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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448821/the-implications-of-war-captivity-and-long-term-psychopathology-trajectories-for-telomere-length
#1
Zahava Solomon, Noga Tsur, Yafit Levin, Orit Uziel, Meir Lahav, Avi Ohry
BACKGROUND: Previous findings have demonstrated the link between trauma, its psychopathological aftermath and cellular aging, as reflected in telomere length. However, as long-term examinations of psychopathology following trauma are scarce, very little is known regarding the repercussions of depression and PTSD trajectories of psychopathology for telomeres. The current study examined the implications of war captivity and depression/PTSD trajectories on telomere length. METHODS: Ninety-nine former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War were evaluated for depression and PTSD at 18, 30, 35 and 42 years after the war...
April 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448506/the-dynamics-of-behavior-in-modified-dictator-games
#2
Jeannette Brosig-Koch, Thomas Riechmann, Joachim Weimann
We investigate the dynamics of individual pro-social behavior over time. The dynamics are tested by running the same experiment with the same subjects at several points in time. To exclude learning and reputation building, we employ non-strategic decision tasks and a sequential prisoners-dilemma as a control treatment. In the first wave, pro-social concerns explain a high share of individual decisions. Pro-social decisions decrease over time, however. In the final wave, most decisions can be accounted for by assuming pure selfishness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437171/psychological-benefits-of-yoga-for-female-inmates
#3
Yoika Danielly, Colin Silverthorne
Female inmates involved in the Yoga Prison Project at two correctional facilities in South Carolina served as subjects. Inmates were selected from those who applied to participate in a ten-week trauma-focused yoga program. To create control and experimental groups, inmates who requested to participate were randomly assigned to be in the class (Treatment Group, n = 33) or a waitlist (Control Group, n = 17). Inmates on the waitlist subsequently joined the next class, so all who applied and were eligible participated in a yoga class...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435860/onymity-promotes-cooperation-in-social-dilemma-experiments
#4
Zhen Wang, Marko Jusup, Rui-Wu Wang, Lei Shi, Yoh Iwasa, Yamir Moreno, Jürgen Kurths
One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner's Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435834/prevalence-of-hiv-in-a-prison-of-tehran-by-active-case-finding
#5
Seyed Ahmad Seyedalinaghi, Behnam Farhoudi, Minoo Mohraz, Mona Mohammadi Firouzeh, Mostafa Hosseini, Kianoush Kamali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431890/which-facilitates-the-evolution-of-cooperation-more-retaliation-or-persistence
#6
Shun Kurokawa
The existence of cooperation in this world is a mysterious phenomenon. One of the mechanisms that explain the evolution of cooperation is repeated interaction. If interactions between the same individuals repeat and individuals cooperate conditionally, cooperation can evolve. A previous study pointed out that if individuals have persistence (i.e., imitate its "own" behavior in the last move), cooperation can evolve. However, retaliation and persistence are not mutually exclusive decisions, but rather a trade-off in the decision making process of individuals...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431584/monitoring-quality-and-coverage-of-harm-reduction-services-for-people-who-use-drugs-a-consensus-study
#7
Lucas Wiessing, Marica Ferri, Vendula Běláčková, Patrizia Carrieri, Samuel R Friedman, Cinta Folch, Kate Dolan, Brian Galvin, Peter Vickerman, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Viktor Mravčík, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Vana Sypsa, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, Anneli Uusküla, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Luis Mendão, Diana Rossi, Nadine van Gelder, Luke Mitcheson, Letizia Paoli, Cristina Diaz Gomez, Maitena Milhet, Nicoleta Dascalu, Jonathan Knight, Gordon Hay, Eleni Kalamara, Roland Simon, Catherine Comiskey, Carla Rossi, Paul Griffiths
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to discuss the historical development of successful epidemiological indicators and to present a framework for extending them with additional indicators of coverage and quality of harm reduction services, for monitoring and evaluation at international, national or subnational levels...
April 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430081/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-criminal-behavior-among-illicit-drug-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Natália Silva Mesquita, Renata Silva Lopes, Roselma Lucchese, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Ivânia Vera, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Luiz Henrique Batista Monteiro, Graciele Cristina Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate high rates of criminal behavior, violent activities, and legal problems among illicit drug users (IDU) in Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with criminal behavior among IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependency in Central Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependence. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews and analyzed using logistic regression...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427371/inside-the-nation-s-largest-mental-health-institution-a-prevalence-study-in-a-state-prison-system
#9
Tala Al-Rousan, Linda Rubenstein, Bruce Sieleni, Harbans Deol, Robert B Wallace
BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426734/study-of-deaths-by-suicide-of-homosexual-prisoners-in-nazi-sachsenhausen-concentration-camp
#10
Esther Cuerda-Galindo, Francisco López-Muñoz, Matthis Krischel, Astrid Ley
Living conditions in Nazi concentration camps were harsh and inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg, Germany) was a concentration camp that operated from 1936 to 1945. More than 200,000 people were detained there under Nazi rule. This study analyzes deaths classified as suicides by inmates in this camp, classified as homosexuals, both according to the surviving Nazi files. This collective was especially repressed by the Nazi authorities. Data was collected from the archives of Sachsenhausen Memorial and the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426354/-it-goes-on-everywhere-injection-drug-use-in-canadian-federal-prisons
#11
Emily van der Meulen
BACKGROUND: International and Canadian research on in-prison injection drug use has documented the frequency of its occurrence as well as some of the resulting consequences such as increased prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Access to prison-based harm reduction programing is thus important. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to learn from former prisoner experiences and insights on in-prison injection drug use in order to advance and improve access to harm reduction options, in particular prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs)...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424796/external-data-required-timely-response-by-the-trial-steering-data-monitoring-committee-for-the-naloxone-investigation-n-alive-pilot-trial
#12
Sheila M Bird, John Strang, Deborah Ashby, John Podmore, J Roy Robertson, Sarah Welch, Angela M Meade, Mahesh K B Parmar
The prison-based N-ALIVE pilot trial had undertaken to notify the Research Ethics Committee and participants if we had reason to believe that the N-ALIVE pilot trial would not proceed to the main trial. In this paper, we describe how external data for the third year of before/after evaluation from Scotland's National Naloxone Programme, a related public health policy, were anticipated by eliciting prior opinion about the Scottish results in the month prior to their release as official statistics. We summarise how deliberations by the N-ALIVE Trial Steering-Data Monitoring Committee (TS-DMC) on N-ALIVE's own interim data, together with those on naloxone-on-release (NOR) from Scotland, led to the decision to cease randomization in the N-ALIVE pilot trial and recommend to local Principal Investigators that NOR be offered to already-randomized prisoners who had not yet been released...
March 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#13
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421929/the-value-of-doing-your-best
#14
(no author information available yet)
Claire Matata is lead nurse for emergency and acute clinical research at Northumbria Specialist Emergency Care Hospital. She completed her degree in adult nursing at the University of Liverpool in 2010, and has worked in thoracic surgery, community and prison nursing and as a specialist research nurse and senior clinician in urgent care. In 2015, she spent three months in Sierra Leone during the Ebola crisis.
April 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421891/truth-be-told-evaluation-of-a-narrative-and-skills-intervention-in-two-women-s-prisons
#15
Michael W Ross
This article describes the evaluation of a narrative and skills intervention to enable women to come to terms with their offenses, tell the truth, and then work to deal with the emotions and issues surrounding their offenses, in two southern U.S. women's prisons. The intervention involved skills building in communication, community building, creativity, and caring for the self, using narrative writing, speaking, and movement. There was broad agreement that the intervention had multiple positive impacts, including insight into factors that lead to incarceration, comfort with selves and better ability to express themselves, restorative justice (ability to understand the situation of others, understanding the impact on themselves and their families), better relationships with other inmates, and understanding the challenges that may lead to recidivism...
April 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421685/the-reach-and-limitation-of-the-ada-and-its-integration-mandate-implications-for-the-successful-reentry-of-individuals-with-mental-disabilities-in-a-correctional-population
#16
Henry A Dlugacz, Luna Droubi
This article argues that the ADA and its integration mandate, informed by international standards, should extend to incarcerated individuals with mental disabilities who reenter society, as they are at highly elevated risk for unnecessary segregation in institutions such as homeless shelters or hospitals or through reincarceration. An understanding of the precise services needed to prevent these strongly related but distinct variants of institutionalization requires a robust and continuing research agenda. In discussing the breadth of the ADA, we explore its history, interpretations of its application in a variety of contexts with respect to vulnerable populations and integration, and enforcement...
March 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421572/-suicidal-behaviour-among-prisoners-prevalence-and-association-with-psychological-distress-in-flemish-prisons
#17
L Favril, F Vander Laenen, K Audenaert
BACKGROUND: Internationally, the prevalence of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicide plan and attempted suicide) is significantly elevated among prisoners compared to the community at large. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviour among prisoners in the Flanders region of Belgium, to identify differences according to gender and custodial status, and to examine the association of recent suicidal ideation and suicide plan with psychological distress...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420786/memory-n-strategies-of-direct-reciprocity
#18
Christian Hilbe, Luis A Martinez-Vaquero, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin A Nowak
Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419146/household-crowding-as-a-potential-mediator-of-socioeconomic-determinants-of-tuberculosis-incidence-in-brazil
#19
Daniele Maria Pelissari, Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
Although many studies have identified social conditions associated with tuberculosis, contextual and individual factors have rarely been analysed simultaneously. Consequently, we aimed to identify contextual and individual factors associated with tuberculosis incidence in general population in Brazil in 2010. We also assessed whether household crowding mediates the association between socioeconomic determinants and tuberculosis incidence. Individual data of tuberculosis cases were obtained from 5,565 municipalities in Brazil in 2010 (last year of national census), and merged with contextual variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418789/transitions-and-motivations-for-substance-misuse-in-prison-inmates-with-adhd-and-conduct-disorder-validation-of-a-new-instrument
#20
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Kim Wolff, Laura Mutch, Isabella Malet-Lambert, Gisli H Gudjonsson
OBJECTIVE: There is a reasonable theoretical base for understanding the possible causes and motivations behind substance misuse and its dependency. There is a need for a reliable and valid measure that delineates the markers of substance use from its initiation and identifies different motivations for drug use transitioning, maintenance, and dependency. We addressed this gap in the United Kingdom by examining and validating the Substance Transitions in Addiction Rating Scale (STARS). METHODS: For this review, 390 male prisoners were screened for conduct disorder and assessed with a clinical diagnostic interview for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
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