Shu Su, Jing Wang, Min-Lai Chen, Li-Gang Liu, Min Hu, Cai Cheng, Ping Zheng, Xue-Hai Zhu, Xiang Wei
Histone modifications play a critical role in the pathological processes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). While the role and expression pattern of histone methyltransferases (HMTs), especially mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) families on DCM are unclear. To this end, twelve normal and fifteen DCM heart samples were included in the present study. A murine cardiac remodelling model was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of MLL families in the mouse and human left ventricles...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805011/bicuspid-and-unicuspid-aortic-valves-different-phenotypes-of-the-same-disease-insight-from-the-gentac-registry
#9
Joseph M Krepp, Mary J Roman, Richard B Devereux, Adrienne Bruce, Siddharth K Prakash, Shaine A Morris, Dianna M Milewicz, Kathryn W Holmes, William Ravekes, Ralph V Shohet, Reed E Pyeritz, Cheryl L Maslen, Barbara L Kroner, Kim A Eagle, Liliana Preiss, Federico M Asch
BACKGROUND: Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare disorder, often difficult to distinguish from bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV and UAV share valve pathology such as the presence of a raphe, leaflet fusion, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and/or ascending aortic dilatation, but a comprehensive echocardiographic comparison of patients with UAV and BAV has not been previously performed. METHODS: We investigated UAV and BAV patients at an early stage of disease included in GenTAC, a national registry of genetically related aortic aneurysms and associated cardiac conditions...
August 14, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804855/human-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-versus-feline-cardiomyopathy-what-can-we-learn-from-both-veterinary-and-human-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Valentine Prat, Bertrand Rozec, Chantal Gauthier, Benjamin Lauzier
Cardiovascular affections are a growing health burden in human populations. Recent advances in cardiology have improved treatments and outcomes for myocardial infarction and arrhythmias, but other conditions still remain poorly understood. To date, the classical approach to study cardiovascular diseases involves rodent models, despite their strong differences with human cardiac physiology. In this context, this review will focus on the common traits between human and feline cardiac diseases, namely heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and feline cardiomyopathies, respectively...
August 14, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804599/circulating-exosome-microrna-associated-with-heart-failure-secondary-to-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease-in-a-naturally-occurring-canine-model
#11
Vicky K Yang, Kerry A Loughran, Dawn M Meola, Christine M Juhr, Kristen E Thane, Airiel M Davis, Andrew M Hoffman
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is functionally and histologically identical to mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in humans. Currently, there are no medical treatments that can delay the progression of this valvular disease or associated cardiac remodelling. Therefore, there is a need to understand the molecular pathology associated with MMVD and MVP better, and thus identify potential therapeutic targets. Circulating exosomes contain small RNA, including miRNA, which reflect cell physiology and pathology...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803168/metastatic-cardiac-angiosarcoma-to-the-lung-spine-and-brain-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Chih-Ta Lin, Katrina Ducis, Suzanne Tucker, Bruce Tranmer
BACKGROUND: Metastatic angiosarcoma to the brain is a rare entity without an established management protocol. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma with a rare brain metastasis in an adult. This patient underwent successful resection of his brain metastasis and was initiated on only chemotherapy for his systemic disease. The patient did not develop local recurrence. A review of primary and metastatic CNS angiosarcoma, its pathologic features, clinical disease course, treatment strategies and genomics is also described...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802178/cardiac-arrest-due-to-ventricular-fibrillation-in-a-23-year-old-woman-with-broken-heart-syndrome
#13
Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, Michael P O'Quinn, Paulo Garcia, Enrique Gerszten, Charlotte Roberts, F Gerald Moeller, Antonio Abbate
Broken heart syndrome, also known as takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is a syndrome characterized by a transient regional systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle associated to a psychological stress. We herein describe a case of a 23-year-old female habitual marijuana user who was resuscitated after cardiac arrest and then diagnosed with midventricular stress cardiomyopathy complicated by subendocardial hemorrhage. We discuss this unique pathological finding, the incidence of arrhythmias in this syndrome, and the possible relation with chronic cannabis and tobacco use...
June 30, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802159/increased-%C3%AE-catenin-accumulation-and-nuclear-translocation-are-associated-with-concentric-hypertrophy-in-cardiomyocytes
#14
Cheng-Yu Lee, Wei Wen Kuo, Rathinasamy Baskaran, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Pei Ying Pai, Chao Hung Lai, Yu-Feng Chen, Ray-Jade Chen, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma, Chih Yang Huang
Defective Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, activated under various pathological conditions, can result in cardiac and vascular abnormalities. In the present study, the possible role of β-catenin over expression during cardiac hypertrophy was investigated. Ten samples from hearts of human patients with acute infarction, and granulation tissue from 20 patients and 10 from normal ones were collected in order to investigate roles of β-catenin in cardiac hypertrophy. H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells and Wistar rat primary neonatal cardiomyocytes were overexpressed with β-catenin...
July 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801532/activation-of-nkx2-5-calr-p53-signaling-pathway-by-hyperglycemia-induces-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-adult-zebrafish
#15
Sun Yanyi, Wang Qiuyun, Fang Yuehua, Wu Chunfang, Lu Guoping, Chen Zhenyue
Hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used in this study as a novel vertebrate model to explore the signaling pathways of human adult cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia was induced by alternately immersing adult zebrafish in a glucose solution or water. The hyperglycemic fish gradually exhibited some hallmarks of cardiomyopathy such as myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis, myofibril loss, fetal gene reactivation, and severe arrhythmia...
August 11, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799131/pulmonary-vascular-disease-in-a-failed-fontan-patient-with-down-s-syndrome
#16
Masaya Aoki, Keiichi Hirono, Tomonori Higuma, Yoko Suzuki, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Akio Yamashita, Kazuaki Fukahara, Fukiko Ichida, Noriaki Emoto, Naoki Yoshimura
It is well known that Down's syndrome is a strong risk factor for mortality after Fontan operations. We performed two lung biopsies in a Down's syndrome patient who underwent staged Fontan operations. The pathological findings revealed severe pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed the overexpression of endothelin and a decline in the eNOS level at the Fontan operation. Although the preoperative hemodynamic studies revealed that all of the criteria for Fontan had been fulfilled, the patient died of acute cardiac insufficiency, 35 days after the Fontan operation...
August 10, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798990/myocardial-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-imaging-in-hypertension-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#17
Riccardo Liga, Alessia Gimelli, Paolo Marzullo, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Matteo Cameli, Elisabetta Cerbai, Stefano Coiro, Michele Emdin, Rossella Marcucci, Doralisa Morrone, Alberto Palazzuoli, Anna Sonia Petronio, Ketty Savino, Luigi Padeletti, Roberto Pedrinelli
Sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in essential hypertension and in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, cardiac sympathetic dys-regulation has been demonstrated as a key con-causal factor in the genesis and progression of pathologic conditions such as congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease to which hypertension predisposes as a risk factor. However, despite its fundamental role in cardiac pathophysiology, the evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nervous system has never gained a wide clinical application, remaining mostly a research tool...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798534/a-case-of-spontaneous-purulent-granulomatous-pericarditis-in-a-beagle
#18
Kyohei Kamio, Yutaka Nakanishi, Kenta Matsue, Minoru Sasaki
The present report describes a case of spontaneous purulent granulomatous pericarditis in a 16-month-old beagle. A gross necropsy revealed pericardial effusion and multiple nodules on the surface of the heart and around the aorta adjacent to the heart. The cut surface of these nodules was solid and white in color, containing partially yellowish white regions. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation characterized by central necrotic cellular debris surrounded by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed in the epicardium...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797108/natural-disease-history-of-mouse-models-for-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-types-2d-and-2f
#19
S Pasteuning-Vuhman, K Putker, C L Tanganyika-de Winter, J W Boertje-van der Meulen, L van Vliet, M Overzier, J J Plomp, A Aartsma-Rus, M van Putten
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy types 2D and 2F (LGMD 2D and 2F) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the alpha- and delta sarcoglycan genes, respectively, leading to severe muscle weakness and degeneration. The cause of the disease has been well characterized and a number of animal models are available for pre-clinical studies to test potential therapeutic interventions. To facilitate transition from drug discovery to clinical trials, standardized procedures and natural disease history data were collected for these mouse models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796250/p53-mediated-mir-18-repression-activates-hsf2-for-igf-iir-dependent-myocyte-hypertrophy-in-hypertension-induced-heart-failure
#20
Chih-Yang Huang, Pei-Ying Pai, Chia-Hua Kuo, Tsung-Jung Ho, Jing-Ying Lin, Ding-Yu Lin, Fu-Jen Tsai, V Vijaya Padma, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated cardiac function are the major characteristics of early stage heart failure. Cardiomyocyte death in pathological cardiac conditions is the primary cause of heart failure and mortality. Our previous studies found that heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) protected cardiomyocytes from death by suppressing the IGF-IIR signaling pathway, which is critical for hypertensive angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the role of heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) in hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy is unknown...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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