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Jun Yang, Wenjing Huang, Wenfu Tan
The major obstacle limiting the efficacy of current Smoothened (Smo) inhibitors is the primary and acquired resistance mainly caused by Smo mutations and Gli amplification. In this context, developing Hh inhibitors targeting Gli, the final effector of this signaling pathway, may combat the resistance. In this study we found that solasonine, a natural glycoalkaloid compound, significantly inhibited the hedgehog (Hh) pathway activity. Meanwhile, solasonine may obviously inhibit the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in C3H10T1/2 cells, concomitantly with reductions of the mRNA expression of Gli1 and Ptch1...
October 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bin Pan, Weifeng Zhong, Zhihai Deng, Caiyong Lai, Jing Chu, Genlong Jiao, Junfeng Liu, Qizhao Zhou
Solanine, a naturally steroidal glycoalkaloid in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of solanine-suppressing prostate cancer cell growth remains to be elucidated. This study investigates the inhibition mechanism of solanine on cancer development in vivo and in cultured human prostate cancer cell DU145 in vitro. Results show that solanine injection significantly suppresses the tumor cell growth in xenograft athymic nude mice...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Yan Qiao, Jinjin Zhang, Jinwen Zhang, Zhiwei Wang, An Ran, Haixia Guo, Di Wang, Junlian Zhang
Light is a major environmental factor that affects metabolic pathways and stimulates the production of secondary metabolites in potato. However, adaptive changes in potato metabolic pathways and physiological functions triggered by light are partly explained by gene expression changes. Regulation of secondary metabolic pathways in potato has been extensively studied at transcriptional level, but little is known about the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs. To identify light-responsive miRNAs/mRNAs and construct putative metabolism pathways regulated by the miRNA-mRNA pairs, an integrated omics (sRNAome and transcriptome) analysis was performed to potato under light stimulus...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Peng Han, Zhi-Jian Wang, Anne-Violette Lavoir, Thomas Michel, Aurélie Seassau, Wen-Yan Zheng, Chang-Ying Niu, Nicolas Desneux
Variation in resource inputs to plants may trigger bottom-up effects on herbivorous insects. We examined the effects of water input: optimal water vs. limited water; water salinity: with vs. without addition of 100 mM NaCl; and their interactions on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum), and consequently, the bottom-up effects on the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meytick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Plant growth was significantly impeded by limited water input and NaCl addition. In terms of leaf chemical defense, the production of tomatidine significantly increased with limited water and NaCl addition, and a similar but non-significant trend was observed for the other glycoalkaloids...
2016: Scientific Reports
F Lelario, C Labella, G Napolitano, L Scrano, S A Bufo
RATIONALE: Glycoalkaloids play a key role in the plant protection system against phytopathogens including fungi, viruses, bacteria, insects and worms. They can be toxic to humans if consumed in high concentrations causing gastrointestinal disturbances. METHODS: The structural characterization of the major spirosolane glycoalkaloids, solasonine, solamargine, α-tomatine and dehydrotomatine, were investigated by positive electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with a hybrid linear ion trap (LIT) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer...
November 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Lei Wang, Qian-Qian Sun, Shi-Jie Zhang, Yu-Wen Du, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wen-Qiao Zang, Xiao-Nan Chen, Guo-Qiang Zhao
α-solanine, a bioactive component and one of the major steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes, has been observed to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine against human esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated. It was determined that α-solanine inhibited the growth and proliferation of human esophageal EC9706 and Eca109 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the cell migration and invasion...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yuanyuan Wang, Jianbo Wu, Wei Guo, Qianqian Sun, Xiaonan Chen, Wenqiao Zang, Ziming Dong, Guoqiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Due to difficulties with performing the operation, most patients choose to have palliative treatment instead. Radiotherapy is one of the main palliative treatments of EC. However, the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy is not satisfactory α-Solanine is a bioactive component of steroidal glycoalkaloids which has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-metastasis activity in different cancers. In the present study, we determined the effect of α-solanine on the radiosensitivity of EC cells and priliminarily explored the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Dan Li, Yun-Li Zhao, Xu-Jie Qin, Lu Liu, Xing-Wei Yang, Ying-Ying Chen, Bei Wang, Xin Wei, Ya-Ping Liu, Xiao-Dong Luo
Three new C27-steroidal glycoalkaloids, spiralosides A-C (1-3), were obtained from the total alkaloids of Solanum spirale by chromatographic methods. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, spiralosides A-C were elucidated as (22R,25S)-22,26-epiminocholest-5-ene-3β,16α-diol-N-acetyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1), (22R,25S)-22,26-epiminocholest-5-ene-3β,16α-diol-N-acetyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2), (22R,25S)-22,26-epiminocholest-3β,16α-diol-N-acetyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (3), respectively...
August 2016: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
Naoyuki Umemoto, Masaru Nakayasu, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Masaharu Mizutani, Hikaru Seki, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka
α-Solanine and α-chaconine, steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) found in potato (Solanum tuberosum), are among the best-known secondary metabolites in food crops. At low concentrations in potato tubers, SGAs are distasteful; however, at high concentrations, SGAs are harmful to humans and animals. Here, we show that POTATO GLYCOALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS1 (PGA1) and PGA2, two genes that encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP72A208 and CYP72A188), are involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway, respectively. The knockdown plants of either PGA1 or PGA2 contained very little SGA, yet vegetative growth and tuber production were not affected...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
Visvanathan Rizliya, Jayathilake Chatuni, Jayawardana Barana, Ruvini Liyanage
Potatoes have shown promising health promoting properties in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies including antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. Compounds present such as the phenolics, fiber, starch, and proteins as well the compounds considered antinutritional such as glycoalkaloids, lectins and proteinase inhibitors are believed to contribute to the health benefits of potatoes. However, epidemiologic studies exploring the role of potatoes in human health have been inconclusive...
June 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Svetlana Baldina, Maurizio E Picarella, Antonio D Troise, Anna Pucci, Valentino Ruggieri, Rosalia Ferracane, Amalia Barone, Vincenzo Fogliano, Andrea Mazzucato
Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emanuela Ventrella, Zbigniew Adamski, Ewa Chudzińska, Mariola Miądowicz-Kobielska, Paweł Marciniak, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel, Meltem Erdem, Patrizia Falabella, Laura Scrano, Sabino Aurelio Bufo
Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation...
2016: PloS One
Pavan Kumar, Erandi Vargas Ortiz, Etzel Garrido, Katja Poveda, Georg Jander
Plants mediate interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores. Although effects of root herbivory on foliar herbivores have been documented in several plant species, interactions between tuber-feeding herbivores and foliar herbivores are rarely investigated. We report that localized tuber damage by Tecia solanivora (Guatemalan tuber moth) larvae reduced aboveground Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) performance on Solanum tuberosum (potato). Conversely, S...
September 2016: Oecologia
Anoma Chandrasekara, Thamilini Josheph Kumar
Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects...
2016: International journal of food science
Chonprakun Thagun, Shunsuke Imanishi, Toru Kudo, Ryo Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Tetsuya Mori, Koichi Kawamoto, Yukino Nakamura, Minami Katayama, Satoko Nonaka, Chiaki Matsukura, Kentaro Yano, Hiroshi Ezura, Kazuki Saito, Takashi Hashimoto, Tsubasa Shoji
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived specialized metabolites produced in species of the Solanaceae. Here, we report that a group of jasmonate-responsive transcription factors of the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF) family (JREs) are close homologs of alkaloid regulators in Cathranthus roseus and tobacco, and regulate production of SGAs in tomato. In transgenic tomato, overexpression and dominant suppression of JRE genes caused drastic changes in SGA accumulation and in the expression of genes for metabolic enzymes involved in the multistep pathway leading to SGA biosynthesis, including the upstream mevalonate pathway...
May 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Laura Toppino, Lorenzo Barchi, Roberto Lo Scalzo, Eristanna Palazzolo, Gianluca Francese, Marta Fibiani, Antonietta D'Alessandro, Vincenza Papa, Vito A Laudicina, Leo Sabatino, Laura Pulcini, Tea Sala, Nazzareno Acciarri, Ezio Portis, Sergio Lanteri, Giuseppe Mennella, Giuseppe L Rotino
Eggplant berries are a source of health-promoting metabolites including antioxidant and nutraceutical compounds, mainly anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid; however, they also contain some anti-nutritional compounds such as steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) and saponins, which are responsible for the bitter taste of the flesh and with potential toxic effects on humans. Up to now, Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the metabolic content are far from being characterized in eggplant, thus hampering the application of breeding programs aimed at improving its fruit quality...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Szymon Chowański, Zbigniew Adamski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel, Patrizia Falabella, Laura Scrano, Emanuela Ventrella, Filomena Lelario, Sabino A Bufo
Only a small percentage of insect species are pests. However, pest species cause significant losses in agricultural and forest crops, and many are vectors of diseases. Currently, many scientists are focused on developing new tools to control insect populations, including secondary plant metabolites, e.g., alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, terpenoids, organic acids and alcohols, which show promise for use in plant protection. These compounds can affect insects at all levels of biological organization, but their action generally disturbs cellular and physiological processes, e...
March 2016: Toxins
Ji-Sun Shin, Kyoung-Goo Lee, Hwi-Ho Lee, Hae Jun Lee, Hyo-Jin An, Jung-Hwan Nam, Dae Sik Jang, Kyung-Tae Lee
α-Solanine, a trisaccharide glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α-solanine isolated from "Jayoung" a dark purple-fleshed potato by examining its in vitro inhibitory effects on inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and its in vivo effects on LPS-induced septic shock in a mouse model. α-Solanine suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 both at protein and mRNA levels and consequently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in LPS-induced RAW 264...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sana S Al Sinani, Elsadig A Eltayeb, Brenda L Coomber, Sirin A Adham
BACKGROUND: Previous reports showed that the Steroidal Glycoalkaloid Solamargine inhibited proliferation of non-melanoma skin cancer cells. However, Solamargine was not tested systematically on different types of melanoma cells and was not simultaneously tested on normal cells either. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of Solamargine and the mechanism involved in inhibiting the growth of different types of melanoma cells. METHODS: Solamargine effect was tested on normal cells and on another three melanoma cell lines...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Pablo D Cárdenas, Prashant D Sonawane, Jacob Pollier, Robin Vanden Bossche, Veena Dewangan, Efrat Weithorn, Lior Tal, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Sergey Malitsky, Ashok P Giri, Alain Goossens, Saul Burdman, Asaph Aharoni
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived molecules produced by solanaceous species. They contribute to pathogen defence but are toxic to humans and considered as anti-nutritional compounds. Here we show that GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM 9 (GAME9), an APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor, related to regulators of alkaloid production in tobacco and Catharanthus roseus, controls SGA biosynthesis. GAME9 knockdown and overexpression in tomato and potato alters expression of SGAs and upstream mevalonate pathway genes including the cholesterol biosynthesis gene STEROL SIDE CHAIN REDUCTASE 2 (SSR2)...
2016: Nature Communications
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