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Fidaxomicin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893366/fidaxomicin-reduces-early-toxin-a-and-b-production-and-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficilein-vitro
#1
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875314/a-systematic-literature-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-antibiotic-treatments-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
REVIEW
Hannah E Burton, Stephen A Mitchell, Maureen Watt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with high management costs, particularly in recurrent cases. Fidaxomicin treatment results in lower recurrence rates than vancomycin and metronidazole, but has higher acquisition costs in Europe and the USA. This systematic literature review summarises economic evaluations (EEs) of fidaxomicin, vancomycin and metronidazole for treatment of CDI. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE(®), Embase, Cochrane Library) and conference proceedings (ISPOR, ECCMID, ICAAC and IDWeek) were searched for publications reporting EEs of fidaxomicin, vancomycin and/or metronidazole in the treatment of CDI...
September 5, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797834/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-probiotic-strains-is-it-reasonable-to-combine-probiotics-with-antibiotics
#3
C Neut, S Mahieux, L J Dubreuil
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of strains collected from marketed probiotics to antibiotics used to treat community-acquired infections. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 antibiotics were determined using a gradient strip (E test) or the agar dilution method for fidaxomicin. RESULTS: The probiotics demonstrated various antibiotic patterns. Bacterial probiotics are generally susceptible to most prescribed antibiotics orally administered, whereas yeast probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, are resistant...
August 7, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760934/next-generation-probiotics-targeting-clostridium-difficile-through-precursor-directed-antimicrobial-biosynthesis
#4
Jennifer K Spinler, Jennifer Auchtung, Aaron Brown, Prapaporn Boonma, Numan Oezguen, Caná L Ross, Ruth Ann Luna, Jessica Runge, James Versalovic, Alex Peniche, Sara M Dann, Robert A Britton, Anthony Haag, Tor C Savidge
Integration of antibiotic and probiotic therapy has the potential to lessen the public health burden to antimicrobial-associated diseases. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents an important example where rational design of next generation probiotics is being actively pursued to prevent disease recurrence. Because intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant CDI antibiotics (vancomycin, metronidazole, and fidaxomicin) is a desired trait in such probiotic species, we screened several bacteria and identified Lactobacillus reuteri as a promising candidate for adjunct therapy...
July 31, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693926/high-in%C3%A2-vitro-activity-of-fidaxomicin-against-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-china
#5
Jing-Wei Cheng, Qi-Wen Yang, Meng Xiao, Shu-Ying Yu, Meng-Lan Zhou, Timothy Kudinha, Fanrong Kong, Jian-Wei Liao, Ying-Chun Xu
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both the acute care setting and the wider healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of fidaxomicin against C.difficile isolates from a university teaching hospital in China. METHODS: One hundred and one C.difficile isolates were collected and analyzed for toxin genes by multiplex PCR. The toxin gene positive strains were also typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR-ribotyping...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603609/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-in-thailand
#6
Papanin Putsathit, Monthira Maneerattanaporn, Pipat Piewngam, Daniel R Knight, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Thomas V Riley
BACKGROUND: Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. METHODS: A collection of 105 C...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589214/-individualized-treatment-strategies-for-clostridium-difficile-infections
#7
REVIEW
P Solbach, P Dersch, O Bachmann
Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued...
July 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575523/safety-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-fidaxomicin-in-children-with-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-a-phase-2a-multicenter-clinical-trial
#8
Molly A O'Gorman, Marian G Michaels, Sheldon L Kaplan, Anthony Otley, Larry K Kociolek, Edward J Hoffenberg, Kwang Sik Kim, Sharon Nachman, Marian D Pfefferkorn, Timothy Sentongo, Janice E Sullivan, Pamela Sears
Background.: Fidaxomicin is an approved therapy for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in adults. The safety of fidaxomicin in children has not been reported. Methods.: In this study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01591863), pediatric patients with CDAD received twice-daily oral fidaxomicin at a dose of 16 mg/kg per day (up to 200 mg) for 10 days in an open-label study. Plasma and fecal samples were collected for pharmacokinetic assessments. The primary outcome measure was safety, which was assessed by adverse-event (AE), laboratory, and physical examination/vital-sign monitoring...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527649/antimicrobial-activity-of-fidaxomicin-against-clostridium-difficile-clinical-isolates-in-aichi-area-in-japan
#9
Yuka Yamagishi, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yoko Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Mao Hagihara, Kiyomitsu Katsumata, Hiroshige Mikamo
We evaluated the susceptibility of 100 Japanese Clostridium difficile isolates to fidaxomicin, a new macrocyclic antibiotic. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of fidaxomicin was 0.03-0.5 μg/mL, with a MIC for inhibition of 50% (MIC50) of 0.12 μg/mL, and for inhibition of 90% (MIC90) of 0.25 μg/mL. We also evaluated the susceptibilities of the same 100 C. difficile isolates to vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, meropenem, and ampicillin. Of all the antibiotics tested, fidaxomicin showed the most potent antimicrobial activity against this group of C...
October 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506071/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-concomitant-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Francisco Portela, Manuela Ferreira, Carlos Sofia
The use of fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and coexistent inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear. A 61-year-old man with ulcerative pancolitis was diagnosed with a third recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection, previously treated with metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Fecal microbiota transplantation of an unrelated healthy donor was performed by the lower route. After a twelve month follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic without Clostridium difficile infection relapses or inflammatory bowel disease flare-ups...
May 16, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433406/results-of-the-implementation-of-a-multidisciplinary-programme-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-by-colonoscopy-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Antonio López-Sanromán, Enrique Rodríguez de Santiago, Javier Cobo Reinoso, Rosa Del Campo Moreno, José Ramón Foruny Olcina, Sergio García Fernández, Ana García García de Paredes, Lara Aguilera Castro, Carlos Ferre Aracil, Agustín Albillos Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common and often difficult to manage. Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an effective therapeutic tool in these cases, although its applicability and effectiveness in Spain is currently unknown. AIM: To analyse the technical aspects, safety and effectiveness of the first consolidated FMT programme in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of all patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT performed by colonoscopy in a tertiary centre after the implementation of a multidisciplinary protocol between March 2015 and September 2016...
April 19, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407067/evaluation-of-a-second-sign-process-for-antimicrobial-prior-authorization
#12
Aimee M Dassner, Jennifer E Girotto
Background.: A second-sign prospective restriction of select broad-spectrum antimicrobials was fully implemented in January 2015 as a pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) initiative to help ensure the most appropriate empiric use of ceftaroline, cefepime, fidaxomicin, linezolid, and vancomycin (intravenous). The objective of this evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of a forced second-sign process in the electronic medical record as a pediatric ASP strategy. We anticipated that the second-sign process for antibiotics would increase the appropriateness of empiric antibiotic use, as defined by preapproved criteria, clinical pathways, national guidelines, and pediatric-specific infectious diseases reference texts, while not causing significant delay in the initial administration of antibiotic therapy...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#13
REVIEW
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for Clostridium difficile infection. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described, including the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via the transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism, and DNA repair, as well as via biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347318/pharmacokinetics-of-surotomycin-from-phase-1-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-studies-in-healthy-volunteers
#14
Gurudatt Chandorkar, Qiao Zhan, Julie Donovan, Shruta Rege, Hernando Patino
BACKGROUND: Surotomycin, a novel, orally administered, cyclic, lipopeptide antibacterial in development for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, has demonstrated minimal intestinal absorption in animal models. METHODS: Safety, tolerability, and plasma pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending oral doses (SAD/MAD) of surotomycin in healthy volunteers were characterized in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies...
March 28, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#15
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331803/ivig-a-cure-to-severe-refractory-nap-1-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-case-of-successful-treatment-of-severe-infection-which-failed-standard-therapy-including-fecal-microbiota-transplants-and-fidaxomicin
#16
Kelley Coffman, Xian Jie Cindy Chen, Charles Okamura, Eddie Louie
The mainstay treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is antimicrobials with growing support for fecal microbiota transplants. We report the first case of an elderly man with severe refractory NAP-1 pseudomembranous CDI who failed all medical therapy and two fecal transplants with response only seen after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin.
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299963/cost-effectiveness-analysis-on-the-use-of-fidaxomicin-and-vancomycin-to-treat-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-france
#17
Maureen Watt, Aurélien Dinh, Alban Le Monnier, Patrick Tilleul
BACKGROUND: Fidaxomicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic with proven efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. It was licensed in France in 2012, but, due to higher acquisition costs compared with existing treatments, healthcare providers require information on its cost/benefit profile. OBJECTIVE: To compare healthcare costs and health outcomes of fidaxomicin and vancomycin, as reference treatment for CDI. METHODS: A Markov model was used to simulate the treatment pathway, over 1 year, of adult patients with CDI receiving fidaxomicin or vancomycin...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286992/cadazolid-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile
#18
REVIEW
Bradley T Endres, Eugénie Bassères, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
Antibiotic development goals for CDI include potent antimicrobial effect against C. difficile, limited killing of host microbiota, potential effect on spores, and ability to interfere with toxin production. Cadazolid, a novel, non-absorbable hybrid antibiotic has many of these criteria. In phase I and II clinical trials, cadazolid was shown to be safe, well tolerated, and efficacious positioning itself as a potential future viable therapeutic option for CDI. Areas covered: This review provides an in-depth evaluation of the chemistry, microbiology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical trial results for cadazolid...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272217/recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-medicare-patients-in-nursing-homes-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Marya D Zilberberg, Andrew F Shorr, William M Jesdale, Jennifer Tjia, Kate Lapane
We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals.We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age ≥65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for ≥3 days in part D file; or an ICD-9-CM code for CDI (008...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257555/antibiotic-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-adults
#20
REVIEW
Richard L Nelson, Katie J Suda, Charlesnika T Evans
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is recognized as a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis. This review is an update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to investigate the efficacy and safety of antibiotic therapy for C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), or C. difficile infection (CDI), being synonymous terms. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 26 January 2017...
March 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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