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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128969/in-vasculitis-of-small-muscular-arteries-activation-of-vessel-infiltrating-cd8-t-cells-seems-to-be-antigen-independent
#1
Mikiko Kobayashi, Eisaku Ogawa, Ryuhei Okuyama, Hiroyuki Kanno
The etiology of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and localized PAN is still unknown, although a T cell-mediated immune mechanism has been considered. CD8 T cells participate not only in the antigen-dependent adaptive immune system, but also in the antigen-independent innate immune system. Non-antigen-activated CD8 T cells express a unique phenotype: granzyme B (GrB) positive /CD25 negative /programmed death-1 (PD-1) negative. The aims of this study were to assess the participation of T cells, especially innate CD8 T cells, in the development of vasculitis...
November 11, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111983/acute-flare-of-bullous-pemphigus-with-pembrolizumab-used-for-treatment-of-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#2
Rohan Garje, Justin J Chau, Jina Chung, Karolyn Wanat, Yousef Zakharia
In the past decade, the resurgence of immunotherapy has changed the landscape of cancer therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed death-1 on lymphocytes, and programmed death ligand-1 on tumors cells are currently utilized in the management of several cancers. These agents are double-edged sword with the positive effect being robust antitumor response but on the other side they can throttle up the normal immunologic homeostasis in a negative way, leading to adverse autoimmune toxicities...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105157/reduced-numbers-of-mature-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cells-in-skg-mice
#3
Robby Engelmann, Andra Biemelt, Anja Johl, Daniela Kuthning, Brigitte Müller-Hilke
Attenuated T cell receptor (TCR) signaling contributes to the susceptibility for autoimmunity as shown via mutants of PTPN22 and Zap70 genes. We here set out to investigate the effect of an attenuated TCR signal on the composition of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) compartment. To that extent, we combined flow cytometry and histology and compared the TEC subpopulations of Zap70 wild type with SKG mutant mice. We found an increased cortical TEC compartment in SKG thymi at the expense of reduced numbers of mature medullary TECs and a 4...
November 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099628/murine-cd8-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-are-negatively-selected-by-cd1d-expressed-on-thymic-epithelial-cells-and-dendritic-cells
#4
Sejin Oh, Hyunji Lee, Jung Hoon Shin, Changwan Hong, Se-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: CD1d-dependent invariant natural killer (iNKT) cells are found as either CD4 single positive (SP) or CD4/CD8 double negative (DN) cells in mice. The size of the CD8(+) iNKT population is extremely small. It is known that CD1d expression on developing thymocytes is sufficient for iNKT development and co-receptor choice, which is driven by Th-POK expression. This study aimed to examine the factors involved in the CD4/CD8 co-receptor choice of iNKT cells in addition to Th-POK-driven silencing of CD8 expression...
November 3, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096894/experimental-therapy-of-advanced-breast-cancer-targeting-nfat1-mdm2-p53-pathway
#5
Jiang-Jiang Qin, Wei Wang, Ruiwen Zhang
Advanced breast cancer, especially advanced triple-negative breast cancer, is typically more aggressive and more difficult to treat than other breast cancer phenotypes. There is currently no curable option for breast cancer patients with advanced diseases, highlighting the urgent need for novel treatment strategies. We have recently discovered that the nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) activates the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene. Both MDM2 and NFAT1 are overexpressed and constitutively activated in breast cancer, particularly in advanced breast cancer, and contribute to its initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091262/isolation-and-functional-use-of-human-nkt-cells
#6
Mark A Exley, S Brian Wilson, Steven P Balk
This unit details methods for the isolation, in vitro expansion, and functional characterization of human iNKT cells. The term 'iNKT' derives from the fact that a large fraction of murine and some human NK marker+ T cells ('NKT') recognize the MHC class I-like CD1d protein and use an identical 'invariant' TCRα chain, which is generated in humans by precise Vα24 and Jα18 rearrangements with either no N-region diversity or subsequent trimming to identical or nearly identical amino acid sequence (hence, 'iNKT' cells)...
November 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081196/-prognostic-significance-of-proteins-expression-by-immunohistochemical-method-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#7
W J Yu, L H Cao, J H Wang, Z M Wang, W B Qian, H Y Tong, H T Meng, W Y Mai, L P Mao, J J Qian, J Jin
Objective: To analyze the prognostic significance of TP53, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, Myc proteins expression by immunohistochemical method (IHC) in diffuse large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) . Methods: Clinical and pathologic data of 223 patients with DLBCL hospitalized in Zhejiang First Hospital from March 2009 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The 223 cases, a median age of 56 years old with a male predominance, had shown a 39.0% of TP53 positive expression, 38.6% of Myc, 69.1% of Bcl-2, 56.5% of Bcl-6, and 22...
September 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079307/circulating-t-cell-subsets-monocytes-and-natural-killer-cells-in-peripartum-cardiomyopathy-results-from-the-multicenter-ipac-study
#8
Charles F McTiernan, Penelope Morel, Leslie T Cooper, Navin Rajagopalan, Vinay Thohan, Mark Zucker, John Boehmer, Biykem Bozkurt, Paul Mather, John Thornton, Jalal K Ghali, Karen Hanley-Yanez, James Fett, Indrani Halder, Dennis M McNamara
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the hypothesis that the distribution of circulating immune cell subsets, or their activation state, is significantly different between PPCM and healthy postpartum (HP) women. BACKGROUND: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and an immune-mediated etiology has been hypothesized. Cellular immunity, altered in pregnancy and the peripartum period, has been proposed to play a role in PPCM pathogenesis...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074605/allogeneic-human-double-negative-t-cells-as-a-novel-immunotherapy-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#9
Jong Bok Lee, Mark D Minden, Weihsu C Chen, Elena Streck, Branson Chen, Hyeonjeong Kang, Andrea Arruda, Dalam Ly, Sandy D Der, Sohyeong Kang, Paulina Achita, Cheryl D'Souza, Yueyang Li, Richard W Childs, John E Dick, Li Zhang
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of ex vivo expanded healthy donor derived allogeneic CD4 and CD8 double negative cells (DNTs) as a novel cellular immunotherapy for leukemia patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Clinical grade DNTs from peripheral blood of healthy donors were expanded and their anti-leukemic activity and safety were examined using flow-cytometry based in vitro killing assays and xenograft models against AML patient blasts and healthy donor-derived hematopoietic cells...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066268/do-skin-lacerations-imply-tissue-transfer-from-surgeon-to-patient-during-arthroscopic-knot-tying
#10
Matthew B Burn, Heidi L Holtorf, Kevin M Smith, Derek T Bernstein, Domenica A Delgado, Nickarr Prudhomme, Michael T Deavers, Patrick C McCulloch, Joshua D Harris
PURPOSE: To use simulated arthroscopic knot tying to assess (1) whether epithelial cells from the surgeon's hands were transmitted to the suture and (2) whether the number of knots tied or the presence of glove tears would correlate with the number of cells transmitted. METHODS: Knots were tied in a simulated arthroscopic environment using a nonabsorbable No. 2 suture over a metal hook. The surgeon was double gloved for each knot tied. For each "anchor," a surgeon's knot was tied, followed by 3 reversed half-hitches on alternating posts...
October 21, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059705/low-synovial-double-negative-t-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-predict-longer-free-disease-survival-in-oligoarticular-jia
#11
Francesco Licciardi, Maria Ceci, Claudia Toppino, Marco Turco, Silvana Martino, Davide Montin
Background Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (oJIA) is the most frequent form of chronic arthritis in children; the clinical course is extremely variable. In this study we have characterized by flow cytometry synovial B and T cells subsets in patients with oJIA in order to identify any parameters that could predict a more aggressive course of disease. Methods B and T cells from synovial fluid (SF) of 39 patients with oJIA were characterized by flow cytometry. In 22 patients SF was analysed at the onset of the disease (GroupA), in 17 SF was analysed at articular relapse (Group B)...
October 23, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056249/nephrutix-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-vs-rituximab-controlled-trial-assessing-t-cell-subset-changes-in-minimal-change-nephrotic-syndrome
#12
Ahmed Boumediene, Pauline Vachin, Kelhia Sendeyo, Julie Oniszczuk, Shao-Yu Zhang, Carole Henique-Greciet, Andre Pawlak, Vincent Audard, Mario Ollero, Vincent Guigonis, Djillali Sahali
Minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is an immune-mediated glomerular disease. We have analyzed the modifications on T-cell subsets in twenty-three patients who were highly steroid/calcineurin inhibitor and/or mycophenolate mofetil-dependent for frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and who were enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo vs Rituximab-controlled trial. Patients with FRNS entered the trial at remission and were randomly assigned to receive either Rituximab or placebo...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046437/modulation-of-global-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-as-a-strategy-for-increasing-kanamycin-resistance-of-the-translational-elongation-factor-g-mutants-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Aalap Mogre, Reshma T V, Aswin Sai Narain Seshasayee
Evolve and resequence experiments have provided us a tool to understand bacterial adaptation to antibiotics. In our previous work, we had used short term evolution to isolate mutants resistant to the ribosome targeting antibiotic kanamycin, and reported that Escherichia coli develops low cost resistance to kanamycin via  different point mutations in the translation Elongation Factor-G (EF-G). Furthermore, we had shown that the resistance of EF-G mutants could be increased by second site mutations in the genes rpoD / cpxA / topA / cyaA Mutations in three of these genes had been discovered in earlier screens for aminoglycoside resistance...
October 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045964/-increased-serum-c-c-chemokine-ligand-19-levels-correlated-with-b-cell-abnormalities-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#14
H J Liu, L J Shi, F L Hu, H H Yao, Z G Li, Y Jia
OBJECTIVE: To detect the levels of serum C-C chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to evaluate the correlation between CCL19 expression and clinical features and laboratory parameters, trying to reveal the possible role of CCL19 in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: The levels of serum CCL19 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 90 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038451/tc-ptp-regulates-the-il-7-transcriptional-response-during-murine-early-t-cell-development
#15
K A Pike, T Hatzihristidis, S Bussières-Marmen, F Robert, N Desai, D Miranda-Saavedra, J Pelletier, M L Tremblay
Cytokines play a critical role in directing the discrete and gradual transcriptional changes that define T cell development. The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R), via its activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, promotes gene programs that change dynamically as cells progress through T cell differentiation. The molecular mechanism(s) directing differential gene expression downstream of the IL-7R are not fully elucidated. Here, we have identified T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP), also known as PTPN2, as a negative regulator of IL-7R-STAT signaling in T cell progenitors, contributing to both the quantitative and qualitative nature of STAT-gene targeting...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021521/tristetraprolin-inhibits-macrophage-il-27-induced-activation-of-antitumour-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses
#16
Qinghong Wang, Huan Ning, Hui Peng, Lin Wei, Rong Hou, Daniel F Hoft, Jianguo Liu
IFN-γ-producing cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for host defense against viral infection and cancer. Here we show that the RNA-binding tristetraprolin, encoded by Zfp36, is needed for CD8(+) T-cell production of IFN-γ in vivo. When activated in vitro, however, IFN-γ production by naive wild type and tristetraprolin-deficient CD8(+) T-cells is comparable. IL-27 is overproduced by tristetraprolin-deficient macrophages and increased systemically in tristetraprolin-deficient mice. Tristetraprolin suppresses IL-27 production by promoting p28 mRNA degradation...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993778/potential-role-of-v%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-regulation-of-immune-activation-in-primary-hiv-infection
#17
Nupur Bhatnagar, Pierre-Marie Girard, Moises Lopez-Gonzalez, Céline Didier, Lio Collias, Corinne Jung, Diane Bollens, Claudine Duvivier, Cassandre Von Platen, Daniel Scott-Algara, Laurence Weiss
Although conventional regulatory T cells (Tregs) are sufficient in controlling low residual T-cell activation in ART-treated patients, they are not efficient in controlling exaggerated immune activation associated with high levels of HIV replication in primary HIV infection (PHI). Our previous data suggested that double negative (DN) T cells including mainly γδ DN T cells play a role in the control of immune activation in PHI. Since γδ T cells are capable of exerting regulatory functions, we investigated their implication as Tregs in PHI as well as chronic HIV infection (CHI)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991130/autoimmune-lymphoproliferative-syndrome-masquerading-as-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#18
Sarah M Jeffreys, Rebecca A Levy, Shelley E Crary
We present a case of a 2-year-old female presenting with diffuse lymphadenopathy 2 years following orthotopic heart transplant. Initially, she was diagnosed with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease based on clinical presentation and pathology and she was treated accordingly. Because of persistent lymphadenopathy following the completion of chemotherapy and new onset of autoimmune cytopenias, repeat flow of the lymph node showed an elevated double negative T-cell population prompting evaluation for autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977800/xrcc2-deficient-cells-are-highly-sensitive-to-5-fluorouracil-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Yong-Zhou Zhang, Ji-Hong An, Yu-Xin Liu, Xian-Chuang Wu, Shan-Shan Han, Xue-Qun Ren, Chang-Jiang Qin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inhibition of the repair of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced DNA lesions may improve the responses of tumors to anticancer agents. XRCC2 is a key factor in DNA repair. However, the role of XRCC2 in the chemoresistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with 5-FU remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether XRCC2 expression affects the chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer. METHODS: XRCC2 expression in CRC tissues was assessed, and the outcomes were analyzed to determine the clinical importance of XRCC2 expression...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958836/in-vivo-blockade-of-t-cell-development-reveals-alternative-pathways-for-generation-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-mice
#20
Surenchimeg Mondoon, Kensuke Shibata, Yasunobu Yoshikai
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are resident cells localized within the intestinal epithelia and play an important role in regulating gut inflammations and host defense against pathogens. CD8α(+) TCRαβ(+) IELs are heterogeneous populations that are generated from T cell precursors including CD4(-) CD8α(-) double-negative (DN) cells and CD4(+) CD8α(+) double-positive (DP) cells. However, developmental pathways of TCRαβ(+) IELs remained unclear. To gain insight into the mechanisms, we generated mice (Bcl11b(ΔDN2) mice) that lack thymic precursors (DN CD5(+) TCRβ(+) cells) for CD4(-) CD8αα(+) TCRαβ(+) IELs...
November 2017: Immunology Letters
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