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Kuo-Long Lou, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Wei-Jung Chen, Yu-Che Cheng, Jia-Nan Jian, Ming-Tao Lee, Tsang-Lang Lin, Yu-Shuan Shiau, Horng-Huei Liou
Hanatoxin (HaTx), a 35-residue polypeptide from spider venom, functions as an inhibitor of Kv2.1 channels by interacting with phospholipids prior to affecting the voltage-sensor. However, how this water-soluble peptide modifies the gating remains poorly understood, as the voltage-sensor is deeply embedded within the bilayer. To determine how HaTx interacts with phospholipid bilayers, in this study, we examined the toxin-induced partitioning of liposomal membranes. HPLC-results from high-speed spin-down vesicles with HaTx demonstrated direct binding...
January 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elke Bocksteins, Dirk J Snyders, Miguel Holmgren
Heterotetramer voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channels KV2.1/KV6.4 display a gating charge-voltage (QV) distribution composed by two separate components. We use state dependent chemical accessibility to cysteines substituted in either KV2.1 or KV6.4 to assess the voltage sensor movements of each subunit. By comparing the voltage dependences of chemical modification and gating charge displacement, here we show that each gating charge component corresponds to a specific subunit forming the heterotetramer. The voltage sensors from KV6...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anna Casanovas, Sara Salvany, Víctor Lahoz, Olga Tarabal, Lídia Piedrafita, Raimundo Sabater, Sara Hernández, Jordi Calderó, Josep E Esquerda
The electric activity of lower motor neurons (MNs) appears to play a role in determining cell-vulnerability in MN diseases. MN excitability is modulated by cholinergic inputs through C-type synaptic boutons, which display an endoplasmic reticulum-related subsurface cistern (SSC) adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane. Besides cholinergic molecules, a constellation of proteins involved in different signal-transduction pathways are clustered at C-type synaptic sites (M2 muscarinic receptors, Kv2.1 potassium channels, Ca(2+) activated K(+) [SK] channels, and sigma-1 receptors [S1R]), but their collective functional significance so far remains unknown...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xénia Latypova, Naomichi Matsumoto, Cécile Vinceslas-Muller, Stéphane Bézieau, Bertrand Isidor, Noriko Miyake
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily B member 1 (KCNB1) encodes Kv2.1 potassium channel of crucial role in hippocampal neuron excitation homeostasis. KCNB1 mutations are known to cause early-onset infantile epilepsy. To date, 10 KCNB1 mutations have been described in 11 patients. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel de novo missense (c.1132G>C, p.V378L) KCNB1 mutation in a patient with global developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, but no episode of epilepsy until the lastly examined age of 6 years old...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Enrico Leipold, Florian Ullrich, Markus Thiele, Alesia A Tietze, Heinrich Terlau, Diana Imhof, Stefan H Heinemann
The neurotoxic cone snail peptide μ-GIIIA specifically blocks skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium (NaV1.4) channels. The related conopeptides μ-PIIIA and μ-SIIIA, however, exhibit a wider activity spectrum by also inhibiting the neuronal NaV channels NaV1.2 and NaV1.7. Here we demonstrate that those μ-conopeptides with a broader target range also antagonize select subtypes of voltage-gated potassium channels of the KV1 family: μ-PIIIA and μ-SIIIA inhibited KV1.1 and KV1.6 channels in the nanomolar range, while being inactive on subtypes KV1...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shannon H Romer, Adam S Deardorff, Robert E W Fyffe
Homeostatic plasticity occurs through diverse cellular and synaptic mechanisms, and extensive investigations over the preceding decade have established Kv2.1 ion channels as key homeostatic regulatory elements in several central neuronal systems. As in these cellular systems, Kv2.1 channels in spinal motoneurons (MNs) localize within large somatic membrane clusters. However, their role in regulating motoneuron activity is not fully established in vivo. We have previously demonstrated marked Kv2.1 channel redistribution in MNs following in vitro glutamate application and in vivo peripheral nerve injury (Romer et al...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
Huai Tao, Xia Chen, Meichun Deng, Yucheng Xiao, Yuanyuan Wu, Zhonghua Liu, Sainan Zhou, Yingchun He, Songping Liang
Jingzhaotoxin-XI (JZTX-XI) is a 34-residue peptide from the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao venom that potently inhibits both voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 and voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1. In the present study, we further showed that JZTX-XI blocked Kv2.1 currents with the IC50 value of 0.39 ± 0.06 μM. JZTX-XI significantly shifted the current-voltage (I-V) curves and normalized conductance-voltage (G-V) curves of Kv2.1 channel to more depolarized voltages. Ala-scanning mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that mutants I273A, F274A, and E277A reduced toxin binding affinity by 10-, 16-, and 18-fold, respectively, suggesting that three common residues (I273, F274, E277) in the Kv2...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Wei Yu, Randika Parakramaweera, Shavonne Teng, Manasa Gowda, Yashsavi Sharad, Smita Thakker-Varia, Janet Alder, Federico Sesti
: The delayed rectifier potassium (K(+)) channel KCNB1 (Kv2.1), which conducts a major somatodendritic current in cortex and hippocampus, is known to undergo oxidation in the brain, but whether this can cause neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment is not known. Here, we used transgenic mice harboring human KCNB1 wild-type (Tg-WT) or a nonoxidable C73A mutant (Tg-C73A) in cortex and hippocampus to determine whether oxidized KCNB1 channels affect brain function. Animals were subjected to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI), a condition characterized by extensive oxidative stress...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Fredrik Elinder, Michael Madeja, Hugo Zeberg, Peter Århem
The transmembrane voltage needed to open different voltage-gated K (Kv) channels differs by up to 50 mV from each other. In this study we test the hypothesis that the channels' voltage dependences to a large extent are set by charged amino-acid residues of the extracellular linkers of the Kv channels, which electrostatically affect the charged amino-acid residues of the voltage sensor S4. Extracellular cations shift the conductance-versus-voltage curve, G(V), by interfering with these extracellular charges...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Jeroen I Stas, Elke Bocksteins, Camilla S Jensen, Nicole Schmitt, Dirk J Snyders
Enhancement of neuronal M-currents, generated through KV7.2-KV7.5 channels, has gained much interest for its potential in developing treatments for hyperexcitability-related disorders such as epilepsy. Retigabine, a KV7 channel opener, has proven to be an effective anticonvulsant and has recently also gained attention due to its neuroprotective properties. In the present study, we found that the auxiliary KCNE2 subunit reduced the KV7.2-KV7.3 retigabine sensitivity approximately 5-fold. In addition, using both mammalian expression systems and cultured hippocampal neurons we determined that low μM retigabine concentrations had 'off-target' effects on KV2...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hongyuan Shen, Elke Bocksteins, Igor Kondrychyn, Dirk Snyders, Vladimir Korzh
The brain ventricular system is essential for neurogenesis and brain homeostasis. Its neuroepithelial lining effects these functions, but the underlying molecular pathways remain to be understood. We found that the potassium channels expressed in neuroepithelial cells determine the formation of the ventricular system. The phenotype of a novel zebrafish mutant characterized by denudation of neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system and hydrocephalus is mechanistically linked to Kcng4b, a homologue of the 'silent' voltage-gated potassium channel α-subunit Kv6...
November 15, 2016: Development
Robert H Cox, Samantha Fromme
We have shown that three components contribute to functional voltage gated K(+) (K v) currents in rat small mesenteric artery myocytes: (1) Kv1.2 plus Kv1.5 with Kvβ1.2 subunits, (2) Kv2.1 probably associated with Kv9.3 subunits, and (3) Kv7.4 subunits. To confirm and address subunit stoichiometry of the first two, we have compared the biophysical properties of K v currents in small mesenteric artery myocytes with those of Kv subunits heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells using whole cell voltage clamp methods...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Christoph Hönigsperger, Maximiliano J Nigro, Johan F Storm
KEY POINTS: Kv2 channels underlie delayed-rectifier potassium currents in various neurons, although their physiological roles often remain elusive. Almost nothing is known about Kv2 channel functions in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) neurons, which are involved in representing space, memory formation, epilepsy and dementia. Stellate cells in layer II of the mEC project to the hippocampus and are considered to be space-representing grid cells. We used the new Kv2 blocker Guangxitoxin-1E (GTx) to study Kv2 functions in these neurons...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Rym Hassiki, Alain J Labro, Zakaria Benlasfar, Cécile Vincke, Mahmoud Somia, Mohamed El Ayeb, Serge Muyldermans, Dirk J Snyders, Balkiss Bouhaouala-Zahar
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels form cells repolarizing power and are commonly expressed in excitable cells. In non-excitable cells, Kv channels such as Kv2.1 are involved in cell differentiation and growth. Due to the involvement of Kv2.1 in several physiological processes, these channels are promising therapeutic targets. To develop Kv2.1 specific antibody-based channel modulators, we applied a novel approach and immunized a dromedary with heterologous Ltk- cells that overexpress the mouse Kv2.1 channel instead of immunizing with channel protein fragments...
December 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yann Lanoiselée, Denis S Grebenkov
We propose the improved ergodicity and mixing estimators to identify nonergodic dynamics from a single particle trajectory. The estimators are based on the time-averaged characteristic function of the increments and can thus capture additional information on the process as compared to the conventional time-averaged mean-square displacement. The estimators are first investigated and validated for several models of anomalous diffusion, such as ergodic fractional Brownian motion and diffusion on percolating clusters, and nonergodic continuous-time random walks and scaled Brownian motion...
May 2016: Physical Review. E
Nicholas R Larson, Paul R Carlier, Aaron D Gross, Rafique M Islam, Ming Ma, Baonan Sun, Maxim M Totrov, Roopali Yadav, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
Potential targets for new vector control insecticides are nerve and muscle potassium channels. In this study, the activities of known potassium channel blockers (4-aminopyridine, quinidine, and tetraethylammonium) and the insecticide propoxur were compared to three experimental catechols and several other compounds against Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Experimental catechol 1 was the most toxic experimental compound in all of the mortality assays conducted, but was at least 100-fold and 39-fold less toxic than propoxur against Ae...
June 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Da Hye Hong, Hongliang Li, Hye Won Kim, Han Sol Kim, Youn Kyoung Son, Se-Ran Yang, Jeong-Ran Park, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Seok-Ho Hong, Amy L Firth, Sung Hun Na, Won Sun Park
This study investigated the alteration of voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channels in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells from control (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) and diabetic (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty [OLETF]) rats during the early and chronic phases of diabetes. We demonstrated alterations in the mesenteric Kv channels during the early and chronic phase of diabetes using the patch-clamp technique, the arterial tone measurement system, and RT-PCR in Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO; for control) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; for diabetes) type 2 diabetic model rats...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Chin-Tsang Yang, Yuk-Man Leung, Sheng-Feng Hsu, Iona MacDonald, Mei-Ling Wang, Jaung-Geng Lin, Shih-Ya Hung, Yi-Hung Chen
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings investigated the electrophysiological effects of 2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone (paeonol), one of the major components of Moutan Cortex, in hippocampal CA1 neurons and nucleus ambiguus (NA) neurons from neonatal rats as well as in lung epithelial H1355 cells expressing Kv2.1 or Kv1.2. Extracellular application of paeonol at 100μM did not significantly affect the spontaneous action potential frequency, whereas paeonol at 300μM increased the frequency of spontaneous action potentials in hippocampal CA1 neurons...
August 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
T T Zhou, L L Quan, L P Chen, T Du, K X Sun, J C Zhang, L Yu, Y Li, P Wan, L L Chen, B H Jiang, L H Hu, J Chen, X Shen
Kv2.1 as a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunit has a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, and is believed to be a promising target for anti-diabetic drug discovery, although the mechanism underlying the Kv2.1-mediated β-cell apoptosis is obscure. Here, the small molecular compound, ethyl 5-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-7-methyl-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (SP6616) was discovered to be a new Kv2...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Federico Sesti
Reversible regulation of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important mechanism of neuronal plasticity. In particular, ROS have been shown to act as modulatory molecules of ion channels-which are key to neuronal excitability-in several physiological processes. However ROS are also fundamental contributors to aging vulnerability. When the level of excess ROS increases in the cell during aging, DNA is damaged, proteins are oxidized, lipids are degraded and more ROS are produced, all culminating in significant cell injury...
March 2016: Aging and Disease
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