Read by QxMD icon Read

T cell regulation

Cinthia C Stempin, Claudia C Motrán, María P Aoki, Cristian R Falcón, Fabio M Cerbán, Laura Cervi
Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Jocelyn P Wong, Jason R Todd, Martina A Finetti, Frank McCarthy, Malgorzata Broncel, Simon Vyse, Maciej T Luczynski, Stephen Crosier, Karen A Ryall, Kate Holmes, Leo S Payne, Frances Daley, Patty Wai, Andrew Jenks, Barbara Tanos, Aik-Choon Tan, Rachael C Natrajan, Daniel Williamson, Paul H Huang
Subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are mutated in a significant proportion of human cancers. Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are lethal pediatric cancers characterized by a deficiency in the SWI/SNF subunit SMARCB1. Here, we employ an integrated molecular profiling and chemical biology approach to demonstrate that the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) PDGFRα and FGFR1 are coactivated in MRT cells and that dual blockade of these receptors has synergistic efficacy. Inhibitor combinations targeting both receptors and the dual inhibitor ponatinib suppress the AKT and ERK1/2 pathways leading to apoptosis...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
T J Mai, R Ma, Z Li, S C Bi
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation, which competes with CD28 for B7.1/B7.2 binding, and which has a greater affinity. Fusion of specific antigens to extracellular domain of CTLA4 represents a promising approach to increase the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In this study, we evaluated this interesting approach for CTLA4 enhancement on prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific immune responses and its anti-tumor effects in a prostate cancer mouse model...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
Lei Dong, Wen-Mei Yu, Hong Zheng, Mignon L Loh, Silvia T Bunting, Melinda Pauly, Gang Huang, Muxiang Zhou, Hal E Broxmeyer, David T Scadden, Cheng-Kui Qu
Germline activating mutations of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11), a positive regulator of the RAS signalling pathway, are found in 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome. These patients have an increased risk of developing leukaemia, especially juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML), a childhood myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Previous studies have demonstrated that mutations in Ptpn11 induce a JMML-like MPN through cell-autonomous mechanisms that are dependent on Shp2 catalytic activity...
October 26, 2016: Nature
V O Gunko, T N Pogorelova, V A Linde
Mass-spectrometric profiling of the serum in women at weeks 16-17 of gestation was carried out in order to detect proteomic predictors of preterm delivery. Changes in the production of 25 proteins (down-regulation for 13 proteins and up-regulation for 12 proteins) were detected in the sera of women whose pregnancies eventuated in premature deliveries. Among them, proteins with various regulatory functions were distinguished: antioxidant enzymes, chaperons, cytoskeleton proteins, cell adhesion molecules, and proteins involved in angiogenesis, proteolysis, transcription, inflammation processes, binding and transportation of various ligands...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Mehdi Najar, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Wissam H Faour, Bassam Badran, Fabrice Journe, Laurence Lagneaux
OBJECTIVE: The role of direct cell-cell interactions mediating selective bone metastasis by breast cancer cells (BCCs) niche is still mostly unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conditioned medium and direct cell-cell contacts experiments were used to investigate the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), osteoprogenitor-like cells (MG-63) and osteosarcoma cells (SaOS-2) on luminal-like (MCF-7) and basal-like (MDA-MB-231) BCCs flow cytometry was used to assess the purity of isolated BCCs and osteoblasts...
October 25, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Anna Erdei, Noémi Sándor, Bernadett Mácsik-Valent, Szilvia Lukácsi, Mariann Kremlitzka, Zsuzsa Bajtay
The complement system is a major component of immune defense. Activation of the complement cascade by foreign substances and altered self-structures may lead to the elimination of the activating agent, and during the enzymatic cascade, several biologically active fragments are generated. Most immune regulatory effects of complement are mediated by the activation products of C3, the central component. The indispensable role of C3 in opsonic phagocytosis as well as in the regulation of humoral immune response is known for long, while the involvement of complement in T-cell biology have been revealed in the past few years...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Simon Freeley, Claudia Kemper, Gaëlle Le Friec
The complement system represents an evolutionary old and critical component of innate immunity where it forms the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Originally described as a heat-labile fraction of the serum responsible for the opsonization and subsequent lytic killing of bacteria, work over the last century firmly established complement as a key mediator of the general inflammatory response but also as an acknowledged vital bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. However, recent studies particularly spanning the last decade have provided new insights into the novel modes and locations of complement activation and highlighted unexpected additional biological functions for this ancient system, for example, in regulating basic processes of the cell...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Jinwei Zhang, Geng Gao, Gulnaz Begum, Jinhua Wang, Arjun R Khanna, Boris E Shmukler, Gerrit M Daubner, Paola de Los Heros, Paul Davies, Joby Varghese, Mohammad Iqbal H Bhuiyan, Jinjing Duan, Jin Zhang, Daniel Duran, Seth L Alper, Dandan Sun, Stephen J Elledge, Dario R Alessi, Kristopher T Kahle
Cell volume homeostasis requires the dynamically regulated transport of ions across the plasmalemma. While the ensemble of ion transport proteins involved in cell volume regulation is well established, the molecular coordinators of their activities remain poorly characterized. We utilized a functional kinomics approach including a kinome-wide siRNA-phosphoproteomic screen, a high-content kinase inhibitor screen, and a kinase trapping-Orbitrap mass spectroscopy screen to systematically identify essential kinase regulators of KCC3 Thr(991)/Thr(1048) phosphorylation - a key signaling event in cell swelling-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
João Luiz Silva-Filho, Celso Caruso-Neves, Ana Acacia Sá Pinheiro
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 (AT1R), an important effector axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), have been demonstrated to regulate T-cell responses. However, these studies characterized Ang II and AT1R effects using pharmacological tools, which do not target only Ang II/AT1R axis. The specific role of AT1R expressed by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells is unknown. Then we immunized transgenic mice expressing a T-cell receptor specific for SIINFEKL epitope (OT-I mice) with sporozoites of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei expressing the cytotoxic epitope SIINFEKL...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jie-Jie Sun, Hui-Ting Yang, Guo-Juan Niu, Xiao-Wu Feng, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Jin-Xing Wang
Impaired phosphatase activity leads to the persistent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat). In mammals, Stat family members are often phosphorylated or dephosphorylated by the same enzymes. To date, only one Stat similar to mammalian Stat5a/b has been found in crustaceans and there have been few studies in Stat signal regulation in crustaceans. Here, we report that β-arrestin1 interacts with TC45 (45-kDa form of T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase) in the nucleus to attenuate Stat signaling by promoting dephosphorylation of Stat...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
T M Fenton, A Kelly, E E Shuttleworth, C Smedley, A Atakilit, F Powrie, S Campbell, S L Nishimura, D Sheppard, S Levison, J J Worthington, M J Lehtinen, M A Travis
Regulation of intestinal T-cell responses is crucial for immune homeostasis and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A vital cytokine in regulating intestinal T cells is transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), which is secreted by cells as a latent complex that requires activation to function. However, how TGFβ activation is regulated in the human intestine, and how such pathways are altered in IBD is completely unknown. Here we show that a key activator of TGFβ, integrin αvβ8, is highly expressed on human intestinal dendritic cells (DCs), specifically on the CD1c(+) but not the CD141(+) intestinal DC subset...
October 26, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Kai Wang, Feng Jin, Zhanpu Zhang, Xiaochuan Sun
BACKGROUND Specific T cell phenotype has been reported to potentially contribute to the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced several vascular disorders. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is intimately associated with cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between T cell phenotypes and Ang II in T2DM patients combined with carotid atherosclerosis (CA). MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was performed on 50 patients with T2DM in our hospital. Based on the presence of CA, they were divided into CA group (presence of CA, n=30) or T2DM group (absence of CA, n=20)...
October 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Robert Jin-Hong Chang, Dimitri T Azar, Kyu-Yeon Han
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) regulates the growth and differentiation of blood and lymphatic vessels. To determine whether matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) modulates VEGFR3 expression in the corneal epithelium to influence the avascularity of the cornea, VEGFR3 expression was compared between wild-type and MMP14-deficient (MMP14 Δexon4) corneal epithelial cells. Western blot analysis showed that VEGFR3 protein expression was higher on MMP14 Δexon4 corneal epithelial cells than on wild-type cells, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that VEGFR3 gene expression was highly induced in MMP14 Δexon4 corneal epithelial cells but not in wild-type corneal epithelial cells or wild-type and MMP14 Δexon4 corneal keratocytes...
October 24, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
T Tellez, M Garcia-Aranda, M Redondo
Clusterin is a glycoprotein that has been implicated in many processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Since clusterin expression has also been associated with tumorigenesis and the progression of various malignancies including prevalent tumors like prostate, colon, bladder and breast, this protein has been proposed as a good candidate for future treatments. There have been numerous studies conducted in cell lines and xenograft models with successful results that, in general, justify the use of clusterin as a therapeutic target...
October 24, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Zheng Li, Jianxiong Shen, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the pathogenic role of microRNA (miRNAs) dysregulation in tumour development. miR-379 was previously reported to function as an oncogenic or tumour-suppressing miRNA in a tissue-dependent manner. However, its function in osteosarcoma remains unknown. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-379 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Further functional characterization revealed that miR-379 suppressed osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and retarded the growth of osteosarcoma xenografts in vivo...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Tianjiao Wang, Ye Lu, Avery Polk, Pinki Chowdhury, Carlos Murga-Zamalloa, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Koichiro Suemori, Niklas Beyersdorf, Alexandra C Hristov, Megan S Lim, Nathanael G Bailey, Ryan A Wilcox
PURPOSE: T-cell lymphomas are a molecularly heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) that account for a disproportionate number of NHL disease-related deaths due to their inherent and acquired resistance to standard multiagent chemotherapy regimens. Despite their molecular heterogeneity and frequent loss of various T-cell specific receptors, the T-cell antigen receptor is retained in the majority of these lymphomas. As T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement activates a number of signaling pathways and transcription factors that regulate T-cell growth and survival, we examined the TCR's role in mediating resistance to chemotherapy...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Federica Ferrari, Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Davide Malfacini, Laila Asth, Elaine C Gavioli, Velvet B Journigan, Uma G Kamakolanu, Michael E Meyer, Dennis Yasuda, Willma E Polgar, Anna Rizzi, Remo Guerrini, Chiara Ruzza, Nurulain T Zaveri, Girolamo Calo
Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) regulates several biological functions via selective activation of the N/OFQ receptor (NOP). In this study novel nonpeptide NOP ligands were characterized in vitro in receptor binding and [(35)S]GTPγS stimulated binding in membranes of cells expressing human NOP and classical opioid receptors, calcium mobilization assay in cells coexpressing the receptors and chimeric G proteins, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based assay for studying NOP receptor interaction with G protein and arrestin, the electrically stimulated mouse vas deferens and the mouse colon bioassays...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
L P Mesquita, F R P Bruhn, P C Maiorka, E W Howerth
The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes encephalitis in mice when inoculated intranasally. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a native New World rodent, is also susceptible to VSV infection and develops similar central nervous system (CNS) lesions to those observed in other rodent species. Chemokines, such as regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; CCL-5) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (CCL-2), which are important for chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory cells, are expressed during the course of VSV encephalitis...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"