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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326845/the-use-of-biologics-in-pregnant-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#1
Monika Østensen
An increasing number of female patients with autoimmune diseases are treated with biologic drugs. Concerns in regard to safety of biologics during pregnancy arise in patients who have not completed their families. Areas covered: A review of the literature dealing with child outcomes of pregnancies exposed to biologics shows that TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are the best studied in regard to human pregnancy. In studies comparing exposed pregnancies to disease-matched controls no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, prematurity or congenital malformations has been observed...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325734/does-maternal-fetal-transfer-of-creatine-occur-in-pregnant-sheep
#2
Syed Baharom, Robert De Matteo, Stacey Ellery, Paul Della Gatta, Clinton R Bruce, Greg M Kowalski, Nadia Hale, Hayley Dickinson, Richard Harding, David Walker, Rodney J Snow
Our aim was to determine the disposition of creatine in ovine pregnancy, and whether creatine is transferred across the placenta from mother to fetus. Pregnant ewes received either: (i) a continuous intravenous infusion of creatine monohydrate or saline from 122 to 131 days gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood and amniotic fluid samples collected daily for creatine analysis and fetal tissues collected at necropsy at 133 days for analysis of creatine content, or; (ii) a single systemic bolus injection of (13)C labelled creatine monohydrate at 130 days of gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood, uterine vein blood and amniotic fluid samples collected prior to, and for 4 hours post injection and analysed for creatine, creatine isotopic enrichment, and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA, precursor of creatine) concentrations...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323933/research-resource-transcriptional-dynamics-of-cultured-human-villous-cytotrophoblasts
#3
Joshua F Robinson, Mirhan Kapidzic, Matthew Gormley, Katherine Ona, Terrence Dent, Helia Seifikar, Emily G Hamilton, Susan J Fisher
During human pregnancy, cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) play key roles in uterine invasion, vascular remodeling, and anchoring of the feto-placental unit. Due to the challenges associated with studying human placentation in utero, cultured primary villous CTBs are used as a model of the differentiation pathway that leads to invasion of the uterine wall. In vitro, CTBs emulate in vivo cell behaviors, such as migration, aggregation and substrate penetration. While some of the molecular features related to these cell behaviors have been described, the underlying mechanisms, at a global level, remain undefined at mid-gestation...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323550/birthweight-as-a-measure-of-holiday-stress
#4
Kitae Sohn
Young wives in South Korea often dread New Year's Day and Thanksgiving Day because they assume the burden of cooking, cleaning, and other household chores. We used their offspring's birthweight as an indicator of their stress levels. We included all Korean singletons born in hospitals during 1997-2014 (N = 8,589,426) and regressed birthweight on in utero holiday experience by trimester, along with covariates. Babies who experienced New Year's Day in the first trimester were 9.4 grams lighter than those who did not; the amount is equivalent to 120% of the reduced birthweight associated with experiencing landmine explosions during the first trimester in Colombia...
March 21, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322850/absence-of-functional-fetal-regulatory-t-cells-in-humans-causes-in-utero-organ-specific-autoimmunity
#6
Eric J Allenspach, Laura S Finn, Mara H Rendi, Ahmet Eken, Akhilesh K Singh, Mohamed Oukka, Sean D Taylor, Matthew C Altman, Corinne L Fligner, Hans D Ochs, David J Rawlings, Troy R Torgerson
Regulatory T cells play a critical role in preventing fetal organ-specific autoimmunity in humans. Autopsies of neonatal IPEX patients shortly after birth demonstrate chronic exocrine-dominant pancreatitis with tertiary lymphoid structures containing expanded oligoclonal T/B lymphocytes.
March 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322573/blood-lead-levels-and-neurodevelopmental-function-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-a-us-based-longitudinal-cohort-study
#7
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Yanling Huo, Joseph Braun, Paige L Williams, Renee Smith, Ann Aschengrau, Sharon Nichols, Rohan Hazra, William A Meyer, Katherine Knapp, Nagamah S Deygoo, George R Seage Iii
BACKGROUND: While children's exposure to environmental lead in the U.S. has decreased, areas of elevated levels remain. Because lead exposure is a risk factor for developmental delays, it should be considered when studying neurodevelopmental effects of in-utero antiretroviral medication (ARV) exposure in the growing population of perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected children (PHEU). We compared blood lead levels (BPb) in PHEU children enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) Study to U...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321971/risk-factors-for-perioperative-mortality-and-transfusion-in-sacrococcygeal-teratoma-resections
#8
Rebecca S Isserman, Olivia Nelson, Kha M Tran, Lingyu Cai, Marcia Polansky, Julia M Rosenbloom, Theodora K Goebel, Elaina E Lin
BACKGROUND: Sacrococcygeal teratomas are a common congenital tumor. Surgical resection can occur in utero, in the neonatal period, or in the postneonatal period. AIMS: We describe patient and tumor factors associated with mortality and transfusion in this population. METHODS: We did a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent sacrococcygeal teratoma resection between January 1998 and March 2016. Demographic data, transfusion data, and tumor characteristics were collected...
March 21, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319657/risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-born-to-mothers-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
Sophie Wojcik, Sasha Bernatsky, Robert W Platt, Christian A Pineau, Ann E Clarke, Éric Fombonne, Anick Bérard, Évelyne Vinet
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to systematically review the risk of ASD in children born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to children born to mothers without RA. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of original articles using electronic databases: PubMed, EMBase, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Our literature search identified a total of 70 articles...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315852/characteristics-and-management-of-mirror-syndrome-a-systematic-review-1956-2016
#10
Sabah Allarakia, Hassan A Khayat, Moyassar M Karami, Abdulaziz M Aldakhil, Ahmed M Kashi, Abdulrahman H Algain, Mohammad A Khan, Loai S Alghifees, Raed E Alsulami
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical features of mirror syndrome and to correlate the effects of different treatments with the fetal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Online search up to May 2016 was conducted in the PubMed, Embase (Ovid platform) and clinicalTrials.gov without restrictions of language, date or journal. Only papers providing both fetal and maternal presentations and outcomes were included. RESULTS: The study included 74 papers (n=111), with an additional two patients diagnosed at our center (n=113)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304317/early-onset-necrotizing-enterocolitis-nec-in-premature-twins
#11
B Afzal, V Elberson, C McLaughlin, V Hs Kumar
Twin infants born at 34 week gestation had frank blood in stools on day three of life on mixed feeds of formula and maternal breast milk. Sepsis work up was negative in these relatively well appearing infants with pneumatosis in the colon on abdominal x-ray. Blood in stools recurred on reintroduction of breast milk in Twin A. Both infants recovered from episodes of bloody stools on amino-acid based formula and were thriving at discharge. Early necrotizing enterocolitis in both twins is rare and has not been reported...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#12
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302659/clear-cell-adenocarcinoma-of-cervix-in-1-year-old-girl-without-in-utero-exposure-to-diethylstilbestrol-an-uncommon-tumour-at-an-uncommon-age-and-site
#13
Aditi Arora, Anurag Rastogi, Azfar Neyaz, Nuzhat Husain
Adenocarcinoma of cervix constitutes about 10-15% cases of carcinoma cervix. Clear cell variant is even a rarer variant of adenocarcinoma. It rarely occurs in the paediatric age group and a known risk factor is in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). We report here a case of primary cervical tumour in a 1-year-old girl, which was initially suspected to be an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma botryoides. Histopathology with immunohistochemical analysis revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma. There was no maternal history of DES intake during pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302556/genomics-research-for-a-new-age-examining-how-our-shared-evolutionary-history-shapes-future-disease-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Emmanuel Peprah
Cardiometabolic diseases are major contributors to mortality and morbidity, and their burden displays global and regional disparities. Gene-environment interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Population differences in genetic structure, ancient environmental pressures that shape the human genome, and early life environmental adversities (e.g., in utero conditions) all contribute to observed disparities in global cardiometabolic diseases. The genetic and sociocultural diversity of global populations presents opportunities for discovering genomic loci that influence cardiometabolic diseases as illustrated by a few genetic, epigenetic, and population-genetic discoveries leading to notable understanding of disease mechanisms...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301856/the-role-of-dietary-experience-in-the-development-of-eating-behavior-during-the-first-years-of-life
#15
Sophie Nicklaus
Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but because of the transitions in the mode of feeding in the first years (from "tube" feeding in utero to eating table foods with the family), they have to learn how, what and how much to eat. Eating behavior established during early years may follow throughout childhood; therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important drivers of the early development of eating behavior. Beyond the first flavor discoveries during the gestational and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavors from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phases for learning food preferences and appetite control may be the beginning of complementary feeding (CF)...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301833/persistent-environmental-toxicants-in-breast-milk-and-rapid-infant-growth
#16
Rachel Criswell, Virissa Lenters, Siddhartha Mandal, Hein Stigum, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301526/novel-copy-number-variation-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-3-gene-is-associated-with-tgf%C3%AE-3-gene-expression-and-duration-of-fertility-traits-in-hens
#17
Lantao Gu, Chenghao Sun, Yangzhang Gong, Mei Yu, Shijun Li
Improvements in the duration of fertility (DF) could increase the interval between successive artificial inseminations, thereby decreasing the cost associated with production of hatching eggs. The molecular mechanisms involved in DF in hens remains under-explored. In this study, expression levels of the transforming growth factor-β genes (TGFβs: TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3) were investigated in utero-vaginal junctions (UVJs) of hens with long DF (Group L, n = 10) and short DF (Group S, n = 10). TGFβ1 and 2 tended to exhibit higher expression levels in UVJs from Group L hens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301408/k-cl-cotransporter-2-mediated-cl-extrusion-determines-developmental-stage-dependent-impact-of-propofol-anesthesia-on-dendritic-spines
#18
Martin Puskarjov, Hubert Fiumelli, Adrian Briner, Timea Bodogan, Kornel Demeter, Claudia-Marvine Lacoh, Martina Mavrovic, Peter Blaesse, Kai Kaila, Laszlo Vutskits
BACKGROUND: General anesthetics potentiating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated signaling are known to induce a persistent decrement in excitatory synapse number in the cerebral cortex when applied during early postnatal development, while an opposite action is produced at later stages. Here, the authors test the hypothesis that the effect of general anesthetics on synaptogenesis depends upon the efficacy of GABA receptor type A (GABAA)-mediated inhibition controlled by the developmental up-regulation of the potassium-chloride (K-Cl) cotransporter 2 (KCC2)...
March 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299309/two-siblings-with-the-same-severe-form-of-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-but-different-growth-and-menstrual-cycle-patterns
#19
Mariarosaria Lang-Muritano, Karine Gerster, Susanna Sluka, Daniel Konrad
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most frequent autosomal recessive diseases in Europe. Treatment is a challenge for pediatric endocrinologists. Important parameters to judge the outcome are adult height and menstrual cycle. We report the follow-up from birth to adulthood of two Caucasian sisters with salt-wasting CAH due to the same mutation, homozygosity c.290-13A>G (I2 splice), in the 21-hydroxylase gene. Their adherence to treatment was excellent. Our objective was to distinguish the effects of treatment with hydrocortisone (HC) and fludrocortisone (FC) on final height (FH) from constitutional factors...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298595/incubation-under-climate-warming-affects-learning-ability-and-survival-in-hatchling-lizards
#20
Buddhi Dayananda, Jonathan K Webb
Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings...
March 2017: Biology Letters
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