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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231607/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225422/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-structural-heart-disease-primary-and-preventive-care-review
#2
Tiberio Frisoli, Michele Doughty Voeltz
Reproductive-aged women with structural heart disease who become pregnant as well as postreproductive-aged women with this condition represent a significant proportion of patients seen by obstetrician- gynecologists. Usually, their conditions are complex, and a basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the heart is required. Additionally, understanding the effect of pregnancy on women with structural heart disease is critically important to optimizing maternal and fetal outcomes. This monograph addresses the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, basic management, and suggested counseling for an obstetric-gynecologic patient with structural heart disease...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214921/vitamin-d-administration-during-pregnancy-as-prevention-for-pregnancy-neonatal-and-postnatal-complications
#3
REVIEW
Carol L Wagner, Bruce W Hollis, Kalliopi Kotsa, Hana Fakhoury, Spyridon N Karras
Pregnancy represents a time of rapid bodily change, which includes physical proportions, physiology and responsibility. At this context, maternal vitamin D stores have been the objective of extensive scientific research during the last decades, focusing on their potential effects on maternal an neonatal health. A growing body of observational studies indicated that maternal hypovitaminosis D (as defined by maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/l) is a significant risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes including asthma, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders...
February 18, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212156/impact-of-very-low-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-on-pregnancy-success
#4
Alberto Pacheco, María Cruz, Juan A García-Velasco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are useful tool to help clinicians to estimate the chances of pregnancy of an infertile couple prior to assisted reproductive treatment. One proposed candidate is anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), but its role as a predictor of reproductive success, especially in patients with low or very low levels, is under discussion. This review highlights recent findings from literature regarding to reproductive outcome in women with very low levels of AMH. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is a general agreement about the lower pregnancy rates of patients with very low levels of AMH compared with patients with normal AMH levels, the role of AMH as a predictor of success is still under discussion...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196405/psychosocial-interventions-for-supporting-women-to-stop-smoking-in-pregnancy
#5
REVIEW
Catherine Chamberlain, Alison O'Mara-Eves, Jessie Porter, Tim Coleman, Susan M Perlen, James Thomas, Joanne E McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, and has serious long-term implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries, but is strongly associated with poverty and is increasing in low- to middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and perinatal health outcomes...
February 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191905/st-elevation-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-pregnancy-2016-update
#6
REVIEW
Sahar Ismail, Cynthia Wong, Priya Rajan, Mladen I Vidovich
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during pregnancy or the early postpartum period is rare, but can be devastating for both the mother and the fetus. There have been major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes in the general population, but there is little consensus on the approach to diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women. This article reviews the literature relating to the pathophysiology of AMI in pregnant patients and the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in this unique population...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187507/diagnostic-genetic-screening-for-assisted-reproductive-technologies-patients-with-macrozoospermia
#7
V Carmignac, J-M Dupont, R C Fierro, J Barberet, C Bruno, N Lieury, E Dulioust, J Auger, P Fauque
Macrozoospermia is characterized by a high proportion of abnormal spermatozoa with enlarged heads. So far, it has been associated with mutations only in the Aurora Kinase C gene (AURKC) in some cases. Although many publications have reported failure to conceive in couples with macrozoospermia, a few others have described successful pregnancies, thus raising questions as to whether ICSI and AURKC genetic screening should be recommended in all patients with macrozoospermia. First, we report on two monozygotic twins presenting macrozoospermia for whom the genetic status was explored (Aurora Kinase C sequencing) and whole semen and gradient-selected spermatozoa were analyzed, using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH), Electron Microscopy and flow cytometry...
February 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176333/selective-versus-routine-use-of-episiotomy-for-vaginal-birth
#8
REVIEW
Hong Jiang, Xu Qian, Guillermo Carroli, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Some clinicians believe that routine episiotomy, a surgical cut of the vagina and perineum, will prevent serious tears during childbirth. On the other hand, an episiotomy guarantees perineal trauma and sutures. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on mother and baby of a policy of selective episiotomy ('only if needed') compared with a policy of routine episiotomy ('part of routine management') for vaginal births. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (14 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
February 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176221/pegvisomant-in-acromegaly-an-update
#9
REVIEW
A Giustina, G Arnaldi, F Bogazzi, S Cannavò, A Colao, L De Marinis, E De Menis, E Degli Uberti, F Giorgino, S Grottoli, A G Lania, P Maffei, R Pivonello, E Ghigo
BACKGROUND: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety. AIM: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. RESULTS: The clinical use of PEG is still suboptimal, considering that it remains the most powerful tool to control IGF-I in acromegaly allowing to obtain, with a pharmacological treatment, the most important clinical effects in terms of signs and symptoms, quality of life and comorbidities...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157275/continuous-cardiotocography-ctg-as-a-form-of-electronic-fetal-monitoring-efm-for-fetal-assessment-during-labour
#10
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Declan Devane, Gillian Ml Gyte, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records changes in the fetal heart rate and their temporal relationship to uterine contractions. The aim is to identify babies who may be short of oxygen (hypoxic) to guide additional assessments of fetal wellbeing, or determine if the baby needs to be delivered by caesarean section or instrumental vaginal birth. This is an update of a review previously published in 2013, 2006 and 2001. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of continuous cardiotocography when used as a method to monitor fetal wellbeing during labour...
February 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125772/cardiotocography-versus-intermittent-auscultation-of-fetal-heart-on-admission-to-labour-ward-for-assessment-of-fetal-wellbeing
#11
REVIEW
Declan Devane, Joan G Lalor, Sean Daly, William McGuire, Anna Cuthbert, Valerie Smith
BACKGROUND: The admission cardiotocograph (CTG) is a commonly used screening test consisting of a short (usually 20 minutes) recording of the fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine activity performed on the mother's admission to the labour ward. This is an update of a review published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of admission cardiotocography with intermittent auscultation of the FHR on maternal and infant outcomes for pregnant women without risk factors on their admission to the labour ward...
January 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122315/intrauterine-insemination-no-more-mr-n-i-c-e-guy
#12
Minna E Geisler, Mark Ledwidge, Margaret Bermingham, Mary McAuliffe, Moya B McMenamin, John J Waterstone
OBJECTIVE: To determine the per cycle chance of a live birth and to identify factors that may support a more individualised application of IUI in view of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) updated guideline on fertility 2013. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, cohort study of 851 couples (1688 cycles) with unexplained, mild endometriosis, one patent Fallopian tube (with ovulation occurring in the corresponding ovary), mild male factor or ovulatory dysfunction, who initiated their first cycle of IUI/COH during the study period 2009-2013 and completed up to 3 cycles...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116566/an-integrated-soft-computing-approach-to-hughes-syndrome-risk-assessment
#13
João Vilhena, M Rosário Martins, Henrique Vicente, José M Grañeda, Filomena Caldeira, Rodrigo Gusmão, João Neves, José Neves
The AntiPhospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder induced by high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies that cause arterial and veins thrombosis, as well as pregnancy-related complications and morbidity, as clinical manifestations. This autoimmune hypercoagulable state, usually known as Hughes syndrome, has severe consequences for the patients, being one of the main causes of thrombotic disorders and death. Therefore, it is required to be preventive; being aware of how probable is to have that kind of syndrome...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115464/management-of-endocrine-disease-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-update-in-management-of-adult-patients-and-prenatal-treatment
#14
Anne Bachelot, Virginie Grouthier, Carine Courtillot, Jerome Dulon, Philippe Touraine
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is characterized by cortisol and in some cases aldosterone deficiency associated with androgen excess. Goals of treatment are to replace deficient hormones and control androgen excess, while avoiding the adverse effects of exogenous glucocorticoid (GC). Over the last 5 years, cohorts of adults with CAH due to 21hydroxylase deficiency from Europe and the United States have been described, allowing us to have a better knowledge of long-term complications of the disease and its treatment...
January 23, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111738/interventions-for-the-prevention-of-ohss-in-art-cycles-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#15
REVIEW
Selma Mourad, Julie Brown, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles is a treatment-induced disease that has an estimated prevalence of 20% to 33% in its mild form and 3% to 8% in its moderate or severe form. These numbers might even be higher for high-risk women such as those with polycystic ovaries or a high oocyte yield from ovum pickup. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this overview is to identify and summarise all evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on interventions for prevention or treatment of moderate, severe and overall OHSS in couples with subfertility who are undergoing ART cycles...
January 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097362/folic-acid-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#16
Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Karina W Davidson, John W Epling, Francisco A R García, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, William R Phillips, Maureen G Phipps, Michael P Pignone, Michael Silverstein, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Neural tube defects are among the most common major congenital anomalies in the United States and may lead to a range of disabilities or death. Daily folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period can prevent neural tube defects. However, most women do not receive the recommended daily intake of folate from diet alone. Objective: To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on folic acid supplementation in women of childbearing age...
10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093720/septum-resection-for-women-of-reproductive-age-with-a-septate-uterus
#17
REVIEW
Judith Fw Rikken, Claudia R Kowalik, Mark H Emanuel, Ben Willem J Mol, Fulco Van der Veen, Madelon van Wely, Mariëtte Goddijn
BACKGROUND: Women with a septate uterus are at increased risk for subfertility, recurrent miscarriage, and preterm birth. Restoration of the anatomy of the uterus by hysteroscopic septum resection is an established intervention. This treatment has been assessed mainly in retrospective cohort studies, which suggested a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. The major flaw in these studies is the before/after design, which will always favour the tested intervention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether hysteroscopic septum resection in women of reproductive age with a septate uterus improves live birth rates and to assess the safety of this procedure...
January 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086874/new-developments-in-anti-malarial-target-candidate-and-product-profiles
#18
REVIEW
Jeremy N Burrows, Stephan Duparc, Winston E Gutteridge, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Wiweka Kaszubska, Fiona Macintyre, Sébastien Mazzuri, Jörg J Möhrle, Timothy N C Wells
A decade of discovery and development of new anti-malarial medicines has led to a renewed focus on malaria elimination and eradication. Changes in the way new anti-malarial drugs are discovered and developed have led to a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of new molecules presently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. The twin challenges faced can be summarized by multi-drug resistant malaria from the Greater Mekong Sub-region, and the need to provide simplified medicines. This review lists changes in anti-malarial target candidate and target product profiles over the last 4 years...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063544/the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#19
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056690/2016-guidelines-of-the-american-thyroid-association-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-thyroid-disease-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum
#20
Erik K Alexander, Elizabeth N Pearce, Gregory A Brent, Rosalind S Brown, Herbert Chen, Chrysoula Dosiou, William Grobman, Peter Laurberg, John H Lazarus, Susan J Mandel, Robin Peeters, Scott Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception and the postpartum period...
January 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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