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T cell regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648041/-effects-of-hypoxia-on-the-phenotype-transformation-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-to-myofibroblasts-and-the-mechanism
#1
B Zhao, F Han, W Zhang, X J Wang, J Zhang, F F Yang, J H Shi, L L Su, D H Hu
Objective: To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism. Methods: The third passage of healthy adult human dermal fibroblasts in logarithmic phase were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for the following five experiments. (1) In experiments 1, 2, and 3, cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia group according to the random number table, with 10 dishes in each group. Cells of normoxia group were cultured in incubator containing 21% oxygen, while those of hypoxia group with 1% oxygen...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647962/-effect-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-trophocytes-on-the-pathogenesis-of-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy
#2
Y Yu, C L Zhou, T T Yu, X J Han, H Y Shi, H Z Wang, J J Shen, J He
Objective: To evaluate the effect of endoplasmic reticulum stress in trophocytes, in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Methods: Sixty-one pregnant women who were hospitalized in Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University from January to December 2015 were recruited. Thirty-one women who were diagnosed as ICP were defined as the ICP group and 30 healthy pregnant women were defined as the control group. The localization and expression intensity of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP-78) in placental tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique...
June 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647856/glial-and-neuronal-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-alpha-ptp%C3%AE-regulate-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#3
Yuda Shih, Philip T T Ly, Jing Wang, Catherine J Pallen
CNS myelination defects occur in mice deficient in receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPα). Here, we investigated the role of PTPα in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination using cells and tissues from wild-type (WT) and PTPα knockout (KO) mice. PTPα promoted the timely differentiation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Compared to WT OPCs, KO OPC cultures had more NG2+ progenitors, fewer myelin basic protein (MBP)+ oligodendrocytes, and reduced morphological complexity...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647567/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-regulates-sorafenib-resistance-via-modulation-of-er-stress-induced-differentiation
#4
Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
We investigated the functional role and clinical significance of Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulation of liver tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and sorafenib resistance, aiming to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) METHODS We evaluated the clinic-pathological relevance of SCD1 and its correlation with sorafenib resistance in large cohorts of HCC clinical samples by qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown approaches were performed to characterize functional roles of SCD1 in regulation of liver T-ICs and sorafenib resistance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647344/oncogene-expressing-senescent-melanocytes-upregulate-mhc-class-ii-a-candidate-melanoma-suppressor-function
#5
John van Tuyn, Farah Jaber-Hijazi, Douglas MacKenzie, John J Cole, Elizabeth Mann, Jeff S Pawlikowski, Taranjit Singh Rai, David M Nelson, Tony McBryan, Andre Ivanov, Karen Blyth, Hong Wu, Simon Milling, Peter D Adams
On acquisition of an oncogenic mutation, primary human and mouse cells can enter oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). OIS is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Proliferation arrest and the SASP collaborate to enact tumor suppression, the former by blocking cell proliferation and the latter by recruiting immune cells to clear damaged cells. However, the interactions of OIS cells with the immune system are still poorly defined...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647182/preoperative-application-of-combination-of-portal-venous-injection-of-donor-spleen-cells-and-intraperitoneal-injection-of-rapamycin-prolongs-the-survival-of-cardiac-allografts-in-mice
#6
Wen-Lin Gong, Chuang Sha, Gang Du, Zhong-Gui Shan, Zhong-Quan Qi, Su-Fang Zhou, Nuo Yang, Yong-Xiang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of preoperative portal venous injection of donor spleen cells (PVIDSC) and intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin in the acute rejection of cardiac allograft in mice and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Homogenous female B6 mice and BALB/c mice were used as recipients and donors of heart transplantation. These mice were randomly divided into different groups and received PVIDSC alone, rapamycin alone, or PVIDSC and rapamycin combined therapy...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646856/the-imbalance-of-th17-treg-cells-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#7
Beihui He, Liyan Wu, Wei Xie, Yitong Shao, Jianping Jiang, Zhenzhong Zhao, Maoxiang Yan, Zhiyun Chen, Dawei Cui
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common, chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells play critical roles in various disorders of liver inflammation. Here, we explored the value of polyene phosphatidylcholine capsules (PPC) for regulating the imbalance of Th17/Treg cells in the pathogenesis of mice with NAFLD. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows:normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HF),and HF plus PPC(HF + PPC)...
June 24, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646573/interferon-%C3%AE-regulates-dendritic-cell-activation-and-migration-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#8
Leesa M Pennell, Eleanor N Fish
CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) exert a critical role as antigen-presenting cells in regulating pathogenic T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). To determine whether the therapeutic benefit of interferon (IFN)-β treatment for MS is in part influenced by IFN regulation of DC function, we examined the immunophenotype of DCs derived from IFN-β(+/+) and IFN-β(-/-) mice using a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-induced mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our earlier work identified that IFN-β(-/-) mice exhibit earlier onset and more rapid progression of neurologic impairment compared with IFN-β(+/+) mice...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#9
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646117/cyclin-dependent-kinase-9-is-a-novel-specific-molecular-target-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#10
Tomoko Narita, Takashi Ishida, Asahi Ito, Ayako Masaki, Shiori Kinoshita, Susumu Suzuki, Hisashi Takino, Takashi Yoshida, Masaki Ri, Shigeru Kusumoto, Hirokazu Komatsu, Kazunori Imada, Yuetsu Tanaka, Takaori-Kondo Akifumi, Hiroshi Inagaki, Arne Scholz, Philip Lienau, Taruho Kuroda, Ryuzo Ueda, Shinsuke Iida
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), a subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, regulates gene transcription elongation by phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII).  The deregulation of CDK9/P-TEFb has important implications for many cancer types.  BAY 1143572 is a novel and highly selective CDK9/P-TEFb inhibitor currently being investigated in phase I studies. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of BAY 1143572 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL)...
June 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646042/on-the-role-il-4-il-13-heteroreceptor-plays-in-regulation-of-type-1-diabetes
#11
Tobechukwu K Ukah, Alexis N Cattin-Roy, Weirong Chen, Mindy M Miller, Subhasis Barik, Habib Zaghouani
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) manifests when the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells are destroyed as a consequence of an inflammatory process initiated by lymphocytes of the immune system. The NOD mouse develops T1D spontaneously and serves as an animal model for human T1D. The IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 heteroreceptor (HR) serves both IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines, which are believed to function as anti-inflammatory cytokines in T1D. However, whether the HR provides a responsive element to environmental (i.e., physiologic) IL-4/IL-13 in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and the development of T1D has yet to be defined...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646017/ror%C3%AE-modulates-semaphorin-3e-transcription-and-neurovascular-interaction-in-pathological-retinal-angiogenesis
#12
Ye Sun, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Zhongxiao Wang, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, John Paul SanGiovanni, Theodore M Kamenecka, Laura A Solt, Jing Chen
Pathological proliferation of retinal blood vessels commonly causes vision impairment in proliferative retinopathies, including retinopathy of prematurity. Dysregulated crosstalk between the vasculature and retinal neurons is increasingly recognized as a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), a group of neuron-secreted axonal and vascular guidance factors, suppress pathological vascular growth in retinopathy. However, the upstream transcriptional regulators that mediate the function of SEMA3s in vascular growth are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645614/site-1-protease-a-novel-metabolic-target-for-glioblastoma
#13
Beth T Caruana, Aleksandra Skoric, Andrew J Brown, Louise H Lutze-Mann
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcriptional regulators of lipids which promote glioblastoma growth. Here, we investigate the effect of inhibiting expression of SREBP target genes in human glioblastoma cells. This was achieved by using PF-429242 to inhibit site-1 protease (S1P), an enzyme required for SREBP activation. Treatment with PF-429242 decreased glioblastoma cell viability, induced apoptosis and downregulated steroid, isoprenoid and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathways...
June 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645613/regulation-of-testicular-steroidogenesis-by-foxa3-via-transcriptional-modulation-of-er%C3%AE-signaling-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm
#14
Yong Zhao, Hong-Xin Li, Ke Wang, Bin-Yuan Yan, Wei Li
Although both insulin and estrogen receptor α (ERα) are known to exert inhibitory effects on testicular steroidogenesis, it remains unknown whether these pathways regulate testosterone (T) production under certain pathological conditions [e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)] in a coordinated manner. Here, we found that the expression of forkhead box protein A3 (Foxa3), an essential transcriptional regulator engaged in adipogenesis and energy metabolism, was significantly down-regulated in the Leydig cells (LCs) from T-deficient T2DM mice...
June 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645307/aberrant-intestinal-microbiota-due-to-il-1-receptor-antagonist-deficiency-promotes-il-17-and-tlr4-dependent-arthritis
#15
Rebecca Rogier, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jos Boekhorst, Harm Wopereis, Jose U Scher, Julia Manasson, Sanne J C M Frambach, Jan Knol, Johan Garssen, Peter M van der Kraan, Marije I Koenders, Wim B van den Berg, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz
BACKGROUND: Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn (-/-) mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn (-/-) mice...
June 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644966/an-immunosuppressive-function-of-interleukin-35-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#16
Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Xue Shao, Wenrui Wang, Chuanhui Zhang, Zhenjing Jin
Interleukin (IL)-35, a newly identified member of the IL-12 cytokine family, has been reported to suppress inflammation and induce immunotolerance. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-35 during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we measured the serum IL-35 concentration of 73 patients with hepatitis C and 22 healthy individuals, as well as further investigated the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on hepatocytes infected with HCV in cell culture (HCVcc)...
June 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644774/cd33-splicing-polymorphism-determines-gemtuzumab-ozogamicin-response-in-de-novo-acute-myeloid-leukemia-report-from-randomized-phase-iii-children-s-oncology-group-trial-aaml0531
#17
Jatinder K Lamba, Lata Chauhan, Miyoung Shin, Michael R Loken, Jessica A Pollard, Yi-Cheng Wang, Rhonda E Ries, Richard Aplenc, Betsy A Hirsch, Susana C Raimondi, Roland B Walter, Irwin D Bernstein, Alan S Gamis, Todd A Alonzo, Soheil Meshinchi
Purpose Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a CD33-targeted immunoconjugate, is a re-emerging therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CD33 single nucleotide polymorphism rs12459419 C>T in the splice enhancer region regulates the expression of an alternatively spliced CD33 isoform lacking exon2 (D2-CD33), thus eliminating the CD33 IgV domain, which is the antibody-binding site for GO, as well as diagnostic immunophenotypic panels. We aimed to determine the impact of the genotype of this splicing polymorphism in patients with AML treated with GO-containing chemotherapy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644763/methyltransferase-g9a-regulates-osteogenesis-via-twist-gene-repression
#18
N Higashihori, B Lehnertz, A Sampaio, T M Underhill, F Rossi, J M Richman
Here we investigate the role of epigenetic factors in controlling the timing of cranial neural crest cell differentiation. The gene coding for histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase G9A was conditionally deleted in neural crest cells with Wnt1-Cre. The majority of homozygous-null animals survived to birth but thereafter failed to thrive. Phenotypic analysis of postnatal animals revealed that the mutants displayed incomplete ossification and 20% shorter jaws as compared to their wild-type littermates. At E13...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644433/ctla-4-mediated-posttranslational-modifications-direct-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-differentiation
#19
Holger Lingel, Josef Wissing, Aditya Arra, Denny Schanze, Stefan Lienenklaus, Frank Klawonn, Mandy Pierau, Martin Zenker, Lothar Jänsch, Monika C Brunner-Weinzierl
The blockade of inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 (CD152) is being used as immune-checkpoint therapy, offering a powerful strategy to restore effective immune responses against tumors. To determine signal components that are induced under the control of CTLA-4 we analyzed activated murine CD8(+) T cells by quantitative proteomics. Accurate mass spectrometry revealed that CTLA-4 engagement led to central changes in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in T-cell differentiation. Beside other targets, we discovered a CTLA-4-mediated induction of the translational inhibitor programmed cell death-4 (PDCD4) as a result of FoxO1 nuclear re-localization...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644030/a-plc-%C3%AE-1-feedback-pathway-regulates-lck-substrate-phosphorylation-at-the-t-cell-receptor-and-slp-76-complex
#20
Judson Belmont, Tao Gu, Ashley Marie Mudd, Arthur R Salomon
Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) occupies a critically important position in the T cell signaling pathway. While its functions as a regulator of both Ca2+ signaling and PKC-family kinases are well characterized, PLC-γ1's role in the regulation of early T cell receptor signaling events is incompletely understood. Activation of the T cell receptor leads to the formation of a signalosome complex between SLP-76, LAT, PLC-γ1, Itk, and Vav1. Recent studies have revealed the existence of both positive and negative feedback pathways from SLP-76 to the apical kinase in the pathway, Lck...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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