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Prashant D Sonawane, Uwe Heinig, Sayantan Panda, Netta Segal Gilboa, Meital Yona, S Pradeep Kumar, Noam Alkan, Tamar Unger, Samuel Bocobza, Margarita Pliner, Sergey Malitsky, Maria Tkachev, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Thousands of specialized, steroidal metabolites are found in a wide spectrum of plants. These include the steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), produced primarily by most species of the genus Solanum , and metabolites belonging to the steroidal saponins class that are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. SGAs play a protective role in plants and have potent activity in mammals, including antinutritional effects in humans. The presence or absence of the double bond at the C-5,6 position (unsaturated and saturated, respectively) creates vast structural diversity within this metabolite class and determines the degree of SGA toxicity...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Erandi Vargas-Ortiz, Itay Gonda, John R Smeda, Martha A Mutschler, James J Giovannoni, Georg Jander
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), the most economically important insect pest on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), also feeds on other Solanaceae, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We used tomato genetic mapping populations to investigate natural variation in CPB resistance. CPB bioassays with 74 tomato lines carrying introgressions of Solanum pennellii in S. lycopersicum cv. M82 identified introgressions from S. pennellii on chromosomes 1 and 6 conferring CPB susceptibility, whereas introgressions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 10 conferred higher resistance...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masaru Nakayasu, Ryota Akiyama, Hyoung Jae Lee, Keishi Osakabe, Yuriko Osakabe, Bunta Watanabe, Yukihiro Sugimoto, Naoyuki Umemoto, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Masaharu Mizutani
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major food crop, while the most tissues of potato accumulates steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) α-solanine and α-chaconine. Since SGAs confer a bitter taste on human and show the toxicity against various organisms, reducing the SGA content in the tubers is requisite for potato breeding. However, generation of SGA-free potato has not been achieved yet, although silencing of several SGA biosynthetic genes led a decrease in SGAs. Here, we show that the knockout of St16DOX encoding a steroid 16α-hydroxylase in SGA biosynthesis causes the complete abolition of the SGA accumulation in potato hairy roots...
April 24, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Hassan Rahnama, Amir Bahram Moradi, Seyed Hamid Mirrokni, Foad Moradi, Mohammad Reza Shams, Mohammad Hossein Fotokian
In this study, the compositions of transgenic potatoes (TPs) resistant to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) were compared with those of its non-transgenic (NTP) counterparts. The light inducible promoter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase led to the expression of Cry1Ab only in the leaves and light-treated tubers of the TPs. No significant differences were found in the moisture, ash, dry weight, total soluble protein, carbohydrate, starch, fiber, ascorbate, cations, anions, fatty acids, and glycoalkaloids contents of TP and NTP...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
M M Slot, C C M van de Wiel, G A Kleter, R G F Visser, E J Kok
Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
Cui-Cui Wang, Lan-Huan Meng, Ying Gao, Donald Grierson, Da-Qi Fu
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are cholesterol-derived specialized metabolites produced by Solanaceous plant species. They contribute to pathogen defense but are considered as anti-nutritional compounds and toxic to humans. Although the genes involved in the SGA biosynthetic pathway have been successfully cloned and identified, transcription factors regulating this pathway are still poorly understood. We report that silencing tomato light signal transduction transcription factors ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 ( SlHY5 ) and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 ( SlPIF3 ), by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), altered glycoalkaloids levels in tomato leaves compared to control plant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michael S Crossley, Sean D Schoville, Darrin M Haagenson, Shelley H Jansky
Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious global pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Management of L. decemlineata has relied heavily on insecticides, but repeated evolution of insecticide resistance has motivated the exploration and development of alternative strategies, such as plant resistance. The recent development of two diploid potato families derived from crosses between cultivated and wild potato species (S. chacoense and S. berthaultii) has provided a unique opportunity to reexamine plant traits for resistance breeding...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Robert A Moreau, Laura Nyström, Bruce D Whitaker, Jill K Winkler-Moser, David J Baer, Sarah K Gebauer, Kevin B Hicks
Phytosterols (plant sterols) occur in the cells of all plants. They are important structural components that stabilize the biological membranes of plants. Sterols can occur in the "free" unbound form or they can be covalently bound via an ester or glycosidic bond. Since our previous 2002 review on phytosterols and phytosterol conjugates, phytosterol glucosides have been found to be important structural components in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane of plant cells, where they are thought to be essential to the function of plasma membrane enzymes and perhaps other proteins...
April 5, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Masaru Nakayasu, Naoki Shioya, Masahito Shikata, Chonprakun Thagun, Ayman Abdelkareem, Yoshihiro Okabe, Tohru Ariizumi, Gen-Ichiro Arimura, Masaharu Mizutani, Hiroshi Ezura, Takashi Hashimoto, Tsubasa Shoji
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are specialized anti-nutritional metabolites that accumulate in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). A series of SGA biosynthetic genes are known to be up-regulated in Solanaceae species by jasmonate-responsive Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors, including JRE4 (otherwise known as GAME9), but exact regulatory significance in planta of each factor has remained unaddressed. Here, via TILLING-based screening of an EMS-mutagenized tomato population, we isolated a JRE4 loss-of-function line that carries an amino acid residue missense change in a region of the protein important for DNA binding...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Muhammad A Alsherbiny, Shymaa A El Badawy, Hesham Elbedewy, Shahira M Ezzat, Fatma S Elsakhawy, Mostafa A Abdel-Kawy
Schistosomiasis is the most noteworthy parasitic disease after malaria. Furthermore, the significant activity of the genus Solanum against Schistosoma worms and its intermediate host snails reinforced the study of Solanum seaforthianum Andr. (SS) and Solanum macrocarpon L. (SM) for their molluscicidal and schistosomicidal potentiality. In this study, different extracts, fractions and isolated compounds of both Solanum species are evaluated for the molluscicidal and schistosomicidal potentialities. The niclosamide was used as positive molluscicide control against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Research
Bo Yuan, David Byrnes, Daniel Giurleo, Thomas Villani, James E Simon, Qingli Wu
African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Mattia P Arena, Coen Govers, Concetta Lotti, Luigi Ricciardi, Harry J Wichers, Jurriaan J Mes
More understanding of the risk-benefit effect of the glycoalkaloid tomatine is required to be able to estimate the role it might play in our diet. In this work, we focused on effects towards intestinal epithelial cells based on a Caco-2 model in order to analyze the influence on the cell monolayer integrity and on the expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol/sterol biosynthesis (LDLR), lipid metabolism (NR2F2), glucose and amino acid uptake (SGLT1, PAT1), cell cycle (PCNA, CDKN1A), apoptosis (CASP-3, BMF, KLF6), tight junctions (CLDN4, OCLN2) and cytokine-mediated signaling (IL-8, IL1β, TSLP, TNF-α)...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Courtney P Leisner, John P Hamilton, Emily Crisovan, Norma C Manrique-Carpintero, Alexandre P Marand, Linsey Newton, Gina M Pham, Jiming Jiang, David S Douches, Shelley H Jansky, C Robin Buell
Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp...
May 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Onno W Calf, Heidrun Huber, Janny L Peters, Alexander Weinhold, Nicole M van Dam
In natural environments, plants have to deal with a wide range of different herbivores whose communities vary in time and space. It is believed that the chemical diversity within plant species has mainly arisen from selection pressures exerted by herbivores. So far, the effects of chemical diversity on plant resistance have mostly been assessed for arthropod herbivores. However, also gastropods, such as slugs, can cause extensive damage to plants. Here we investigate to what extent individual Solanum dulcamara plants differ in their resistance to slug herbivory and whether this variation can be explained by differences in secondary metabolites...
January 30, 2018: Oecologia
Guangtao Zhu, Shouchuang Wang, Zejun Huang, Shuaibin Zhang, Qinggang Liao, Chunzhi Zhang, Tao Lin, Mao Qin, Meng Peng, Chenkun Yang, Xue Cao, Xu Han, Xiaoxuan Wang, Esther van der Knaap, Zhonghua Zhang, Xia Cui, Harry Klee, Alisdair R Fernie, Jie Luo, Sanwen Huang
Humans heavily rely on dozens of domesticated plant species that have been further improved through intensive breeding. To evaluate how breeding changed the tomato fruit metabolome, we have generated and analyzed a dataset encompassing genomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes from hundreds of tomato genotypes. The combined results illustrate how breeding globally altered fruit metabolite content. Selection for alleles of genes associated with larger fruits altered metabolite profiles as a consequence of linkage with nearby genes...
January 11, 2018: Cell
Cui-Cui Wang, Maria Sulli, Da-Qi Fu
Glycoalkaloids are toxic compounds that are synthesized by many Solanum species. Glycoalkaloid biosynthesis is influenced by plant genetic and environmental conditions. Although many studies have shown that light is an important factor affecting glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, the specific mechanism is currently unknown. Chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis depend on light signal transduction and share some intermediate metabolites with the glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway. Here, we used virus-induced gene silencing to silence genes encoding phytoene desaturase (PDS) and magnesium chelatase (CHLI and CHLH) to reduce chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in eggplant leaves...
2017: PloS One
Adriana Ordóñez-Vásquez, Lorenza Jaramillo-Gómez, Camilo Duran-Correa, Erandi Escamilla-García, Myriam Angélica De la Garza-Ramos, Fernando Suárez-Obando
Αlpha-solanine ( α -solanine) is a glycoalkaloid present in potato (Solanum tuberosum) . It has been of particular interest because of its toxicity and potential teratogenic effects that include abnormalities of the central nervous system, such as exencephaly, encephalocele, and anophthalmia. Various types of cell culture have been used as experimental models to determine the effect of α -solanine on cell physiology. The morphological changes in the mesenchymal stem cell upon exposure to α -solanine have not been established...
2017: Bone Marrow Research
Xun Wang, Shuang Zou, Yu-Long Lan, Jin-Shan Xing, Xiao-Qiang Lan, Bo Zhang
The global burden of malignant glioma is expected to increase and new therapy approaches are urgently required. Solasonine is a natural glycoalkaloid compound that has been used in cancer treatment for many years; however the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we seek to explore the potential roles of solasonine in glioma that could add to the development of newer therapeutic approaches for the treatment of malignant glioma. Cell proliferation of glioma cells was determined by MTT assay, and the biological functions of solasonine were investigated by migration, colony formation, apoptosis assays and cell cycle analysis in glioma cells...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Mahmoud Bagheri, Ali Akbar Shahnejat Bushehri, Mohammad Reza Hassandokht, Mohammad Reza Naghavi
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. The eggplant glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that may have detrimental effects on human health, particularly if the magnitudes of GAs are higher than the recommended food safety level (200 mg per kg of fresh mass). In this study, the content of solasonine compound and the expression patterns of solasodine galactosyltransferase (SGT1) gene were assessed in different tissues (mature leaves, flower buds, young, mature, and physiologically ripe fruits) of two Iranian eggplant genotypes (D1 and J10) under field conditions...
June 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Y L Elaine Wong, Xiangfeng Chen, Ri Wu, Y L Winnie Hung, T-W Dominic Chan
Characterizing the structures of glycoconjungates is important because of glycan heterogeneity and structural complexity of aglycon. The presence of relatively weak glycosidic linkages leads to preferential cleavages that limit the acquisition of structural information under typical mass spectrometry dissociation conditions, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and infrared multiphoton dissociation. In this paper, we explored the dissociation behaviors of different members of glycoconjugates, including glycopeptides, glycoalkaloids, and glycolipids, under electron-induced dissociation (EID) conditions...
September 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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