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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149648/dried-plum-alleviates-symptoms-of-inflammatory-arthritis-in-tnf-transgenic-mice
#1
Faryal Mirza, Joseph Lorenzo, Hicham Drissi, Francis Y Lee, Do Y Soung
Dried plum (DP), a rich source of polyphenols has been shown to have bone-preserving properties in both animal models of osteoporosis and postmenopausal women. We evaluated if DP alleviated the destruction of joints in transgenic mice (TG) that overexpress human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a genetic model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A four-week treatment of 20% DP diet in TG slowed the onset of arthritis and reduced bone erosions in the joints compared to TG on a regular diet. This was associated with fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells, suggesting decreased osteoclastogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149590/just-a-spoonful-of-sugar-htlv-1-style
#2
Naomi Taylor
Host cell metabolism regulates viral infection. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Kulkarni et al. (2017) reveal the importance of oxygen concentrations and glycolysis in the reactivation of human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1). Identifying the host metabolic networks that regulate infection will foster our understanding of HTLV-1-associated pathologies.
November 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149457/hmgb1-controls-liver-cancer-initiation-through-yap-dependent-aerobic-glycolysis
#3
Ruochan Chen, Shan Zhu, Xue-Gong Fan, Haichao Wang, Michael T Lotze, Herbert J Zeh, Timothy R Billiar, Rui Kang, Daolin Tang
Emerging studies have suggested that the Hippo pathway is involved in the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the key regulator of the Hippo pathway in liver tumor metabolic reprogramming remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence to support that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromosomal protein, plays a role in the regulation of the Hippo pathway during liver tumorigenesis. Cre/loxP recombination-mediated HMGB1 depletion in hepatocytes blocks diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer initiation in mice, whereas shRNA-mediated gene silencing of HMGB1 inhibits HCC cell proliferation...
November 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149107/treponema-denticola-chymotrypsin-like-proteinase-may-contribute-to-orodigestive-carcinogenesis-through-immunomodulation
#4
Mikko T Nieminen, Dyah Listyarifah, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Daniel Grenier, Dan Nordström, Veli-Jukka Uitto, Marcela Hernandez, Tülay Yucel-Lindberg, Taina Tervahartiala, Mari Ainola, Timo Sorsa
BACKGROUND: Periodontal pathogens have been linked to oral and gastrointestinal (orodigestive) carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Treponema denticola (Td) is associated with severe periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease leading to tooth loss. The anaerobic spirochete Td is an invasive bacteria due to its major virulence factor chymotrypsin-like proteinase. Here we aimed to investigate the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like proteinase (Td-CTLP) in major orodigestive tumours and to elucidate potential mechanisms for Td to contribute to carcinogenesis...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149105/lgr5-expression-is-regulated-by-egf-in-early-colorectal-adenomas-and-governs-egfr-inhibitor-sensitivity
#5
R G Morgan, E Mortensson, D N Legge, B Gupta, T J Collard, A Greenhough, A C Williams
BACKGROUND: LGR5 serves as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signalling and marks normal intestinal stem cells; however, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. LGR5(+) cells are known to exist outside the stem cell niche during CRC progression, and the requirement for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling within early adenomas remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Epidermal growth factor and gefitinib treatments were performed in EGF-responsive LGR5(+) early adenoma RG/C2 cells...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148847/emerging-therapeutic-targets-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-and-peripheral-t-cell-leukemia-and-lymphomas
#6
Anna Orlova, Bettina Wingelhofer, Heidi A Neubauer, Barbara Maurer, Angelika Berger-Becvar, György Miklós Keserű, Patrick T Gunning, Peter Valent, Richard Moriggl
Hematopoietic neoplasms are often driven by gain-of-function mutations of the JAK-STAT pathway together with mutations of chromatin remodeling and DNA damage control pathways. The interconnection between the JAK-STAT pathway, epigenetic regulation or DNA damage control is still poorly understood in cancer cell biology. Areas covered: Here, we focus on a broader description of mutational insights into myeloproliferative neoplasms and peripheral T-cell leukemia and lymphomas, since sequencing efforts have identified similar combinations of driver mutations in these diseases covering different lineages...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148104/neuregulin-1-promotes-remyelination-and-fosters-a-pro-regenerative-inflammatory-response-in-focal-demyelinating-lesions-of-the-spinal-cord
#7
Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Ghazaleh M Shahriary, Shekoofeh Saboktakin Rizi, Ryan Henrie, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, James A Thliveris, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Oligodendroglial cell death and demyelination are hallmarks of neurotrauma and multiple sclerosis that cause axonal damage and functional impairments. Remyelination remains a challenge as the ability of endogenous precursor cells for oligodendrocyte replacement is hindered in the unfavorable milieu of demyelinating conditions. Here, in a rat model of lysolecithin lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC)-induced focal demyelination, we report that Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1), an important factor for oligodendrocytes and myelination, is dysregulated in demyelinating lesions and its bio-availability can promote oligodendrogenesis and remyelination...
November 17, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148041/fscn1-predicts-survival-and-is-regulated-by-a-pi3k-dependent-mechanism-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Mengping Zhang, Zhijian Zhao, Xiaolu Duan, Ping Chen, Zhenwei Peng, Huijuan Qiu
While overexpression of FSCN1 is reported in several cancers, the prognostic significance of FSCN1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 194 patients with non-metastatic clear-cell RCC undergoing nephrectomy in our center between 2008 and 2011. FSCN1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and its association with clinicopathologic features and survival were evaluated. Functional effects of a modulated FSCN1 expression were analyzed with regard to invasion in RCC cell lines and metastasis in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147753/defective-wnt-signaling-associates-with-bone-marrow-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study-in-a-family-with-wnt1-osteoporosis
#9
R E Mäkitie, R Niinimäki, S Kakko, T Honkanen, P E Kovanen, O Mäkitie
This study explores bone marrow function in patients with defective WNT1 signaling. Bone marrow samples showed increased reticulin and altered granulopoiesis while overall hematopoiesis was normal. Findings did not associate with severity of osteoporosis. These observations provide new insight into the role of WNT signaling in bone marrow homeostasis. INTRODUCTION: WNT signaling regulates bone homeostasis and survival and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. Aberrant activation may lead to osteoporosis and bone marrow pathology...
November 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147615/tumor-associated-neutrophils-induce-apoptosis-of-non-activated-cd8-t-cells-in-a-tnf%C3%AE-and-no-dependent-mechanism-promoting-a-tumor-supportive-environment
#10
Janna Michaeli, Merav E Shaul, Inbal Mishalian, Avi-Hai Hovav, Liran Levy, Lidia Zolotriov, Zvi Granot, Zvi G Fridlender
The role of neutrophils in tumor progression has become in recent years a subject of growing interest. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), which constitute an important portion of the tumor microenvironment, promote immunosuppression in advanced tumors by modulating the proliferation, activation and recruitment of a variety of immune cell types. Studies which investigated the consequences of manipulating TAN polarization suggest that the impact of these neutrophils on tumor progression is considerably mediated by and dependent on the presence of CD8 T-cells...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147614/exploiting-a-new-strategy-to-induce-immunogenic-cell-death-to-improve-dendritic-cell-based-vaccines-for-lymphoma-immunotherapy
#11
B Montico, C Lapenta, M Ravo, D Martorelli, E Muraro, B Zeng, E Comaro, M Spada, S Donati, S M Santini, R Tarallo, G Giurato, F Rizzo, A Weisz, F Belardelli, R Dolcetti, J Dal Col
Although promising, the clinical benefit provided by dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines is still limited and the choice of the optimal antigen formulation is still an unresolved issue. We have developed a new DC-based vaccination protocol for aggressive and/or refractory lymphomas which combines the unique features of interferon-conditioned DC (IFN-DC) with highly immunogenic tumor cell lysates (TCL) obtained from lymphoma cells undergoing immunogenic cell death. We show that treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines with 9-cis-retinoic acid and IFNα (RA/IFNα) induces early membrane exposure of Calreticulin, HSP70 and 90 together with CD47 down-regulation and enhanced HMGB1 secretion...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147453/ctla-4-genetic-variants-rs11571317-and-rs3087243-role-in-susceptibility-and-progression-of-breast-cancer
#12
Maruthi Goske, V R Vinish Ramachander, Prasanna Latha Komaravalli, P Fazul Rahman, Chandrasekhar Rao, Parveen Jahan
Background: Dysfunctional regulation at immune checkpoints may lead to escape of the tumor cells and gives a scope to set in the unresolved Breast cancer (BC). The major anti-tumor retort is cell-mediated response which involves T lymphocytes. CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein-4) with immune suppressive function and tolerance is associated with various autoimmune diseases and cancers including BC. The present study deals with CTLA-4 gene selected polymorphisms (rs11571317 C/T and rs3087243G/A) to explore their relation with breast cancer susceptibility and progression in BC patients...
October 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147008/the-transcription-factor-batf3-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-periphery
#13
Wonyong Lee, Hyeong Su Kim, Soo Seok Hwang, Gap Ryol Lee
Naive CD4 T cells activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) undergo terminal differentiation in the periphery. Multiple mechanisms determine their fates, that is, whether they differentiate into conventional T (Tconv) cells or regulatory T (Treg) cells. The key event during Treg generation is expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, which is the lineage-determining regulator for Treg differentiation and function. Here we show that the transcription factor Batf3 acts as a fate-decision factor with respect to Tconv versus Tregs by restraining Treg differentiation...
November 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146881/beta-adrenergic-signaling-impairs-anti-tumor-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-b-cell-lymphoma-immunotherapy
#14
Michael D Nissen, Erica K Sloan, Stephen R Mattarollo
Beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) signaling regulates many physiological processes, including immune system responses. There is growing evidence also for betaAR-induced modulation of cancer growth and metastasis. In the Eu-myc mouse model of B-cell lymphoma, we investigated the effects of chronically elevated betaAR signaling on lymphoma progression and anti-tumor immunity, as well as the impact on cancer immunotherapy. Chronic treatment with the non-selective beta-agonist isoprenaline promoted lymphoma development in a manner dependent on signaling within the hematopoietic compartment...
November 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146735/reduced-dnmt3a-increases-gdf5-expression-with-suppressed-satellite-cell-differentiation-and-impaired-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#15
Yukino Hatazawa, Yusuke Ono, Yuma Hirose, Sayaka Kanai, Nobuharu L Fujii, Shuichi Machida, Ichizo Nishino, Takahiko Shimizu, Masaki Okano, Yasutomi Kamei, Yoshihiro Ogawa
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. In this study, we observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) expression is decreased after muscle atrophy. We made skeletal muscle-specific Dnmt3a knockout mice (Dnmt3a-KO mice). The regeneration capacity after muscle injury was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Diminished mRNA and protein expression of Dnmt3a were observed in skeletal muscles as well as in satellite cells, which are important for muscle regeneration, in Dnmt3a-KO mice...
November 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146643/are-il18rap-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-body-mass-regulation-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Vanesa Martínez-Barquero, Griselda de Marco, Sergio Martínez-Hervas, Victoria Adam-Felici, Cristina Pérez-Soriano, Verónica Gonzalez-Albert, Gemma Rojo, Juan Francisco Ascaso, José Tomás Real, Ana Barbara Garcia-Garcia, Juan Carlos Martín-Escudero, Raquel Cortes, Felipe Javier Chaves
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between IL18RAP and body mass index (BMI) and obesity and to verify the effect of a polymorphism in the microRNA136 (MIR136) IL18RAP binding region. DESIGN: We analysed samples from two Spanish cross-sectional studies, VALCAR (Spanish Mediterranean coast) and Hortega (Spanish centre). These studies aimed at analysing cardiovascular risk and development of cardiovascular disease in the general population. Both populations correspond to regions with different characteristics...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146487/mitochondria-a-master-regulator-in-macrophage-and-t-cell-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Pu-Ste Liu, Ping-Chih Ho
Orchestrating biological activities of immune cells through metabolic reprogramming reveals a new approach to harnessing immune responses. Increasing evidence reveals that the mitochondrion is a central regulator for modulating metabolic reprogramming and controlling immune cell activation and functions. In addition to supporting bioenergetic demands, the mitochondrion serves as a signaling platform through the generation of reactive oxygen species and metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to modulate signaling cascades controlling immune cell activation and immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145927/corrigendum-to-hypoxia-limits-mouse-follicle-growth-in-vitro
#18
J M Connolly, M T Kane, L R Quinlan, P Dockery, A C Hynes
Ovarian follicle culture is useful for elucidation of factors involved in the regulation of follicular function. We examined the effects of gas phase oxygen concentration, an oil overlay, serum type and medium supplementation with FSH, insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and I-ascorbic acid on cultured preantral mouse follicle growth in a spherical, non-attached follicle culture system. Follicle growth in 5% oxygen was significantly (P<0.01) inferior to growth in 20% oxygen in terms of follicle diameter. This was likely due to hypoxia, as evidenced by significantly (P<0...
February 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145862/l161982-alleviates-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice-by-increasing-treg-cells-and-down-regulating-interleukin-17-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-levels
#19
Liang Chen, Xianglei Wu, Jun Zhong, Dongqing Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects and potential mechanism of L161982 (a kind of EP4 antagonist) on the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice model. METHODS: The CIA mice model were first established by immunizing with Chicken Type II Collagen on DBA/1 mice. The CIA groups were administered once a day for 2 weeks with either 5 mg/kg L161982 by intraperitoneal injections (IP), 200 U celecoxib by intragastrical injections, or 100 μl PBS (IP). At the end of the study, total arthritis score and histopathologic examination were assessed to determine CIA severity...
November 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145855/generation-of-a-platform-strain-for-ionic-liquid-tolerance-using-adaptive-laboratory-evolution
#20
Elsayed T Mohamed, Shizeng Wang, Rebecca M Lennen, Markus J Herrgård, Blake A Simmons, Steven W Singer, Adam M Feist
BACKGROUND: There is a need to replace petroleum-derived with sustainable feedstocks for chemical production. Certain biomass feedstocks can meet this need as abundant, diverse, and renewable resources. Specific ionic liquids (ILs) can play a role in this process as promising candidates for chemical pretreatment and deconstruction of plant-based biomass feedstocks as they efficiently release carbohydrates which can be fermented. However, the most efficient pretreatment ILs are highly toxic to biological systems, such as microbial fermentations, and hinder subsequent bioprocessing of fermentative sugars obtained from IL-treated biomass...
November 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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