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T cell regulation

F-T Li, C-H Yao, L Yao, Z-F Huo, J Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of parecoxib on cerebral infarction in rats and the regulatory mechanism on hypothalamus orexin neurons (orexin) and protein expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 SD male rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group and treatment group (20 rats in each group). Cerebral infarction model was established by modified Longa method. Rats in the treatment group were given parecoxib (2.5 mg kg-1) in tail by intravenous injection, while both the sham operation group and the model group were given the equal volume of sterile PBS solution in the tail vein...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
W-B Kuang, Q -C Deng, C-T Deng, W-S Li, Y-G Zhang, S-W Shu, M-R Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer cell infiltration, migration, and proliferation significantly affect its curative effect. Stemness gene octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) upregulated in breast cancer tissue compared with normal control. MiRNA exhibits regulatory role in gene expression. This study adopted bioinformatics to predict the miRNA to regulate OCT4 gene and investigated its impact on breast cancer cell infiltration, migration, and proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MirBase database was analyzed to explore the potential miRNA in regulating OCT4 based on human OCT4 gene sequence...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Z Xing, H-Y Wang, W-Y Su, Y-F Liu, X-X Wang, P Zhan, T-F Lv, Y Song
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways closely involved in the occurrence and progression of several types of human malignancies. This research was undertaken to elucidate the important role of (Wingless and mouse homolog Int-1) in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Wnt3 expression in lung cancers and their respective normal tissues were examined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Then, Wnt3 was regulated with RNA interference (RNAi) technology in human lung cancer A549 cells, and the cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell invasion/metastasis, and apoptosis were evaluated...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Y Dong, Z-G Wang, T-S Chi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression characteristics of long noncoding ribonucleic acid (lncRNA) lnc01614 in gastric cancer, so as to further investigate its roles in the occurrence and development of gastric cancer and its potential regulatory mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of lnc01614 in 79 pairs of gastric cancer tissues and normal adjacent tissues. The correlations of lnc01614 expression with pathological parameters of gastric cancer and prognoses of patients were also analyzed...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
W-W Liao, C Zhang, F-R Liu, W-J Wang
OBJECTIVE: MiR-155 has been shown to be up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, as its down-regulation is involved in HCC onset. Transcriptional factor FoxO3a mediates BIM expression and is related to HCC pathogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis showed targeted regulation of FoxO3a by miR-155. This study aims to investigate whether miR-155 plays a role in mediating FoxO3a/BIM signal pathway and HCC occurrence...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-G Liu, J Xu, F Li, M-J Li, T Hu
OBJECTIVE: Chemoresistance is one of the obstacles for effective treatment of cancers, and recent evidence has shown that microRNAs play critical roles in drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-377 on cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissues from chemoresistant and control OS patients were subjected to Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess miR-377 expression. The effect and mechanism of miR-377 on cisplatin resistance were assessed using Cell Counting Kit (CCK) 8, flow cytometry, Western blot, and luciferase assays in cisplatin-resistant OS cells lines...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Xingye Xu, Tao Liu, Jian Yang, Lihong Chen, Bo Liu, Lingling Wang, Qi Jin
Trichophyton rubrum is the most common fungal pathogen in the world, which has been studied as an important dermatophyte model organism. Despite the prevalence of T. rubrum, the available antifungal therapies are not sufficiently efficient. In this study, we performed the first comparisons between the two major growth stages of T. rubrum: conidial and mycelial stages, based on their whole-cell proteomes and lysine acetylomes. In total, 4,343 proteins were identified in both stages, and 1,879 proteins were identified as differentially expressed between the two stages...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Su Huang, Yingjia Shen, Duy Pham, Li Jiang, Zheng Wang, Mark H Kaplan, Guangjun Zhang, Jie Sun
IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a key transcription factor that promotes effector CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion. The roles of IRF4 in regulating the CD8+ T cell response to cytokines have not been explored. In this article, we show that IL-2 and IL-15 signaling and STAT5 activation regulate IRF4 expression in CD8+ T cells. Gene-expression profile analysis has also revealed that IRF4 is required for expression of the receptors of IL-2 family cytokines CD122 and CD127. We found that IRF4 binds directly to CD122 and CD127 gene loci, indicating that it may directly promote CD122 and CD127 gene transcription...
August 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
Seungwoo Kim, Hyosoon Cheon, Sam-Moon Kim, Young-Youl Kim
Background: Previous studies indicated that cadmium (Cd) increases PI3-kinase/Akt phosphorylation, resulting in an alteration in GSK-3β activity. However, the mechanism of Cd-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in neuronal cells has yet to be studied in needs further elucidation. We examined the role of GSK-3β in Cd-induced neuronal cell death and the related downstream signaling pathways. Methods: SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with 10 or 20 μM BAPTA-AM and 1 μM wortmannin for 30 min and then incubated with 25 μM Cd for 12 h...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Norbert Donhauser, Stefanie Heym, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-encoded accessory protein p8 is cleaved from the precursor protein p12 encoded by the HTLV-1 open reading frame I. Both p12 and p8 are thought to contribute to efficient viral persistence. Mechanistically, p8 induces T-cell conjugates and cellular conduits. The latter are considered to facilitate transfer of p8 to target cells and virus transmission. Transfer of p8 between p8-expressing T-cells and recipient cells has been analyzed by immunofluorescence and live imaging...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hannah M Knochelmann, Connor J Dwyer, Stefanie R Bailey, Sierra M Amaya, Dirk M Elston, Joni M Mazza-McCrann, Chrystal M Paulos
The balance between Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) has emerged as a prominent factor in regulating autoimmunity and cancer. Th17 cells are vital for host defense against pathogens but have also been implicated in causing autoimmune disorders and cancer, though their role in carcinogenesis is less well understood. Tregs are required for self-tolerance and defense against autoimmunity and often correlate with cancer progression. This review addresses the importance of a functional homeostasis between these two subsets in health and the consequences of its disruption when these forces collide in disease...
March 21, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Laura Tiberio, Annalisa Del Prete, Tiziana Schioppa, Francesca Sozio, Daniela Bosisio, Silvano Sozzani
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells responsible for the activation of specific T-cell responses and for the development of immune tolerance. Immature DCs reside in peripheral tissues and specialize in antigen capture, whereas mature DCs reside mostly in the secondary lymphoid organs where they act as antigen-presenting cells. The correct localization of DCs is strictly regulated by a large variety of chemotactic and nonchemotactic signals that include bacterial products, DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns), complement proteins, lipids, and chemokines...
March 21, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Nassima Chouaki-Benmansour, Kilian Ruminski, Anne-Marie Sartre, Marie-Claire Phelipot, Audrey Salles, Elise Bergot, Ambroise Wu, Gaëtan Chicanne, Mathieu Fallet, Sophie Brustlein, Cyrille Billaudeau, Anthony Formisano, Sébastien Mailfert, Bernard Payrastre, Didier Marguet, Sophie Brasselet, Yannick Hamon, Hai-Tao He
Phosphoinositides (PIs) play important roles in numerous membrane-based cellular activities. However, their involvement in the mechanism of T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction across the plasma membrane (PM) is poorly defined. Here, we investigate their role, and in particular that of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in TCR PM dynamics and activity in a mouse T-cell hybridoma upon ectopic expression of a PM-localized inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (Inp54p). We observed that dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 by the phosphatase increased the TCR/CD3 complex PM lateral mobility prior stimulation...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jason J Gokey, Anusha Sridharan, Yan Xu, Jenna Green, Gianni Carraro, Barry R Stripp, Anne-Karina T Perl, Jeffrey A Whitsett
Hippo/YAP signaling plays pleiotropic roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis and tissue repair. Herein we demonstrate increased YAP activity in respiratory epithelial cells in lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a common, lethal form of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Immunofluorescence staining in IPF epithelial cells demonstrated increased nuclear YAP and loss of MST1/2. Bioinformatic analyses of epithelial cell RNA profiles predicted increased activity of YAP and increased canonical mTOR/PI3K/AKT signaling in IPF...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Miranda E Good, Stephanie A Eucker, Jun Li, Hannah M Bacon, Susan M Lang, Joshua T Butcher, Tyler J Johnson, Ronald P Gaykema, Manoj K Patel, Zhiyi Zuo, Brant E Isakson
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US; however, there currently exists only one effective acute pharmacological therapeutic intervention. Purinergic signaling has been shown to regulate vascular function and pathological processes, including inflammation and arterial myogenic reactivity, and plays a role in ischemic stroke outcome. Purinergic signaling requires extracellular purines; however, the mechanism of purine release from cells is unclear. Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels are potentially novel purine release channels expressed throughout the vascular tree that couples regulated purine release with purinergic signaling...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Daniel A Giles, Traci E Stankiewicz, Rachel Sheridan, Rebekah Karns, Monica Cappelletti, Kristin Lampe, Rajib Mukherjee, Christian Sina, Anthony Sallese, James P Bridges, Simon P Hogan, Bruce J Aronow, Kasper Hoebe, Senad Divanovic
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a metabolic predisposition for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), represents a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis to cirrhosis. Acox1, a rate-limiting enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, regulates metabolism, spontaneous hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular damage over time. However, it is unknown whether Acox1 modulates inflammation relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis or if Acox1-associated metabolic and inflammatory derangements uncover and accelerate potential for NAFLD progression...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Gao Zhang, Lawrence W Wu, Ilgen Mender, Michal Barzily-Rokni, Marc R Hammond, Omotayo Ope, Chaoran Cheng, Sergio Randell, Norah Sadek, Aurelie Beroard, Min Xiao, Tian Tian, Jiufeng Tan, Umar Saeed, Eric Sugarman, Clemens Krepler, Patricia A Brafford, Katrin Sproesser, Sengottuvelan Murugan, Rajasekharan Somasundaram, Bradley Garman, Bradley Wubbenhorst, Jonathan Woo, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Dennie T Frederick, Benchun Miao, Wei Xu, Giorgos C Karakousis, Xiaowei Xu, Lynn M Schuchter, Tara C Mitchell, Lawrence N Kwong, Ravi K Amaravadi, Yiling Lu, Genevieve Boland, Zhi Wei, Katherine L Nathanson, Gordon B Mills, Keith T Flaherty, Jerry W Shay, Meenhard Herlyn, Themistoklis Vasilopoulos, Utz Herbig
PURPOSE: Telomerase promoter mutations are highly prevalent in human tumors including melanoma. A subset of patients with metastatic melanoma often fail multiple therapies and there is an unmet and urgent need to prolong disease control for those patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Numerous pre-clinical therapy-resistant models of human and mouse melanoma were used to test the efficacy of a telomerase-directed nucleoside, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG). Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics approaches were used to identify genes and proteins that were significantly down-regulated by 6-thio-dG...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Z H Lin, H Liu, L Zhu, X Yang, Y P Zhang, J Qian, H Y Liu
Objective: To explore the effects and possible mechanism of rapamycin (RAPA) on apoptosis of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs from the mouse severe aplastic anemia (SAA) model. Methods: The BALB/c female SAA model mice were induced by interferon-gamma in combination with busulphan. The SAA model mice were intraperitoneal injection with RAPA at daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg for 5 days (the RAPA-treated group, n =15) in the SAA group ( n =15) and the un-treated group ( n =15) were control. Bone marrow hematopoiesis changes were observed by the patho-morphological examination of femurs...
March 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Motomu Endo, Masayasu Yoshida, Youhei Sasaki, Katsuya Negishi, Kobo Horikawa, Yasufumi Daimon, Ken-Ichi Kurotani, Michitaka Notaguchi, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
In many plants, timing of flowering is regulated by day length. In Arabidopsis, florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells in response to long days and is transported to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) through the phloem. The temporal aspects of florigen transportation have been studied in various plants by physiological experiments. Nevertheless, little is known how FT protein transportation is regulated in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed heat-shock based transient FT induction in a single leaf blade and detected the FT protein in shoot apex by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lorraine A O'Reilly, Tracy L Putoczki, Lisa A Mielke, Jun T Low, Ann Lin, Adele Preaudet, Marco J Herold, Kelvin Yaprianto, Lin Tai, Andrew Kueh, Guido Pacini, Richard L Ferrero, Raffi Gugasyan, Yifang Hu, Michael Christie, Stephen Wilcox, Raelene Grumont, Michael D W Griffin, Liam O'Connor, Gordon K Smyth, Mathias Ernst, Paul Waring, Steve Gerondakis, Andreas Strasser
Polymorphisms in NFKB1 that diminish its expression have been linked to human inflammatory diseases and increased risk for epithelial cancers. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, and the link is perplexing given that NF-κB signaling reportedly typically exerts pro-tumorigenic activity. Here we have shown that NF-κB1 deficiency, even loss of a single allele, resulted in spontaneous invasive gastric cancer (GC) in mice that mirrored the histopathological progression of human intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
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