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Athletic nutrition

Débora Finger, Fábio Juner Lanferdini, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Clarissa Müller Brusco, Lucas Helal, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Ronei Silveira Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. METHODS: , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60...
March 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Monica Taylor, Elizabeth F Nagle, Fredric L Goss, Elaine N Rubinstein, Andrew Simonson
Monitoring an athlete's energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) is an important consideration of nutritional planning for sport conditioning and peak performance. In order to provide appropriate recommendations regarding nutritional requirements and caloric needs, an accurate determination of energy requirements is necessary. By knowing an individual's EE, a coach, athletic performance staff or trainer can effectively determine training loads and volumes necessary for periodization and seasonal planning for a particular sport...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Abdelaziz M Hussein, Mohamed Adel, Mohamed El-Mesery, Khaled M Abbas, Amr N Ali, Osama A Abulseoud
l-Carnitine is a unique nutritional supplement for athletes that has been recently studied as a potential treatment for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its efficacy in seizure control has not been investigated. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either saline (Sal) (negative control) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 40 mg/kg i.p. × 3 times/week × 3 weeks. The PTZ group was further subdivided into two groups, the first received oral l-carnitine (l-Car) (100 mg/kg/day × 4 weeks) (PTZ + l-Car), while the second group received saline (PTZ + Sal)...
March 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Diego Moreno-Pérez, Carlo Bressa, María Bailén, Safa Hamed-Bousdar, Fernando Naclerio, Manuel Carmona, Margarita Pérez, Rocío González-Soltero, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Claudia Carabaña, Mar Larrosa
Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate) ( n = 12) or maltodextrin (control) ( n = 12) for 10 weeks...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Kenji Kuzuhara, Kanako Katai, Tatsuya Hojo, Yoshihiko Fujisawa, Misaka Kimura, Yasuyoshi Yanagida, Yosuke Yamada, Junta Iguchi
Well-controlled seasonal distribution of training intensity appears to be an important variable for endurance athletes' success as competitors and/or for avoidance of overtraining. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships of training distribution, body composition, energy intake/expenditure, and rowing ergometer performance throughout the 2012-2013 season. In the present study of 15 collegiate male rowers, most of whom started rowing during their time at the university, we divided the 2012-2013 season (total 37 weeks) into 3 phases (off-season, December to mid-March, 16 weeks; pre-season, late March to April, 5 weeks; and in-season, May to August, 16 weeks) and analyzed the transition of 2000-m rowing ergometer time, training intensity/volume, body composition (body weight and body fat) and energy intake/expenditure in each phase...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Catherine Coccia, Stephanie Mihaly Fernandes, Julinar Altiti
The main objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a social media-based nutrition intervention using Twitter on nutrition knowledge, dietary practices, body mass index, self-efficacy, and social support among student-athletes. Participants included 50 male and female NCAA Division I student-athletes between the ages of 18-24 years old. Data were collected in October 2014. The study design employed a six-week, social media intervention using Twitter©, to increase nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, social support and dietary adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Abdullah F Alghannam, Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3-6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
Peter Peeling, Martyn J Binnie, Paul S R Goods, Marc Sim, Louise M Burke
A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Amelia J Carr, Avish P Sharma, Megan L Ross, Marijke Welvaert, Gary J Slater, Louise M Burke
Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃- ) and lactate (La- ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
Indrė Lapinskienė, Gabija Mikulevičienė, Gabija Laubner, Robertas Badaras
Refeeding syndrome, as a life-threatening condition, is well known among severely malnourished or deeply metabolically stressed patients. This case presents an atypical manifestation of the syndrome to a young bodybuilder, whose extreme diet, including 5 months of insufficient nourishment before the sport competition and 6 days of carbohydrates overload afterwards, has led him to a bilateral lower - limb paralysis and drastic homeostatic disturbances. Severe hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia and hyperglycemia with mildly elevated liver enzymes have occurred...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
François D Desgorces, Christophe Moinard, Mounir Chennaoui, Jean-François Toussaint, Cyril Petibois, Philippe Noirez
Fasted or weight-category athletes manage their training under strict diet conditions that could impair the stress-recovery balance and result in acute or chronic fatigue. However, to date, no validated biomarker are available to quantify this phenomena. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a specific index combining plasma albumin and weight change to detect nutrition-related risks of fatigue increase and under-performance in athletes experiencing particular nutritional conditions. An athlete's nutrition risk index (ANRI) equation, based on data from lightweight and heavyweight rowers, was developed using relationship between plasma albumin concentrations combined to weight changes with sport performance and overtraining scores and was tested by odds ratio for failure...
June 2017: Biochimie open
Joanne G Mirtschin, Sara F Forbes, Louise E Cato, Ida A Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, Louise M Burke
We describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions (HCHO); a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low CHO and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake, and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF). 7-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
John R Luksch, Philip B Collins
When athletic performance begins to deteriorate, it is important to identify possible underlying etiologies to explain such a phenomenon. Causes include inadequate nutrition, improper training habits, infection, and hematologic or endocrine diseases. In athletes, a thorough investigation of potentially reversible underlying medical conditions may be warranted when there are noted disruptions in training, competition, and recovery. Thyroid disorders should be considered in athletes in whom such a condition is suspected...
February 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Leigh Perreault, Sean A Newsom, Allison Strauss, Anna Kerege, Darcy E Kahn, Kathleen A Harrison, Janet K Snell-Bergeon, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean, Bryan C Bergman
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and sphingolipids is thought to promote skeletal muscle insulin resistance by altering cellular signaling specific to their location. However,the subcellular localization of bioactive lipids in human skeletal muscle is largely unknown. METHODS: We evaluated subcellular localization of skeletal muscle DAGs and sphingolipids in lean individuals (n = 15), endurance-trained athletes (n = 16), and obese men and women with (n = 12) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 15)...
February 8, 2018: JCI Insight
C D Jensen, D Gleason, J M VanNess
This study analyzed the changes in athletic performance and anthropometric characteristics in collegiate male club rugby athletes (n=14) following a four-week winter break. All measurements were collected prior to and after the break. Body composition was assessed by body mass index and hydrostatic weighing. Performance measurements were: VO2 max, vertical jump, 10-yard sprint, squat max, and bench press max. Prior to testing, each subject was acclimated to the protocols to reduce learning effects. During the four-week break, no workouts were provided for the athletes; it was unsupervised and unstructured...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
P W Winwood, M K Dudson, D Wilson, J K H Mclaren-Harrison, V Redjkins, H J Pritchard, J W L Keogh
This study provides the first empirical evidence of how strongman athletes taper for strongman competitions. Strongman athletes (n=454) (mean ±SD: 33.2 ±8.0y, 178.1 ±10.6cm, 108.6 ±27.9kg, 12.6 ±8.9y general resistance training, 5.3 ±5.0y strongman implement training) completed a self-reported 4-page internet survey on tapering practices. Analysis by gender (male and female), age (≤ 30 and >30y), body mass (≤ 105 and >105kg) and competitive standard (local/regional amateur, national amateur and professional) was conducted...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony J Anzalone, Stephanie M Turner
Even in the presence of underreporting, sports-related concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are on the rise. In the absence of proper diagnosis, an athlete may return to play prior to full recovery, increasing the risk of second-impact syndrome or protracted symptoms. Recent evidence has demonstrated that sub-concussive impacts, those sustained routinely in practice and competition, result in a quantifiable pathophysiological response and the accumulation of both concussive and sub-concussive impacts sustained over a lifetime of sports participation may lead to long-term neurological impairments and an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
Candice Colbey, Amanda J Cox, David B Pyne, Ping Zhang, Allan W Cripps, Nicholas P West
Upper respiratory symptoms remain the most common illness in athletes. Upper respiratory symptoms during heavy training and competition may impair performance. Preventing illness is the primary reason for the use of supplements, such as probiotics and prebiotics, for maintaining or promoting gut health and immune function. While exercise-induced perturbations in the immune system may increase susceptibility to illness and infection, growing evidence indicates that upper respiratory symptoms are related to a breakdown in the homeostatic regulation of the mucosal immune system of the airways...
January 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
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