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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603609/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-in-thailand
#1
Papanin Putsathit, Monthira Maneerattanaporn, Pipat Piewngam, Daniel R Knight, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Thomas V Riley
BACKGROUND: Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. METHODS: A collection of 105 C...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589214/-individualized-treatment-strategies-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#2
REVIEW
P Solbach, P Dersch, O Bachmann
Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued...
June 6, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575523/safety-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-fidaxomicin-in-children-with-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-a-phase-2a-multicenter-clinical-trial
#3
Molly A O'Gorman, Marian G Michaels, Sheldon L Kaplan, Anthony Otley, Larry K Kociolek, Edward J Hoffenberg, Kwang Sik Kim, Sharon Nachman, Marian D Pfefferkorn, Timothy Sentongo, Janice E Sullivan, Pamela Sears
Background.: Fidaxomicin is an approved therapy for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in adults. The safety of fidaxomicin in children has not been reported. Methods.: In this study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01591863), pediatric patients with CDAD received twice-daily oral fidaxomicin at a dose of 16 mg/kg per day (up to 200 mg) for 10 days in an open-label study. Plasma and fecal samples were collected for pharmacokinetic assessments. The primary outcome measure was safety, which was assessed by adverse-event (AE), laboratory, and physical examination/vital-sign monitoring...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527649/antimicrobial-activity-of-fidaxomicin-against-clostridium-difficile-clinical-isolates-in-aichi-area-in-japan
#4
Yuka Yamagishi, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yoko Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Mao Hagihara, Kiyomitsu Katsumata, Hiroshige Mikamo
We evaluated the susceptibility of 100 Japanese Clostridium difficile isolates to fidaxomicin, a new macrocyclic antibiotic. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of fidaxomicin was 0.03-0.5 μg/mL, with a MIC for inhibition of 50% (MIC50) of 0.12 μg/mL, and for inhibition of 90% (MIC90) of 0.25 μg/mL. We also evaluated the susceptibilities of the same 100 C. difficile isolates to vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, meropenem, and ampicillin. Of all the antibiotics tested, fidaxomicin showed the most potent antimicrobial activity against this group of C...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506071/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-concomitant-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Francisco Portela, Manuela Ferreira, Carlos Sofia
The use of fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and coexistent inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear. A 61-year-old man with ulcerative pancolitis was diagnosed with a third recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection, previously treated with metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Fecal microbiota transplantation of an unrelated healthy donor was performed by the lower route. After a twelve month follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic without Clostridium difficile infection relapses or inflammatory bowel disease flare-ups...
May 16, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433406/results-of-the-implementation-of-a-multidisciplinary-programme-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-by-colonoscopy-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Antonio López-Sanromán, Enrique Rodríguez de Santiago, Javier Cobo Reinoso, Rosa Del Campo Moreno, José Ramón Foruny Olcina, Sergio García Fernández, Ana García García de Paredes, Lara Aguilera Castro, Carlos Ferre Aracil, Agustín Albillos Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common and often difficult to manage. Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective therapeutic tool in these cases, although its applicability and effectiveness in Spain is currently unknown. AIM: To analyse the technical aspects, safety and effectiveness of the first consolidated FMT programme in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of all patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT performed by colonoscopy in a tertiary centre after the implementation of a multidisciplinary protocol between March 2015 and September 2016...
April 19, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407067/evaluation-of-a-second-sign-process-for-antimicrobial-prior-authorization
#7
Aimee M Dassner, Jennifer E Girotto
Background.: A second-sign prospective restriction of select broad-spectrum antimicrobials was fully implemented in January 2015 as a pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) initiative to help ensure the most appropriate empiric use of ceftaroline, cefepime, fidaxomicin, linezolid, and vancomycin (intravenous). The objective of this evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of a forced second-sign process in the electronic medical record as a pediatric ASP strategy. We anticipated that the second-sign process for antibiotics would increase the appropriateness of empiric antibiotic use, as defined by preapproved criteria, clinical pathways, national guidelines, and pediatric-specific infectious diseases reference texts, while not causing significant delay in the initial administration of antibiotic therapy...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/an-update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#8
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for CDI. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described; these include the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism and DNA repair, as well as biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347318/pharmacokinetics-of-surotomycin-from-phase-1-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-studies-in-healthy-volunteers
#9
Gurudatt Chandorkar, Qiao Zhan, Julie Donovan, Shruta Rege, Hernando Patino
BACKGROUND: Surotomycin, a novel, orally administered, cyclic, lipopeptide antibacterial in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, has demonstrated minimal intestinal absorption in animal models. METHODS: Safety, tolerability, and plasma pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending oral doses (SAD/MAD) of surotomycin in healthy volunteers were characterized in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies...
March 28, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#10
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331803/ivig-a-cure-to-severe-refractory-nap-1-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-case-of-successful-treatment-of-severe-infection-which-failed-standard-therapy-including-fecal-microbiota-transplants-and-fidaxomicin
#11
Kelley Coffman, Xian Jie Cindy Chen, Charles Okamura, Eddie Louie
The mainstay treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is antimicrobials with growing support for fecal microbiota transplants. We report the first case of an elderly man with severe refractory NAP-1 pseudomembranous CDI who failed all medical therapy and two fecal transplants with response only seen after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin.
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299963/cost-effectiveness-analysis-on-the-use-of-fidaxomicin-and-vancomycin-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-france
#12
Maureen Watt, Aurélien Dinh, Alban Le Monnier, Patrick Tilleul
BACKGROUND: Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic with proven efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. It was licensed in France in 2012, but, due to higher acquisition costs compared with existing treatments, healthcare providers require information on its cost/benefit profile. OBJECTIVE: To compare healthcare costs and health outcomes of fidaxomicin and vancomycin, as reference treatment for CDI. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate the treatment pathway, over 1 year, of adult patients with CDI receiving fidaxomicin or vancomycin...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286992/cadazolid-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile
#13
REVIEW
Bradley T Endres, Eugénie Bassères, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
Antibiotic development goals for CDI include potent antimicrobial effect against C. difficile, limited killing of host microbiota, potential effect on spores, and ability to interfere with toxin production. Cadazolid, a novel, non-absorbable hybrid antibiotic has many of these criteria. In phase I and II clinical trials, cadazolid was shown to be safe, well tolerated, and efficacious positioning itself as a potential future viable therapeutic option for CDI. Areas covered: This review provides an in-depth evaluation of the chemistry, microbiology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical trial results for cadazolid...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272217/recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-medicare-patients-in-nursing-homes-a-population-based-cohort-study
#14
Marya D Zilberberg, Andrew F Shorr, William M Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate Lapane
We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals.We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age ≥65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for ≥3 days in part D file; or an ICD-9-CM code for CDI (008...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257555/antibiotic-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Richard L Nelson, Katie J Suda, Charlesnika T Evans
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to investigate the efficacy and safety of antibiotic therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), or C. difficile infection (CDI), being synonymous terms. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 26 January 2017...
March 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238947/identification-of-novel-mrp3-inhibitors-based-on-computational-models-and-validation-using-an-in-vitro-membrane-vesicle-assay
#16
Izna Ali, Matthew A Welch, Yang Lu, Peter W Swaan, Kim L R Brouwer
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3), an efflux transporter on the hepatic basolateral membrane, may function as a compensatory mechanism to prevent the accumulation of anionic substrates (e.g., bile acids) in hepatocytes. Inhibition of MRP3 may disrupt bile acid homeostasis and is one hypothesized risk factor for the development of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Therefore, identifying potential MRP3 inhibitors could help mitigate the occurrence of DILI. METHODS: Bayesian models were developed using MRP3 transporter inhibition data for 86 structurally diverse drugs...
May 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208717/final-demonstration-of-the-co-identity-of-lipiarmycin-a3-and-tiacumicin-b-fidaxomicin-through-single-crystal-x-ray-analysis
#17
Stefano Serra, Luciana Malpezzi, Angelo Bedeschi, Claudio Fuganti, Piera Fonte
Lipiarmycin A3 and tiacumicin B possess the same chemical structure and have been considered identical till recently, when some authors have suggested the possibility of a minor difference between the chemical structures of the two antibiotics. In this work we performed a comparative X-ray analysis of lipiarmycin A3 and tiacumicin B. Although the commercial samples of the aforementioned compounds crystallize into two different crystal systems-evidently due to the different crystallization conditions-their chemical structures are identical...
February 8, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196423/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-is-there-a-role-in-the-eradication-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-intestinal-carriage
#18
Ana Ponte, Rolando Pinho, Margarida Mota
The authors present the case of a 66-year-old woman with four hospitalizations due to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) non responsive to vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Furthermore, intestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) was identified after a positive stool culture in a screening routinely performed in our center in patients recently hospitalized.
February 15, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178052/fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pregnant-patient
#19
Bejan J Saeedi, Doree Gardner Morison, Colleen S Kraft, Tanvi Dhere
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection has been associated with negative outcomes in the general population and in pregnant patients. Fecal microbiota transplant has become the standard for treatment of recurrent as well as refractory C difficile infection. CASE: We present a case of a 28-year-old pregnant woman who presented with recurrent C difficile infection despite treatment with vancomycin and fidaxomicin and underwent a successful fecal microbiota transplant through colonoscopy at 18 weeks of gestation...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172620/p390-open-label-study-to-evaluate-the-pharmacokinetics-of-fidaxomicin-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-the-profile-study-pharmacokinetics-analysis
#20
C Högenauer, Y Mahida, A Stallmach, P Marteau, G Rydzewska, V Ivashkin, P Gargalianos-Kakolyris, I Michon, N Adomakoh, W Reinisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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