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Cardiac embryology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721155/clinical-importance-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#1
Eszter Nagy, Adam L Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Pal Maurovich-Horvat
Different visceral fat compartments have several systemic effects and may play a role in the development of both insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In the last couple of years special attention has been paid to the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which can be quantified by non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques. The epicardial fat is a unique fat compartment between the myocardium and the visceral pericardium sharing a common embryologic origin with the visceral fat depot. Epicardial adipose tissue has several specific roles, and its local effects on cardiac function are incorporated in the complex pathomechanism of coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667553/properties-and-immune-function-of-cardiac-fibroblasts
#2
Milena B Furtado, Muneer Hasham
This chapter will discuss the role of cardiac fibroblasts as a target of various immunological inputs as well as an immunomodulatory hub of the heart through interaction with immune cell types and chemokine or cytokine signaling. While the purpose of this chapter is to explore the immunomodulatory properties of cardiac fibroblasts, it is important to note that cardiac fibroblasts are not a homogeneous cell type, but have a unique embryological origin and molecular identity. Specific properties of cardiac fibroblasts may influence the way they interact with the heart microenvironment to promote healthy homeostatic function or respond to pathological insults...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592182/perioperative-and-anesthetic-considerations-in-atrioventricular-septal-defect
#3
Faith J Ross, Viviane G Nasr, Denise Joffe, Gregory J Latham
Atrioventricular septal defect results from a failure of normal endocardial cushion fusion during embryologic cardiac development. This developmental aberration results in defects in the atrial and/or ventricular septum and malformation of the atrioventricular valves. The pathophysiology of atrioventricular septal defect is variable, and ranges from mild left to right shunting similar to a simple atrial septal defect to complex single-ventricle heart disease. This review focuses on the spectrum of atrioventricular septal defect from partial to complete, without associated cardiac defects...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578204/pericytes-and-cardiac-stem-cells-common-features-and-peculiarities
#4
REVIEW
Antonio Paolo Beltrami, Paolo Madeddu
Clinical data and basic research indicate that the structural and functional alterations that characterize the evolution of cardiac disease towards heart failure may be, at least in part, reversed. This paradigm shift is due to the accumulation of evidence indicating that, in peculiar settings, cardiomyocytes may be replenished. Moving from the consideration that cardiomyocytes are rapidly withdrawn from the cell cycle after birth, independent laboratories have tested the hypothesis that cardiac resident stem/progenitor cells resided in mammalian hearts and were important for myocardial repair...
May 31, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457239/ebstein-anomaly
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Sherwin, Dominic J Abrams
Ebstein anomaly is a rare form of congenital heart disease with a uniquely high prevalence of arrhythmias. The most prevalent arrhythmia mechanisms are intrinsic to the underlying embryologic defects and may manifest at any stage. Current electrophysiological and surgical strategies are well equipped to address these arrhythmia mechanisms, yet despite available technology and a robust understanding of the mechanisms, these cases remain challenging. Surgical techniques that render arrhythmia substrates unreachable mandate comprehensive presurgical electrophysiological assessment and potential ablation...
June 2017: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426026/generation-of-multipotent-induced-cardiac-progenitor-cells-from-mouse-fibroblasts-and-potency-testing-in-ex-vivo-mouse-embryos
#6
Pratik A Lalit, Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs, Timothy J Kamp
Here we describe a protocol to generate expandable and multipotent induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using forced expression of Mesp1, Tbx5, Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Baf60c (MTGNB) along with activation of Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling. This method does not use iPS cell factors and thus differs from cell activation and signaling-directed (CASD) reprogramming to cardiac progenitors. Our method is specific to direct CPC reprogramming, whereas CASD reprogramming can generate various cell types depending on culture conditions and raises the possibility of transitioning through a pluripotent cell state...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169191/stem-cell-technology-in-cardiac-regeneration-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-promise
#7
REVIEW
Robin Duelen, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Despite advances in cardiovascular biology and medical therapy, heart disorders are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cell-based regenerative therapies become a promising treatment for patients affected by heart failure, but also underline the need for reproducible results in preclinical and clinical studies for safety and efficacy. Enthusiasm has been tempered by poor engraftment, survival and differentiation of the injected adult stem cells. The crucial challenge is identification and selection of the most suitable stem cell type for cardiac regenerative medicine...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777537/giant-cardiac-lipoma-refined-hypothesis-proposes-invagination-from-extracardiac-to-intracardiac-sites
#8
W Gerald Rainer, David J Bailey, Harris W Hollis
Cardiac lipomas are rare and usually present as benign, encapsulated masses outside the heart; however, they can also be found within the atria. No single theory-including molecular genetic mutation-adequately explains why this occurs. Extensive career experience and broadened knowledge in embryology and cardiac physiology have helped us to develop a hypothesis based on invagination of extracardiac tumors. This report describes a vexing case of a giant right atrial lipoma, from 1985, in which the diagnosis was made incidentally during management of a patient's acute limb ischemia...
October 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736363/cardiac-mechanoperception-a-life-long-story-from-early-beats-to-aging-and-failure
#9
Maurizio Pesce, Elisa Messina, Isotta Chimenti, Antonio Paolo Beltrami
The life-long story of the heart starts concomitantly with primary differentiation events occurring in multipotent progenitors located in the so-called heart tube. This initially tubular structure starts a looping process, which leads to formation of the final four-chambered heart with a primary contribution of geometric and position-associated cell sensing. While this establishes the correct patterning of the final cardiac structure, it also provides feedbacks to fundamental cellular machineries controlling proliferation and differentiation, thus ensuring a coordinated restriction of cell growth and a myocyte terminal differentiation...
January 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722015/a-rare-case-of-persistent-jugulocephalic-vein-and-its-clinical-implication
#10
Prakashchandra Shetty, Satheesha B Nayak, Rajesh Thangarajan, Melanie Rose D'Souza
Persistence of jugulocephalic vein is one of the extremely rare variations of the cephalic vein. Knowledge of such a variation is of utmost importance to orthopedic surgeons while treating the fractures of the clavicle, head and neck surgeons, during surgery of the lower part of neck, for cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists during catheterization and cardiac device placement. We report the persistent jugulocephalic vein in an adult male cadaver, observed during the routine dissection classes. The right cephalic vein ascended upwards, superficial to the lateral part of the clavicle and terminated into the external jugular vein...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600472/nkx2-5-carp-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-ion-channel-remodeling-induced-by-rapid-pacing-in-rat-atrial-myocytes
#11
Wei Wang, Yun Zhu, Jianguang Yi, Wei Cheng
Remodeling of atrial electrophysiology and structure is the primary feature of atrial fibrillation (AF). Evidence suggests that abnormalities in the expression levels of embryological cardiovascular developmentā€‘associated transcription factors, including Nkx2.5, are crucial for the development of AF. Rat atrial myocardial cells (AMCs) in culture dishes were placed in an electric field and stimulated. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastucture prior to and following rapid pacing...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591383/iatrogenic-ventricular-septal-defect-a-rare-complication-of-surgical-reconstruction-of-mitral-paravalvular-dehiscence
#12
Aref Rashed, Karoly Gombocz, Janos Fulop, Nasri Alotti
INTRODUCTION: Iatrogenic ventricular septal defect is a rare complication after the surgical replacement of cardiac valves. Small defects may have no hemodynamic significance or remain unremarked at the end of the surgical procedure. Understanding of the valvular anatomy alone is not always enough to avoid such complications, especially in the hands of young surgeons. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of iatrogenic ventricular septal defect that developed early after the surgical closure of a hemodynamically significant mitral paravalvular leak...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587491/development-and-morphology-of-the-ventricular-outflow-tracts
#13
REVIEW
Robert H Anderson, Shumpei Mori, Diane E Spicer, Nigel A Brown, Timothy J Mohun
It is customary, at the current time, to consider many, if not most, of the lesions involving the ventricular outflow tract in terms of conotruncal malformations. This reflects the introduction, in the early 1940s, of the terms conus and truncus to describe the components of the developing outflow tract. The definitive outflow tracts in the postnatal heart, however, possess three, rather than two, components. These are the intrapericardial arterial trunks, the arterial roots, and the subvalvar ventricular outflow tracts...
September 2016: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547469/the-presence-of-a-large-chiari-network-in-a-patient-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-stroke
#14
Nneka Schwimmer-Okike, Johannes Niebuhr, Grit Gesine Ruth Schramek, Stefan Frantz, Heike Kielstein
The Chiari network is an embryological remnant found in the right atrium, mostly without any significant pathophysiological consequences. However, several cardiac associations are reported in the literature including supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. We present a case of a 96-year-old body donor with a stroke episode and intermittent atrial fibrillations. The dissection of the heart revealed the presence of an immense Chiari network with a large central thrombus. The role of a Chiari network in the pathogenesis of stroke and pulmonary embolism is discussed...
2016: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541719/cardiac-embryology-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-primer-for-anesthesiologists
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin Kloesel, James A DiNardo, Simon C Body
Congenital heart disease is diagnosed in 0.4% to 5% of live births and presents unique challenges to the pediatric anesthesiologist. Furthermore, advances in surgical management have led to improved survival of those patients, and many adult anesthesiologists now frequently take care of adolescents and adults who have previously undergone surgery to correct or palliate congenital heart lesions. Knowledge of abnormal heart development on the molecular and genetic level extends and improves the anesthesiologist's understanding of congenital heart disease...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403288/differences-in-left-versus-right-ventricular-electrophysiological-properties-in-cardiac-dysfunction-and-arrhythmogenesis
#16
Cristina E Molina, Jordi Heijman, Dobromir Dobrev
A wide range of ion channels, transporters, signaling pathways and tissue structure at a microscopic and macroscopic scale regulate the electrophysiological activity of the heart. Each region of the heart has optimised these properties based on its specific role during the cardiac cycle, leading to well-established differences in electrophysiology, Ca(2+) handling and tissue structure between atria and ventricles and between different layers of the ventricular wall. Similarly, the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) have different embryological, structural, metabolic and electrophysiological features, but whether interventricular differences promote differential remodeling leading to arrhythmias is not well understood...
May 2016: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385961/cytogenomic-aberrations-in-congenital-cardiovascular-malformations
#17
REVIEW
Mahshid Azamian, Seema R Lalani
Congenital cardiovascular malformations are the most common birth defects, with a complex multifactorial etiology. Genetic factors play an important role, illuminated by numerous cytogenetically visible abnormalities, as well as submicroscopic genomic imbalances affecting critical genomic regions in the affected individuals. Study of rare families with Mendelian forms, as well as emerging next-generation sequencing technologies have uncovered a multitude of genes relevant for human congenital cardiac diseases...
May 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358682/coronary-artery-anomalies-overview-the-normal-and-the-abnormal
#18
REVIEW
Adriana Dm Villa, Eva Sammut, Arjun Nair, Ronak Rajani, Rodolfo Bonamini, Amedeo Chiribiri
The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and concise overview of coronary embryology and normal coronary anatomy, describe common variants of normal and summarize typical patterns of anomalous coronary artery anatomy. Extensive iconography supports the text, with particular attention to images obtained in vivo using non-invasive imaging. We have divided this article into three groups, according to their frequency in the general population: Normal, normal variant and anomaly. Although congenital coronary artery anomalies are relatively uncommon, they are the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes and therefore warrant detailed review...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323879/the-embryological-basis-of-subclinical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Gabriella Captur, Carolyn Y Ho, Saskia Schlossarek, Janet Kerwin, Mariana Mirabel, Robert Wilson, Stefania Rosmini, Chinwe Obianyo, Patricia Reant, Paul Bassett, Andrew C Cook, Susan Lindsay, William J McKenna, Kevin Mills, Perry M Elliott, Timothy J Mohun, Lucie Carrier, James C Moon
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins, the commonest being MYBPC3 encoding myosin-binding protein C. It is characterised by left ventricular hypertrophy but there is an important pre-hypertrophic phenotype with features including crypts, abnormal mitral leaflets and trabeculae. We investigated these during mouse cardiac development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy. In embryonic hearts from wildtype, homozygous (HO) and heterozygous (HET) Mybpc3-targeted knock-out (KO) mice we show that crypts (one or two) are a normal part of wildtype development but they almost all resolve by birth...
June 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195176/quadricuspid-aortic-valve-a-rare-congenital-cause-of-aortic-insufficiency
#20
Rahul Vasudev, Priyank Shah, Mahesh Bikkina, Fayez Shamoon
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly causing aortic regurgitation usually in the fifth to sixth decade of life. Earlier, the diagnosis was mostly during postmortem or intraoperative, but now with the advent of better imaging techniques such as transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, more cases are being diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. We present a case of a 39-year-old male who was found to have QAV, with the help of TEE, while undergoing evaluation for a diastolic murmur...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
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