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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Alexandre Suire, Minus van Baalen
Information is a crucial currency for living organisms as it allows them to adjust their behaviour to environmental fluctuations. Thus, natural selection should have favoured the capacity of collecting information from different sources, including social interactions whereby individuals could quickly gain reliable information. However, such conditions may also favour the gathering of potentially detrimental information, such as false or misinterpreted accounts of environmental and social phenomena such as rumours, which may spread via informational cascades...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kevin J P Woods, Josh H McDermott
The cocktail party problem requires listeners to infer individual sound sources from mixtures of sound. The problem can be solved only by leveraging regularities in natural sound sources, but little is known about how such regularities are internalized. We explored whether listeners learn source "schemas"-the abstract structure shared by different occurrences of the same type of sound source-and use them to infer sources from mixtures. We measured the ability of listeners to segregate mixtures of time-varying sources...
March 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Claúdia Mendes da Silva, Regina de Souza Alves, Tâmyssa Simões Dos Santos, Gabriela Rodrigues Bragagnollo, Clodis Maria Tavares, Amuzza Aylla Pereira Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: To learn the epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in pregnant women. METHOD: Descriptive study with quantitative approach. The study population was composed of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS residing in the state of Alagoas. Data were organized into variables and analyzed according to the measures of dispersion parameter relevant to the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (X ± S). RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2015, 773 cases of HIV/AIDS were recorded in pregnant women in Alagoas...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Rebecca Udemans, Marie-Louise Stokes, Louise Rigby, Priya Khanna, Jonathan Christiansen
AIM: The Royal Australasian College of Physicians is renewing its specialty training programs and shifting towards competency-based medical education. Our aim is to improve the quality and rigor of training and graduate outcomes, and promote high standards of physician practice to serve the health of patients, families, and communities in a changing healthcare environment. METHODS: We are progressing holistic change and multiple educational innovations in a complex environment...
March 21, 2018: Medical Teacher
Saeed Asefzadeh, Rohollah Kalhor, Mohammad Tir
Background: Paying attention to patient safety is a basic right and a necessary issue in providing medical care, and failure to observe it leads to irreparable damage. One of the factors affecting an individuals' performance in an organization is stress, which also endangers their health. Objective: To determine the relationship between patient safety culture and levels of job stress among the nurses working in the hospitals affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Marina Del Rios, Josiah Han, Alejandra Cano, Victor Ramirez, Gabriel Morales, Teri L Campbell, Terry Vanden Hoek
Introduction: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods: We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nicole Battaglioli, Felix Ankel, Christopher I Doty, Arlene Chung, Michelle Lin
Introduction: Physician wellness has recently become a popular topic of conversation and publication within the house of medicine and specifically within emergency medicine (EM). Through a joint collaboration involving Academic Life in Emergency Medicine's (ALiEM) Wellness Think Tank, Essentials of Emergency Medicine (EEM), and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), a one-day Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) was organized. Methods: The RWCS was held on May 15, 2017, as a pre-day event prior to the 2017 EEM conference in Las Vegas, Nevada...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lucas Pinto, Sue A Koay, Ben Engelhard, Alice M Yoon, Ben Deverett, Stephan Y Thiberge, Ilana B Witten, David W Tank, Carlos D Brody
The gradual accumulation of sensory evidence is a crucial component of perceptual decision making, but its neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. Given the wide availability of genetic and optical tools for mice, they can be useful model organisms for the study of these phenomena; however, behavioral tools are largely lacking. Here, we describe a new evidence-accumulation task for head-fixed mice navigating in a virtual reality (VR) environment. As they navigate down the stem of a virtual T-maze, they see brief pulses of visual evidence on either side, and retrieve a reward on the arm with the highest number of pulses...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Victoria Shabardina, Tabea Kischka, Hanna Kmita, Yutaka Suzuki, Wojciech Makałowski
Amoebozoans are in many aspects interesting research objects, as they combine features of single-cell organisms with complex signaling and defense systems, comparable to multicellular organisms. Acanthamoeba castellanii is a cosmopolitan species and developed diverged feeding abilities and strong anti-bacterial resistance; Entamoeba histolytica is a parasitic amoeba, who underwent massive gene loss and its genome is almost twice smaller than that of A. castellanii . Nevertheless, both species prosper, demonstrating fitness to their specific environments...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Peter-Henning Clausen, Sandra Stelzer, Ard Nijhof, Jürgen Krücken, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
The teaching of veterinary parasitology to the large number of students at the Freie Universität Berlin is mainly limited to conventional face-to-face lectures, supplemented by practical classes. Extensive parasite descriptions and diagnostic techniques are at the core of the practical classes, which are also intended to emphasise key biological and veterinary aspects covered in lectures. Further in-depth and specific learning is achieved within a detailed framework of elective courses, with defined learning outcomes for small groups of students, focusing on themes such as 'diagnosis and treatment of ectoparasites in companion animals' or 'zoonotic parasites'...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Manuela Schnyder, Hubertus Hertzberg, Alexander Mathis, Marietta Schönmann, Adrian Hehl, Peter Deplazes
Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Anja Joachim, Barbara Hinney, Georg Duscher, Ingrid Preusche, Petra Winter
In a changing world with rapidly evolving new technologies, even in the "sheltered world" of teachers and lecturers at universities, we are challenged by new developments. As diversification is increasing in many aspects of our professional life, there is also a need to employ new ways of teaching, learning and assessments in veterinary curricula, taking into account the increasing numbers of students and limited teaching resources. The "classical" Austrian veterinary curriculum, with a series of consecutive lectures followed by practical courses in the different disciplines, separated from each other in the curricular time table and by annual examinations, has been a long-standing concept for teaching in the past...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Fang Ma, Yangjing Bai, Yangjuan Bai, Weiguang Ma, Xiangyu Yang, Jiping Li
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013...
March 20, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Deborah Toppenberg-Pejcic, Jane Noyes, Tomas Allen, Nyka Alexander, Marsha Vanderford, Gaya Gamhewage
A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media...
March 20, 2018: Health Communication
Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Elena Savoia, Nasandra Wright, Rahul Gupta, Michael A Stoto
To demonstrate how public health emergency systems can use health systems tools to analyze and learn from critical incidents, we employed a facilitated look-back approach to review the public response to a chemical spill in Charleston, West Virginia. We reviewed official reports, news articles, and other documents; conducted in-person interviews with key public health and emergency response officials and local community stakeholders; and organized a facilitated look-back meeting to identify root causes of the problems that were encountered...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Ivan Tyukin, Alexander N Gorban, Carlos Calvo, Julia Makarova, Valeri A Makarov
Codifying memories is one of the fundamental problems of modern Neuroscience. The functional mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Experimental evidence suggests that some of the memory functions are performed by stratified brain structures such as the hippocampus. In this particular case, single neurons in the CA1 region receive a highly multidimensional input from the CA3 area, which is a hub for information processing. We thus assess the implication of the abundance of neuronal signalling routes converging onto single cells on the information processing...
March 19, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Hubert S Gabryś, Florian Buettner, Florian Sterzing, Henrik Hauswald, Mark Bangert
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether machine learning with dosiomic, radiomic, and demographic features allows for xerostomia risk assessment more precise than normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands. Material and methods: A cohort of 153 head-and-neck cancer patients was used to model xerostomia at 0-6 months (early), 6-15 months (late), 15-24 months (long-term), and at any time (a longitudinal model) after radiotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Maria F Gergen, Lauren M DiBiase, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, William A Rutala
BACKGROUND: Single outbreaks have often been reported in health care settings, but the frequency of outbreaks at a hospital over time has not been described. We examined epidemiologic features of all health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital during a 5-year period. METHODS: Health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed through data on comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
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