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Cardiac embryology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226547/avian-embryonic-coronary-arterio-venous-pattering-involves-the-contribution-of-different-endothelial-and-endocardial-cell-populations
#1
Paul Palmquist-Gomes, Juan Antonio Guadix, José M Pérez-Pomares
BACKGROUND: Coronary vasculature irrigates the myocardium and is crucial to late embryonic and adult heart function. Despite the developmental significance and clinical relevance of these blood vessels, the embryonic origin and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate coronary arterio-venous patterning are not known in detail. In this study, we have used the avian embryo to dissect the ontogenetic origin and morphogenesis of coronary vasculature. RESULTS: We show that sinus venosus endocardial sprouts and proepicardial angioblasts pioneer coronary vascular formation, invading the developing heart simultaneously...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226042/direct-insertion-of-the-papillary-muscle-into-the-anterior-mitral-leaflet-cadaveric-findings
#2
Sarvenaz Sheikh, Joe Iwanaga, Jocelyn R Gonzales, Tsuyoshi Saga, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Direct insertion of the anterior papillary muscle (DPM) into the mitral valve is uncommon. During the routine dissection of an adult female, a DPM into the mitral valve with abnormal chordae tendinae was observed. This abnormal papillary muscle was measured as 28.0 mm in length from myocardial to insertion, 14.8 mm in width, and 7.0 mm in depth. The embryology, symptoms, associated cardiac diseases, and surgical precautions of this congenital malformation in the heart are reviewed.
October 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131765/comprehensive-cross-sectional-imaging-of-the-pulmonary-veins
#3
Cameron Hassani, Farhood Saremi
The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart, but their importance to the radiologist extends far beyond this seemingly straightforward function. The anatomy of the pulmonary veins is variable among patients, with several noteworthy variant and anomalous patterns, including supernumerary pulmonary veins, a common ostium, anomalous pulmonary venous return, and levoatriocardinal veins. Differences in pulmonary vein anatomy and the presence of variant or anomalous anatomy can be of critical importance, especially for preoperative planning of pulmonary and cardiac surgery...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082593/a-rare-mechanism-of-aortic-regurgitation-in-a-young-patient
#4
Ahmet Guner, Sabahattin Gunduz, Cagatay Onal, Taylan Akgun, Emrah Bayam, Ozkan Candan, Mehmet Ozkan
A 19-year-old male patient was admitted to our institute with dyspnea. His medical history had no rheumatic fever or infective endocarditis. Physical examination revealed a diastolic murmur over the aortic area, rales of bilateral lungs. Bedside transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a severe aortic regurgitation (AR) without aortic valve stenosis and a moderately dilated left ventricle accompanied by an ejection fraction of 55%. The aortic valve could not be clearly demonstrated as either bicuspid or tricuspid...
October 29, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024604/the-avian-embryo-as-a-model-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#5
Susan M Smith, George R Flentke
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a leading preventable cause of structural birth defects and permanent neurodevelopmental disability. The chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a powerful embryological research model and was possibly the first (Fere, 1895) in which alcohol's teratogenicity was demonstrated. Pharmacologically relevant alcohol exposures in the range of 20-70 mM (20-80 mg/egg) disrupt chick embryo growth, morphogenesis, and behavior, and the resulting phenotypes strongly parallel those of mammalian models...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983172/gerbode-defect-a-comprehensive-review-of-its-history-anatomy-embryology-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Erfanul Saker, Ghazal N Bahri, Michael J Montalbano, Jaspreet Johal, Rachel A Graham, Gabrielle G Tardieu, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
The purpose of this paper is to survey the literature on Gerbode defect and provide an overview of its history, anatomy, development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options. The available literature on this topic, including case reports, was thoroughly reviewed. Gerbode defect is defined as abnormal shunting between the left ventricle and right atrium resulting from either a congenital defect or prior cardiac insults. The pathophysiology underlying the development of Gerbode defect is a disease process that injures the atrioventricular septum and leads to the abnormal shunting of blood...
October 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957531/fibroblasts-and-the-extracellular-matrix-in-right-ventricular-disease
#7
Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Right ventricular failure predicts adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in subjects with left ventricular heart failure and is associated with interstitial fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular mechanisms implicated in right ventricular fibrosis. The right ventricular interstitium contains vascular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, enmeshed in a collagen-based matrix. Right ventricular pressure overload in PH is associated with the expansion of the fibroblast population, myofibroblast activation, and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins...
October 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743862/co-option-of-the-cardiac-transcription-factor-nkx2-5-during-development-of-the-emu-wing
#8
Peter G Farlie, Nadia M Davidson, Naomi L Baker, Mai Raabus, Kelly N Roeszler, Claire Hirst, Andrew Major, Mylene M Mariette, David M Lambert, Alicia Oshlack, Craig A Smith
The ratites are a distinctive clade of flightless birds, typified by the emu and ostrich that have acquired a range of unique anatomical characteristics since diverging from basal Aves at least 100 million years ago. The emu possesses a vestigial wing with a single digit and greatly reduced forelimb musculature. However, the embryological basis of wing reduction and other anatomical changes associated with loss of flight are unclear. Here we report a previously unknown co-option of the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721155/clinical-importance-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#9
Eszter Nagy, Adam L Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Pal Maurovich-Horvat
Different visceral fat compartments have several systemic effects and may play a role in the development of both insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In the last couple of years special attention has been paid to the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which can be quantified by non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques. The epicardial fat is a unique fat compartment between the myocardium and the visceral pericardium sharing a common embryologic origin with the visceral fat depot. Epicardial adipose tissue has several specific roles, and its local effects on cardiac function are incorporated in the complex pathomechanism of coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667553/properties-and-immune-function-of-cardiac-fibroblasts
#10
REVIEW
Milena B Furtado, Muneer Hasham
This chapter will discuss the role of cardiac fibroblasts as a target of various immunological inputs as well as an immunomodulatory hub of the heart through interaction with immune cell types and chemokine or cytokine signaling. While the purpose of this chapter is to explore the immunomodulatory properties of cardiac fibroblasts, it is important to note that cardiac fibroblasts are not a homogeneous cell type, but have a unique embryological origin and molecular identity. Specific properties of cardiac fibroblasts may influence the way they interact with the heart microenvironment to promote healthy homeostatic function or respond to pathological insults...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592182/perioperative-and-anesthetic-considerations-in-atrioventricular-septal-defect
#11
Faith J Ross, Viviane G Nasr, Denise Joffe, Gregory J Latham
Atrioventricular septal defect results from a failure of normal endocardial cushion fusion during embryologic cardiac development. This developmental aberration results in defects in the atrial and/or ventricular septum and malformation of the atrioventricular valves. The pathophysiology of atrioventricular septal defect is variable, and ranges from mild left to right shunting similar to a simple atrial septal defect to complex single-ventricle heart disease. This review focuses on the spectrum of atrioventricular septal defect from partial to complete, without associated cardiac defects...
September 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578204/pericytes-and-cardiac-stem-cells-common-features-and-peculiarities
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Paolo Madeddu
Clinical data and basic research indicate that the structural and functional alterations that characterize the evolution of cardiac disease towards heart failure may be, at least in part, reversed. This paradigm shift is due to the accumulation of evidence indicating that, in peculiar settings, cardiomyocytes may be replenished. Moving from the consideration that cardiomyocytes are rapidly withdrawn from the cell cycle after birth, independent laboratories have tested the hypothesis that cardiac resident stem/progenitor cells resided in mammalian hearts and were important for myocardial repair...
May 31, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457239/ebstein-anomaly
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Sherwin, Dominic J Abrams
Ebstein anomaly is a rare form of congenital heart disease with a uniquely high prevalence of arrhythmias. The most prevalent arrhythmia mechanisms are intrinsic to the underlying embryologic defects and may manifest at any stage. Current electrophysiological and surgical strategies are well equipped to address these arrhythmia mechanisms, yet despite available technology and a robust understanding of the mechanisms, these cases remain challenging. Surgical techniques that render arrhythmia substrates unreachable mandate comprehensive presurgical electrophysiological assessment and potential ablation...
June 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426026/generation-of-multipotent-induced-cardiac-progenitor-cells-from-mouse-fibroblasts-and-potency-testing-in-ex-vivo-mouse-embryos
#14
Pratik A Lalit, Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs, Timothy J Kamp
Here we describe a protocol to generate expandable and multipotent induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using forced expression of Mesp1, Tbx5, Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Baf60c (MTGNB) along with activation of Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling. This method does not use iPS cell factors and thus differs from cell activation and signaling-directed (CASD) reprogramming to cardiac progenitors. Our method is specific to direct CPC reprogramming, whereas CASD reprogramming can generate various cell types depending on culture conditions and raises the possibility of transitioning through a pluripotent cell state...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169191/stem-cell-technology-in-cardiac-regeneration-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-promise
#15
REVIEW
Robin Duelen, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Despite advances in cardiovascular biology and medical therapy, heart disorders are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cell-based regenerative therapies become a promising treatment for patients affected by heart failure, but also underline the need for reproducible results in preclinical and clinical studies for safety and efficacy. Enthusiasm has been tempered by poor engraftment, survival and differentiation of the injected adult stem cells. The crucial challenge is identification and selection of the most suitable stem cell type for cardiac regenerative medicine...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777537/giant-cardiac-lipoma-refined-hypothesis-proposes-invagination-from-extracardiac-to-intracardiac-sites
#16
W Gerald Rainer, David J Bailey, Harris W Hollis
Cardiac lipomas are rare and usually present as benign, encapsulated masses outside the heart; however, they can also be found within the atria. No single theory-including molecular genetic mutation-adequately explains why this occurs. Extensive career experience and broadened knowledge in embryology and cardiac physiology have helped us to develop a hypothesis based on invagination of extracardiac tumors. This report describes a vexing case of a giant right atrial lipoma, from 1985, in which the diagnosis was made incidentally during management of a patient's acute limb ischemia...
October 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736363/cardiac-mechanoperception-a-life-long-story-from-early-beats-to-aging-and-failure
#17
REVIEW
Maurizio Pesce, Elisa Messina, Isotta Chimenti, Antonio Paolo Beltrami
The life-long story of the heart starts concomitantly with primary differentiation events occurring in multipotent progenitors located in the so-called heart tube. This initially tubular structure starts a looping process, which leads to formation of the final four-chambered heart with a primary contribution of geometric and position-associated cell sensing. While this establishes the correct patterning of the final cardiac structure, it also provides feedbacks to fundamental cellular machineries controlling proliferation and differentiation, thus ensuring a coordinated restriction of cell growth and a myocyte terminal differentiation...
January 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722015/a-rare-case-of-persistent-jugulocephalic-vein-and-its-clinical-implication
#18
Prakashchandra Shetty, Satheesha B Nayak, Rajesh Thangarajan, Melanie Rose D'Souza
Persistence of jugulocephalic vein is one of the extremely rare variations of the cephalic vein. Knowledge of such a variation is of utmost importance to orthopedic surgeons while treating the fractures of the clavicle, head and neck surgeons, during surgery of the lower part of neck, for cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists during catheterization and cardiac device placement. We report the persistent jugulocephalic vein in an adult male cadaver, observed during the routine dissection classes. The right cephalic vein ascended upwards, superficial to the lateral part of the clavicle and terminated into the external jugular vein...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600472/nkx2-5-carp-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-ion-channel-remodeling-induced-by-rapid-pacing-in-rat-atrial-myocytes
#19
Wei Wang, Yun Zhu, Jianguang Yi, Wei Cheng
Remodeling of atrial electrophysiology and structure is the primary feature of atrial fibrillation (AF). Evidence suggests that abnormalities in the expression levels of embryological cardiovascular development‑associated transcription factors, including Nkx2.5, are crucial for the development of AF. Rat atrial myocardial cells (AMCs) in culture dishes were placed in an electric field and stimulated. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastucture prior to and following rapid pacing...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591383/iatrogenic-ventricular-septal-defect-a-rare-complication-of-surgical-reconstruction-of-mitral-paravalvular-dehiscence
#20
Aref Rashed, Karoly Gombocz, Janos Fulop, Nasri Alotti
INTRODUCTION: Iatrogenic ventricular septal defect is a rare complication after the surgical replacement of cardiac valves. Small defects may have no hemodynamic significance or remain unremarked at the end of the surgical procedure. Understanding of the valvular anatomy alone is not always enough to avoid such complications, especially in the hands of young surgeons. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of iatrogenic ventricular septal defect that developed early after the surgical closure of a hemodynamically significant mitral paravalvular leak...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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