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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778808/maternal-treatment-with-a-placental-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-impacts-offspring-cardiovascular-function-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-hypoxia
#1
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Raven Kirschenman, Tom Phillips, C Patrick Case, Christy-Lynn M Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction, a common consequence of prenatal hypoxia, is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. Hypoxia may increase placental oxidative stress and lead to an abnormal release of placental-derived factors, which are emerging as potential contributors to developmental programming. Nanoparticle-linked drugs are emerging as a novel method to deliver therapeutics targeted to the placenta and avoid risking direct exposure to the fetus...
May 17, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777730/understanding-facial-expressivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-inside-out-review-of-the-biological-basis-and-clinical-implications
#2
REVIEW
Stephen I Deutsch, C Teal Raffaele
Deficits in decoding and understanding facially expressed emotions occur commonly in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which contribute to the impairment of social communication that serves as one of its core diagnostic criteria. Research suggests that abnormalities of visual scanning of the face, activation of key nodes within the "social brain" by facially expressed emotions, functional connectivity within and between nodes of the "social brain", and transduction of specific neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory signals contribute to the pathogenesis of these deficits in at least some persons with ASD...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777227/in-utero-exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-and-adiposity-does-breastfeeding-make-a-difference
#3
L L Hui, A M Li, E A S Nelson, G M Leung, S L Lee, C M Schooling
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Short-term breastfeeding from mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) may programme metabolism and increase offspring diabetes risk. We examined the association of in utero GDM exposure with adiposity from infancy to adolescence, and whether any association was modified by breastfeeding during early infancy. METHODS: In the prospective Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" (n = 7342, 88% follow-up rate), generalised estimate equations with multiple imputation were used to assess associations of in utero GDM exposure with age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score during infancy (3 and 9 months), childhood (2- < 8 years) and adolescence (8-16 years), adjusted for sex, parity, maternal age, birth place, preeclampisa, smoking, and family socio-economic position...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777026/endosomal-tlr3-tlr7-and-tlr8-control-neuronal-morphology-through-different-transcriptional-programs
#4
Yun-Fen Hung, Chiung-Ya Chen, Yi-Chun Shih, Hsin-Yu Liu, Chiao-Ming Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Neuroinflammation is associated with diverse neurological disorders. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 cell-autonomously regulate neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which these three TLRs affect neuronal morphology are unclear. In this study, we compare these TLRs in mouse neurons. By combining in vitro neuronal cultures, in utero electroporation, and transcriptomic profiling, we show that TLR8, TLR7, and TLR3 promote dendritic pruning via MYD88 signaling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774106/hematopoietic-restricted-ptpn11e76k-reveals-indolent-mpn-progression-in-mice
#5
Stefan P Tarnawsky, Wen-Mei Yu, Cheng-Kui Qu, Rebecca J Chan, Mervin C Yoder
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) is a pediatric myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that has a poor prognosis. Somatic mutations in Ptpn11 are the most frequent cause of JMML and they commonly occur in utero . Animal models of mutant Ptpn11 have probed the signaling pathways that contribute to JMML. However, existing models may inappropriately exacerbate MPN features by relying on non-hematopoietic-restricted Cre-loxP strains or transplantations into irradiated recipients. In this study we generate hematopoietic-restricted models of Ptpn11E76K-mediated disease using Csf1r-MCM and Flt3Cre...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#6
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773754/a-critical-neurodevelopmental-role-for-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-neurite-extension-and-radial-migration
#7
Satoshi Kamijo, Yuichiro Ishii, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Kanzo Suzuki, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Hajime Fujii, Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Haruhiko Bito
In spite of many association studies linking gene polymorphisms and mutations of L-type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels (VGCC) in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, specific L-type VGCC roles during brain development remain unclear. Yet, calcium signaling has been shown to be essential for neurodevelopmental processes such as sculpting of neurites, functional wiring and fine tuning of growing networks. To bridge this gap, we performed submembraneous calcium imaging using a membrane-tethered genetically-encoded calcium indicator (GECI) Lck-G-CaMP7...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773464/sex-and-gender-differences-in-developmental-programming-of-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Laura Dearden, Sebastien G Bouret, Susan E Ozanne
BACKGROUND: The early life environment experienced by an individual in utero and during the neonatal period is a major factor in shaping later life disease risk-including susceptibility to develop obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of metabolic disease is different between males and females. How the early life environment may underlie these sex differences is an area of active investigation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the early life environment influences metabolic disease risk in a sex specific manner...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#9
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770996/prenatal-diagnosis-of-holoprosencephaly
#10
Youssef A Kousa, Adré J du Plessis, Gilbert Vezina
Holoprosencephaly is a spectrum of congenital defects of forebrain development characterized by incomplete separation of the cerebral hemispheres. In vivo diagnosis can be established with prenatal brain imaging and disease severity correlates with extent of abnormally developed brain tissue. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the past 25 years and their application to the fetus have enabled diagnosis of holoprosencephaly in utero. Here, we report on the prenatal diagnosis of holoprosencephaly using MRI as part of a diagnostic and management evaluation at a tertiary and quaternary referral center...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770992/holoprosencephaly-in-the-genomics-era
#11
Erich Roessler, Ping Hu, Maximilian Muenke
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the direct consequence of specific genetic and/or environmental insults interrupting the midline specification of the nascent forebrain. Such disturbances can lead to a broad range of phenotypic consequences for the brain and face in humans. This malformation sequence is remarkably common in utero (1 in 250 human fetuses), but 97% typically do not survive to birth. The precise molecular pathogenesis of HPE in these early human embryos remains largely unknown. Here, we outline our current understanding of the principal driving factors leading to HPE pathologies and elaborate our multifactorial integrated genomics approach...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769570/in-utero-and-postnatal-exposure-to-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-suppressed-testis-apoptosis-and-reduced-sperm-count
#12
Jiude Mao, Kathleen A Pennington, Omonseigho O Talton, Laura C Schulz, Miriam Sutovsky, Yan Lin, Peter Sutovsky
Obesity affects male fertility and maternal diabetes affects the offspring sperm epigenome. However, the effects of in utero exposure to maternal glucose intolerance in combination with postnatal high fat, high sucrose (HFHS) diet consumption on offspring spermatogenesis is not clear. The present study was designed to test these effects. One week before and during pregnancy, dams were fed either control or HFHS diet to induce gestational glucose intolerance, and returned to standard diet during lactation. Male offspring from each maternal group were split into control and HFHS-fed groups for eight weeks prior to sacrifice at 11, 19 or 31 weeks of age, and reproductive tissues were harvested for analysis of testicular germ cell apoptosis and sperm output...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768979/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticle-is-comparatively-safer-than-zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-which-can-cause-profound-steroidogenic-effects-on-pregnant-mice-and-male-offspring-exposed-in-utero
#13
Nisha Bara, M Eshwarmoorthy, Kesavan Subaharan, Gautam Kaul
The increasing use of nanomaterials has naturally caused heightened concerns about their potential risks to human and animal health. We investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) on steroidogenesis in the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnant mice and testis of male offspring. Pregnant albino mice were exposed to ZnO NPs and MSN for 2 days on alternate days, gestation days 15-19. Hepatic injury marker enzymes increased in the higher concentration of NM-exposed mother mice, but histological examination revealed no changes in the placenta of pregnant mice, whereas testis of male offspring showed gross pathological changes...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767700/effects-of-iodized-salt-and-iodine-supplements-on-prenatal-and-postnatal-growth-a-systematic-review
#14
Jessica Farebrother, Celeste E Naude, Liesl Nicol, Zhongna Sang, Zhenyu Yang, Pieter L Jooste, Maria Andersson, Michael B Zimmermann
Hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency can impair physical development, most visibly in the marked stunting of myxedematous cretinism caused by severe in utero iodine deficiency. Whether iodine repletion improves growth in noncretinous children is uncertain. Therefore, the aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of iodine fortification or supplementation on prenatal and postnatal growth outcomes in noncretinous children. Following Cochrane methods and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) reporting guidelines, we searched 10 databases including 2 Chinese databases (latest search February 2017)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765597/cancer-cell-transmission-via-the-placenta
#15
REVIEW
Mel Greaves, William Hughes
Cancer cells have a parasitic propensity in the primary host but their capacity to transit between individuals is severely restrained by two factors: a lack of a route for viable cell transfer and immune recognition in allogeneic, secondary recipients. Several examples of transmissible animal cancers are now recognised. In humans, the only natural route for transmission is via the haemochorial placenta which is permissive for cell traffic. There are three special examples of this occurring in utero : maternal to foetus, intraplacental twin to twin leukaemias and choriocarcinoma-extra-embryonic cells to mother...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765129/intrauterine-smoke-exposure-deregulates-lung-function-pulmonary-transcriptomes-and-in-particular-insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-1-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#16
Stefan Dehmel, Petra Nathan, Sabine Bartel, Natalia El-Merhie, Hagen Scherb, Katrin Milger, Gerrit John-Schuster, Ali Oender Yildirim, Machteld Hylkema, Martin Irmler, Johannes Beckers, Bianca Schaub, Oliver Eickelberg, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann
Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant risk-factor for airway disease development. Furthermore, the high prevalence of pregnant smoking women requires the establishment of strategies for offspring lung protection. Therefore, we here aimed to understand the molecular mechanism of how prenatal smoke exposure affects fetal lung development. We used a mouse model recapitulating clinical findings of prenatally exposed children, where pregnant mice were exposed to smoke until c-section or spontaneous delivery, and offspring weight development and lung function was monitored...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764806/temporal-efficacy-of-a-sulforaphane-based-broccoli-sprout-diet-in-prevention-of-breast-cancer-through-modulation-of-epigenetic-mechanisms
#17
Yuanyuan Li, Phillip Buckhaults, Shizhao Li, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. An important risk factor for breast cancer is individual genetic background which is initially generated early in human life; for example, during the processes of embryogenesis and fetal development in utero. Bioactive dietary components such as sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables including broccoli sprouts (BSp), cabbage and kale, has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many common cancers through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763473/maternal-folate-genes-and-aberrant-dna-hypermethylation-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
Jeremy M Schraw, Teresa T Yiu, Philip J Lupo, Spiridon Tsavachidis, Rachel Rau, Melissa L Bondy, Karen R Rabin, Lanlan Shen, Michael E Scheurer
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that maternal genotypes in folate-related genes are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) independent of offspring genotype. We evaluated the relationship between maternal genotypes in methionine synthase (MTR) and DNA methylation status in ALL to better characterize the molecular mechanism underlying this association. PROCEDURE: We obtained bone marrow samples from 51 patients with ALL at diagnosis and from 6 healthy donors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762896/vertical-transmission-of-herpes-simplex-virus-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Anil Kumar Bhatta, Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Emese Gellen
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide. HSV infection during pregnancy can result in neonatal herpes infection, which is characterized by lifelong infection with periods of latency and reactivation. HSV can be acquired by an infant during one of three periods: in utero (5 %), peripartum (85 %), or postnatal (10 %). Neonatal HSV is a rare but significant infection that may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement...
May 15, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762460/a-new-life-motherhood-after-heart-transplantation-a-single-center-experience-and-review-of-literature
#20
Francesca Macera, Lucia Occhi, Gabriella Masciocco, Marisa Varrenti, Maria Frigerio
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy after heart transplantation (HTx) may expose the recipient to hemodynamic and immunologic risks, and the newborn to toxic effects of immunosuppressive therapy. Adequate preconception counseling is crucial to identify optimal timing and to modify immunosuppressive therapy in order to minimize risks for both the mother and the fetus. METHOD: We describe our experience with 12 pregnancies occurred in 11 women who had undergone HTx at our center...
May 14, 2018: Transplantation
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