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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550706/st-michael-s-improvement-program-a-collaborative-approach-to-sustainable-cost-savings
#1
Anne Trafford, Danielle Jane
In response to a challenging financial environment and increasing patient demand, St. Michael's Hospital needed to find long-term sustainable solutions to continue to provide high-quality patient care and invest in key priorities. By conducting Operational Reviews in focused areas, the hospital achieved $7.4 million of in-year savings in the first year, found standardizations, process efficiencies and direct cost savings that positioned itself for success in future funding models. Initiatives were grounded in evidence and relied heavily on the effective execution by the leadership, front-line staff and physicians...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550374/performance-of-an-artificial-multi-observer-deep-neural-network-for-fully-automated-segmentation-of-polycystic-kidneys
#2
Timothy L Kline, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Marie E Edwards, Jaime D Blais, Frank S Czerwiec, Peter C Harris, Bernard F King, Vicente E Torres, Bradley J Erickson
Deep learning techniques are being rapidly applied to medical imaging tasks-from organ and lesion segmentation to tissue and tumor classification. These techniques are becoming the leading algorithmic approaches to solve inherently difficult image processing tasks. Currently, the most critical requirement for successful implementation lies in the need for relatively large datasets that can be used for training the deep learning networks. Based on our initial studies of MR imaging examinations of the kidneys of patients affected by polycystic kidney disease (PKD), we have generated a unique database of imaging data and corresponding reference standard segmentations of polycystic kidneys...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550288/infants-learn-better-from-left-to-right-a-directional-bias-in-infants-sequence-learning
#3
Hermann Bulf, Maria Dolores de Hevia, Valeria Gariboldi, Viola Macchi Cassia
A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal information onto a directional space...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#4
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548457/on-the-research-of-time-past-the-hunt-for-the-substrate-of-memory
#5
REVIEW
Bridget N Queenan, Tomás J Ryan, Michael S Gazzaniga, Charles R Gallistel
The search for memory is one of the oldest quests in written human history. For at least two millennia, we have tried to understand how we learn and remember. We have gradually converged on the brain and looked inside it to find the basis of knowledge, the trace of memory. The search for memory has been conducted on multiple levels, from the organ to the cell to the synapse, and has been distributed across disciplines with less chronological or intellectual overlap than one might hope. Frequently, the study of the mind and its memories has been severely restricted by technological or philosophical limitations...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548000/assessment-for-improving-the-performance-of-nicus-the-italian-experience
#6
Simone Fanelli, Antonello Zangrandi
This paper describes neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in Italy using a set of organizational variables identifying management profile. The correlations between variables, and how these are impacted by structural aspects of the department or hospital, are investigated. The research was conducted within the 5-year far-reaching and complex SONAR study run by the Italian Neonatal Network, which maps NICU, monitors outcomes of member centres, defines organizational models, and identifies best practices to improve care quality...
January 1, 2017: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545042/hierarchical-ordering-with-partial-pairwise-hierarchical-relationships-on-the-macaque-brain-data-sets
#7
Woosang Lim, Jungsoo Lee, Yongsub Lim, Doo-Hwan Bae, Haesun Park, Dae-Shik Kim, Kyomin Jung
Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544882/inference-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-genome-scale-regulatory-networks-in-large-phylogenies
#8
Christopher Koch, Jay Konieczka, Toni Delorey, Ana Lyons, Amanda Socha, Kathleen Davis, Sara A Knaack, Dawn Thompson, Erin K O'Shea, Aviv Regev, Sushmita Roy
Changes in transcriptional regulatory networks can significantly contribute to species evolution and adaptation. However, identification of genome-scale regulatory networks is an open challenge, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we introduce multi-species regulatory network learning (MRTLE), a computational approach that uses phylogenetic structure, sequence-specific motifs, and transcriptomic data, to infer the regulatory networks in different species. Using simulated data from known networks and transcriptomic data from six divergent yeasts, we demonstrate that MRTLE predicts networks with greater accuracy than existing methods because it incorporates phylogenetic information...
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544059/objective-assessment-of-the-evolutionary-action-equation-for-the-fitness-effect-of-missense-mutations-across-cagi-blinded-contests
#9
Panagiotis Katsonis, Olivier Lichtarge
A major challenge in genome interpretation is to estimate the fitness effect of coding variants of unknown significance (VUS). Labor, limited understanding of protein functions, and lack of assays generally limit direct experimental assessment of VUS, and make robust and accurate computational approaches a necessity. Often, however, algorithms that predict mutational effect disagree amongst themselves and with experimental data, slowing their adoption for clinical diagnostics. To objectively assess such methods, the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) community organizes contests to predict unpublished experimental data, available only to CAGI assessors...
May 23, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543786/immunohistochemical-colocalization-of-g-protein-alpha-subunits-and-5-ht-in-the-rectal-gland-of-the-cartilaginous-fish-scyliorhinus-canicula
#10
E R Lauriano, S Pergolizzi, J Gangemi, M Kuciel, G Capillo, M Aragona, C Faggio
Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is an important neuromodulator involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The effects of serotonin are mediated by an extended family of receptors coupled to multiple heterotrimeric G-proteins, associated with cellular membrane. G proteins connect receptors to effectors and thus trigger intracellular signaling pathways. These cellular processes several regulate systemic functions such as embryonic development, gonadal development, learning and memory, and organismal homeostasis...
May 22, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543420/from-the-foundation-up
#11
Daniel Callahan
In 2019, The Hastings Center will celebrate its fiftieth anniversary. It is more than a bit staggering to think how far we have come since 1969. When I floated the idea of a center on bioethics to my friend and neighbor, psychiatrist Willard Gaylin, at a Christmas party in 1968-even before the word "bioethics" was used-I had only the fuzziest idea of where that would take us. Neither Will nor I had run anything, nor did we know how to raise money to support an organization. We would and did learn how, but much of what we did in those early years was made up on the fly...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542414/the-intestinal-torc2-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-associative-learning-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Naoko Sakai, Hayao Ohno, Masahiro Tomioka, Yuichi Iino
Several types of associative learning are dependent upon the presence or absence of food, and are crucial for the survival of most animals. Target of rapamycin (TOR), a kinase which exists as a component of two complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), is known to act as a nutrient sensor in numerous organisms. However, the in vivo roles of TOR signaling in the nervous system remain largely unclear, partly because its multifunctionality and requirement for survival make it difficult to investigate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542411/genome-scale-investigation-of-olfactory-system-spatial-heterogeneity
#13
Torben Noto, Derrick Barnagian, Jason B Castro
The early olfactory system is organized in parallel, with numerous, specialized subsystems established by the modular and topographic projections of sensory inputs. While these anatomical sub-systems are in many cases demarcated by well-known marker genes, we stand to learn considerably more about their possible functional specializations from comprehensive, genome-scale descriptions of their molecular anatomy. Here, we leverage the resources of the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA)-a spatially registered compendium of gene expression for the mouse brain-to investigate the early olfactory system's genomic anatomy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541224/protein-protein-interaction-interface-residue-pair-prediction-based-on-deep-learning-architecture
#14
Zhenni Zhao, Xinqi Gong
MOTIVATION: Proteins usually fulfill their biological functions by interacting with other proteins. Although some methods have been developed to predict the binding sites of a monomer protein, these are not sufficient for prediction of the interaction between two monomer proteins. The correct prediction of interface residue pairs from two monomer proteins is still an open question and has great significance for practical experimental applications in the life sciences. We hope to build a method for the prediction of interface residue pairs that is suitable for those applications...
May 19, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541078/ensembles-in-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-construct-cognitive-maps-emphasizing-different-features-of-the-behavioral-landscape
#15
Nina Lopatina, Brian F Sadacca, Michael A McDannald, Clay V Styer, Jacob F Peterson, Joseph F Cheer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in the ability to use the current value of expected outcomes to guide behavior. More recently, this specific role has been conceptualized as a special case of a more general function that OFC plays in constructing a "cognitive map" of the behavioral task space by labeling the current task state and learning relationships among task states. Here, we have used single unit recording data from 2 prior studies to examine whether and how information relating different states within and across trials is represented in medial versus lateral OFC in rats...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539089/simulating-real-life-exposures-to-uncover-possible-risks-to-human-health-a-proposed-consensus-for-a-novel-methodological-approach
#16
A M Tsatsakis, D Kouretas, M N Tzatzarakis, P Stivaktakis, K Tsarouhas, K S Golokhvast, V N Rakitskii, V A Tutelyan, A F Hernandez, R Rezaee, G Chung, C Fenga, A B Engin, M Neagu, A L Arsene, A O Docea, E Gofita, D Calina, I Taitzoglou, J Liesivuori, A W Hayes, S Gutnikov, C Tsitsimpikou
In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537945/making-sense-of-effective-partnerships-among-senior-leaders-in-the-national-health-service
#17
Mahima Mitra, Timothy Hoff, Paul Brankin, Sue Dopson
BACKGROUND: Changing health care systems depend on strong organizational leadership that realizes the collaborative potential of both physician and nonphysician leaders. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to seek insight into the everyday health care leader experience by examining 24 physician and nonphysician leaders working in the U.K. National Health Service. We explored (a) how they make sense of and act with respect to specific collaborative tensions in their interactions and (b) which aspects of their everyday leadership contexts heighten the probability for producing and resolving such tensions...
May 22, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537854/continuity-of-care-in-dermatology-residency-programs-in-the-united-states
#18
Tiffany Loh, Aria Vazirnia, Maryam Afshar, Robert Dorschner, Taraneh Paravar
PURPOSE: As established by the AccreditationCouncil for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME),dermatology residents in the United States must participate in continuity clinic. This requirement may be achieved through multiple means, allowing for program variation. To better assess continuity clinic's role in resident learning, more data on this component of graduate medical education is needed. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was distributed via the American Board of Dermatology list serv to all U...
May 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536034/can-natural-selection-encode-bayesian-priors
#19
Juan Camilo Ramírez, James A R Marshall
The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534802/organ-location-determination-and-contour-sparse-representation-for-multi-organ-segmentation
#20
Siqi Li, Huiyan Jiang, Yu-Dong Yao, Benqiang Yang
Organ segmentation on computed tomography (CT) images is of great importance in medical diagnoses and treatment. This paper proposes organ location determination and contour sparse representation methods (OLD-CSR) for multiorgan segmentation (liver, kidney, and spleen) on abdomen CT images using an extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier. First, a location determination method is designed to obtain location information of each organ, which is used for coarse segmentation. Second, for coarse-to-fine segmentation, a contour gradient and rate change based feature point extraction method is proposed...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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