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In utero

Ilaria Cavazzana, Laura Andreoli, Maarteen Limper, Franco Franceschini, Angela Tincani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on new clinical aspects of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathogenesis of APS is related to endothelial activation by mechanisms other than autoantibody-mediated massive coagulation. These include Toll-like receptors, the m-TORC pathway, and neutrophil activation, inducing an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade. Given these new pathogenetic hypotheses, the treatment of APS could be directed towards a fine balance between anticoagulation and immunomodulation...
March 15, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Nisha K Duggal, Erin M McDonald, Jana M Ritter, Aaron C Brault
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that can cause ZIKV congenital syndrome when a pregnant woman is infected. Sexual transmission has also been described for ZIKV, though the relationship between sexual transmission and vertical transmission has not been investigated. Here, viral dissemination to the female reproductive tract and fetuses was assessed in immunodeficient (AG129) female mice that were exposed to ZIKV by subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation, intravaginal (ivag.) inoculation, or sexual transmission from infected male AG129 mice...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Riikola M, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BACKGROUND: Meconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors. METHODS: We recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Edward W Pietryk, Kiristin Clement, Marwa Elnagheeb, Ryan Kuster, Kayla Kilpatrick, Michael I Love, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
In utero exposure to vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, is linked to multigenerational phenotypic and epigenetic effects. Mechanisms remain unclear. We assessed the role of antiandrogenic activity and DNA sequence context by comparing effects of VIN vs. M2 (metabolite with greater antiandrogenic activity) and wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice vs. mice carrying mutations at the previously reported VIN-responsive H19/Igf2 locus. First generation offspring from VIN-treated 8nrCG mutant dams exhibited increased body weight and decreased sperm ICR methylation...
March 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
B Lisowska-Myjak, E Skarżyńska, M Bakun
Intrauterine environmental factors can be associated with perinatal complications and long-term health outcomes although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Meconium formed exclusively in utero and passed naturally by a neonate may contain proteins which characterise the intrauterine environment. The aim of the study was proteomic analysis of the composition of meconium proteins and their classification by biological function. Proteomic techniques combining isoelectrofocussing fractionation and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to study the protein composition of a meconium sample obtained by pooling 50 serial meconium portions from 10 healthy full-term neonates...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Mert Ozan Bahtiyar, Emre Ekmekci, Emine Demirel, Roxanna A Irani, Joshua A Copel
Monochorionic twin pregnancies are at risk of unique complications due to placental sharing and vascular connections between placental territories assigned for each twin. Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is an infrequent but potentially dangerous complication of abnormal placental vascular connections. TAPS occurs due to very-small-caliber (< 1 mm) abnormal placental vascular connections which lead to chronic anemia in the donor twin and polycythemia in the recipient twin. TAPS may occur spontaneously or following fetoscopic laser photocoagulation of communicating placental vessels for twin-twin transfusion syndrome...
March 13, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Fabian Kording, Jin Yamamura, Manuela Tavares de Sousa, Christian Ruprecht, Erik Hedström, Anthony H Aletras, P Ellen Grant, Andrew J Powell, Kai Fehrs, Gerhard Adam, Hendrik Kooijman, Bjoern P Schoennagel
BACKGROUND: Fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging may provide a valuable adjunct to fetal echocardiography in the evaluation of congenital cardiovascular pathologies. However, dynamic fetal CMR is difficult due to the lack of direct in-utero cardiac gating. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a newly developed Doppler ultrasound (DUS) device in humans for fetal CMR gating. METHODS: Fifteen fetuses (gestational age 30-39 weeks) were examined using 1...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tim S Nawrot, Nelly D Saenen, Julie Schenk, Bram G Janssen, Valeria Motta, Letizia Tarantini, Bianca Cox, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Cristina Maggioni, Valentina Bollati
In mammals, a central clock maintains the daily rhythm in accordance with the external environment. At the molecular level, the circadian rhythm is maintained by epigenetic regulation of the Circadian pathway. Here, we tested the role of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) exposure during gestational life on human placental Circadian pathway methylation, as an important molecular target for healthy development. In 407 newborns, we quantified placental methylation of CpG sites within the promoter regions of the following genes: CLOCK, BMAL1, NPAS2, CRY1-2 and PER1-3 using bisulfite-PCR-pyrosequencing...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
Lucía Paniagua-González, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Elena Lendoiro, Marta Concheiro, Angelines Cruz, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is associated with obstetric and fetal complications. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) in placenta (PL) and umbilical cord (UC). Specimens were homogenized in water, followed by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using an Atlantis® HILIC Silica column. Detection was accomplished in electrospray in positive mode. Method validation included: linearity (5 to 1000 ng/g), accuracy (86...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Dezhen Wang, Jin Yan, Miaomiao Teng, Sen Yan, Zhiqiang Zhou, Wentao Zhu
In this study, we investigated the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to BDE-47 on the progression of obesity and metabolic dysfunction in a diet-induced obesity model. Pregnant ICR mice were treated via oral gavage with low doses of BDE-47 (0, 0.002, and 0.2 mg/kg body weight) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day 21. After weaning, male offspring were fed an AIN93-based normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD: 60% calories from fat) for 14 weeks. We examined body weight, liver weight, histopathology, blood biochemistry, gene expression, and serum metabolic changes...
March 9, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Bircan Erbas, Toril Mørkve Knudsen, Christer Janson, Roy M Nilsen, Simone Accordini, Bryndis Benediktdottir, Julia Dratva, Joachim Heinrich, Debbie Jarvis, Benedcite Leynaert, Melanie C Matheson, Dan Norbäck, Francisco G Real, Chantal Raherison-Semjen, Simona Villani, S C Dharmage, C Svanes
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive knowledge of smoking effects on respiratory disease, there is no study including all age windows of exposure among ever smokers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects from smoking exposure in utero, early childhood, adolescence and adulthood on respiratory health outcomes in adult male and female ever smokers. METHODS: Respiratory health outcomes were assessed in 10,610 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I who reported a history of ever smoking by questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Osman Savran, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
Background: Early life events may predispose to the development of chronic lung disease in adulthood. Aim: To provide an update on current knowledge of early nongenetic origins of COPD. Materials and methods: Systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results: A total of 16 studies, comprising 69,365 individuals, met the predefined criteria and were included in the present review...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Leah T Stiemsma, Karin B Michels
Although the prominent role of the microbiome in human health has been established, the early-life microbiome is now being recognized as a major influence on long-term human health and development. Variations in the composition and functional potential of the early-life microbiome are the result of lifestyle factors, such as mode of birth, breastfeeding, diet, and antibiotic usage. In addition, variations in the composition of the early-life microbiome have been associated with specific disease outcomes, such as asthma, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Shuai Li, Ee Ming Wong, Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Allan F McRae, Eunae Kim, Ji-Hoon Eric Joo, Tuong L Nguyen, Jennifer Stone, Gillian S Dite, Nicola J Armstrong, Karen A Mather, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Margaret J Wright, David Ames, Roger L Milne, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Grant W Montgomery, Yun-Mi Song, Joohon Sung, Timothy D Spector, Perminder S Sachdev, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper
Background: Investigating the genetic and environmental causes of variation in genome-wide average DNA methylation (GWAM), a global methylation measure from the HumanMethylation450 array, might give a better understanding of genetic and environmental influences on methylation. Methods: We measured GWAM for 2299 individuals aged 0 to 90 years from seven twin and/or family studies. We estimated familial correlations, modelled correlations with cohabitation history and fitted variance components models for GWAM...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jason N Moore, Marc R Gastonguay, Chee M Ng, Susan C Adeniyi-Jones, David E Moody, Wenfang B Fang, Michelle E Ehrlich, Walter K Kraft
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a condition affecting newborns that are exposed to an opioid in utero. In a randomized, controlled trial assessing the efficacy of buprenorphine and morphine in NAS, blood samples were analyzed from a subset of patients receiving buprenorphine along with NAS scores. The data were used to validate and adapt an existing model of buprenorphine in neonates and to identify relationships between buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy or safety. The time to NAS stabilization was found to decrease with increasing buprenorphine exposure...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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