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Weilin Xu, Liansheng Gao, Tao Li, Neha Darshana Ramdoyal, Jianmin Zhang, Anwen Shao
BACKGROUND:  Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease, and with poor prognosis. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used image modalities for patients with non-specific neurologic symptoms. We present here a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis of CVT and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A comprehensive search of the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) databases was conducted prior to March 20, 2017...
April 25, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
S Spairani, C Pisoni, G Ariaudo, M Moncecchi, U Balottin, Paolo Manzoni, C Tinelli, B Gardella, P Politi, Chryssoula Tzialla, Mauro Stronati, S Orcesi
INTRODUCTION:  From the prognostic perspective, the quality of the mother-child relationship during the first months of life has been variously associated with different factors such as the child's psychomotor/cognitive development and emotional-behavioral disorders. METHODS:  The main aim of this study was to describe, at term age and 3 months of corrected age, the features and the prevalent patterns of the mother-child relationship in a group of 20 mother-preterm infant dyads and to compare them with those of a group of 20 mother-term infant dyads...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Paolo Manzoni, Alberto Dall'Agnola, Daniel Tomé, David A Kaufman, Elena Tavella, Marta Pieretto, Alessandro Messina, Daniele De Luca, Marc Bellaiche, Alexis Mosca, Hugues Piloquet, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Charles Picaud, Antonio Del Vecchio
Lactoferrin is one of the most represented and important bioactive proteins in human and mammal milk. In humans, lactoferrin is responsible for several actions targeting anti-infective, immunological, and gastrointestinal domains in neonates, infants, and young children. Evidence-based data vouch for the ability of supplemented lactoferrin to prevent sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to reduce the burden of morbidity related to gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens in young children...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Gerard R Martin, Richard A Jonas
Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease has changed dramatically since the first surgery in 1938. During the early era, children underwent surgery at older ages often with palliative procedures before their corrective operation. Not surprisingly, in the early era, there was considerably higher early and late mortality, including the additive risks of having more than one procedure and a long period of living with an unphysiological palliated circulation. Over time with advances in noninvasive diagnosis, surgical approach, cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, and team-based care, outcomes have improved...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Eduardo Bancalari, Nelson Claure
Oxygenation instability is a very common problem in the premature infant that manifests as intermittent hypoxemia episodes (HEs). These are particularly frequent in premature infants who are on mechanical ventilation beyond the first weeks after birth. However, they can also occur in spontaneously breathing infants. Some of these episodes are due to central apnea, but in ventilated infants, they are frequently due to contractions of the abdominal musculature that can splint the respiratory pump, resulting in periods of decreased lung volume and hypoventilation...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Konstantin D Bergmeister, Philipp Schönle, Arne Hendrik Böcker, Moritz Kronlage, Tim Godel, Simeon Daeschler, Martin Bendszus, Ulrich Kneser, Leila Harhaus, Daniel Schwarz
INTRODUCTION: The correct diagnosis of peripheral nerve injuries is essential for choosing the correct treatment in nerve surgery. Especially, nerve defects require early diagnosis to provide quick surgical reconstruction and prevent long-term disabilities. Recent developments in MR-neurography provide surgeons with a diagnostic tool delivering precise information on the structure and possibly function of nerves. Here we describe a series of cases, that benefited from preoperative MR-neurography to identify the correct type of injury...
April 25, 2018: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
D Jackson Coleman, Winston Lee, Stanley Chang, Ronald H Silverman, Harriet O Lloyd, Suzanne Daly, Stephen H Tsang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate PDE5/6 inhibition with sildenafil to reduce choroidal ischemia and treat age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Sildenafil was prescribed to treat participants with macular degenerations or macular dystrophies measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, color fundus photography, enhanced depth imaging, and best-corrected visual acuity. RESULTS: No change in calcified drusen was noted. Vitelliform-type soft drusen were not substantially changed...
April 25, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Weria Pezeshkian, Himanschu Khandelia, Derek Marsh
The extent to which current force fields faithfully reproduce conformational properties of lipids in bilayer membranes, and whether these reflect the structural principles established for phospholipids in bilayer crystals, are central to biomembrane simulations. We determine the distribution of dihedral angles in palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine from molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated fluid bilayer membranes. We compare results from the widely used lipid force field of Berger et al. with those from the most recent C36 release of the CHARMM force field for lipids...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Shaogui Wu, Jiayang Wang, Xuemei Pu, Laicai Li, Quan Li
RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the primary machine responsible for transcription. Its ability to distinguish between correct (cognate) and incorrect (noncognate) nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) is important for fidelity control in transcription. In this work, we investigated the substrate selection mechanism of T7 RNAP from the perspective of energetics. The dissociation free energies were determined for matched and unmatched base pairs in the preinsertion complex using the umbrella sampling method. A clear hydrogen-bond-rupture peak is observed in the potential of mean force curve for a matched base pair, whereas no such peaks are present in the position of mean force profiles for unmatched ones...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Andrzej W Cwetsch, Bruno Pinto, Annalisa Savardi, Laura Cancedda
Accurate and timely expression of specific genes guarantees the healthy development and function of the brain. Indeed, variations in the correct amount or timing of gene expression lead to improper development and/or pathological conditions. Almost forty years after the first successful gene transfection in in vitro cell cultures, it is currently possible to regulate gene expression in an area-specific manner at any step of central nervous system development and in adulthood in experimental animals in vivo, even overcoming the very poor accessibility of the brain...
April 22, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Melad G Paulis, Osama A Hassan, Mohmed F Abbass, Mostafa Abo-Al Hamad Mohammad
Despite the well-known toxicity and the efforts to control its exposure, lead still has a serious health concern, particularly in young ages. Chelation therapy cannot correct the neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure. So, there is a requirement to test different protective agents for lead intoxication. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has gained attraction recently as an antioxidant. Four groups of rats received sodium acetate, HRW, lead acetate (LA), or LA plus HRW for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress, histological and immunohistochemistry using p53 antibody were used to investigate the toxic effect of lead and the possible HRW protective effect in rat hippocampus...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Anish Dattani, Divya Sridhar, Aziz Aboobaker
Planarian flatworms possess pluripotent stem cells (neoblasts) that are able to differentiate into all cell types that constitute the adult body plan. Consequently, planarians possess remarkable regenerative capabilities. Transcriptomic studies have revealed that gene expression is coordinated to maintain neoblast pluripotency, and ensure correct lineage specification during differentiation. But as yet they have not revealed how this regulation of expression is controlled. In this review, we propose that planarians represent a unique and effective system to study the epigenetic regulation of these processes in an in vivo context...
April 22, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Holm Schneider, Florian Faschingbauer, Sonia Schuepbach-Mallepell, Iris Körber, Sigrun Wohlfart, Angela Dick, Mandy Wahlbuhl, Christine Kowalczyk-Quintas, Michele Vigolo, Neil Kirby, Corinna Tannert, Oliver Rompel, Wolfgang Rascher, Matthias W Beckmann, Pascal Schneider
Genetic deficiency of ectodysplasin A (EDA) causes X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), in which the development of sweat glands is irreversibly impaired, an condition that can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia. We observed normal development of mouse fetuses with Eda mutations after they had been exposed in utero to a recombinant protein that includes the receptor-binding domain of EDA. We administered this protein intraamniotically to two affected human twins at gestational weeks 26 and 31 and to a single affected human fetus at gestational week 26; the infants, born in week 33 (twins) and week 39 (singleton), were able to sweat normally, and XLHED-related illness had not developed by 14 to 22 months of age...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Yan Zhao
Sequence-selective recognition of peptides in water has been one of the most important and yet unsolved problems in bioorganic and supramolecular chemistry. The motivation comes from not only the importance of these molecules in biology but also the fundamental challenges involved in the research. Molecular imprinting in doubly cross-linked surfactant micelles offers a unique solution to this problem by creating a "supramolecular code" on the micelle surface that matches the structural features of the peptide chain...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Deniz Kargin, Özgür İsmail Türk, Akif Albayrak, Avni İlhan Bayhan, Mehmet Akif Kaygusuz
AIM: Lenke Type 1, the main thoracic curve type, is the most common spinal curve pattern in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative changes of both sagittal spinal and spinopelvic parameters in patients with Lenke Type 1 AIS who underwent selective and non-selective fusion surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among 53 Lenke Type 1 AIS patients who underwent corrective surgery at our centre between 2006 and 2012...
April 9, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
Karina da Silva Aguiar, Jamile Machado Dos Santos, Mônica Cristina Cambrussi, Solane Picolotto, Marcela Bechara Carneiro
Objective To demonstrate economic impact of pharmaceutical evaluation in detection and prevention of errors in antineoplastic prescriptions. Methods This was an observational and retrospective study performed in a cancer hospital. From July to August 2016 pharmacists checked prescriptions of antineoplastic and adjuvant drugs. Drug-related problems observed were classified and analyzed concerning drug, pharmaceutical intervention, acceptability and characteristic of the error. In case of problem related to dose, we calculated a deviation percentage related with correct dose and value spent or saved...
2018: Einstein
José Antonio Chehuen Neto, Nícolas Augusto Coelho Braga, Igor Vilela Brum, Gislaine Fernandes Gomes, Paula Liziero Tavares, Rafael Teixeira Costa Silva, Mariana Rodarte Freire, Renato Erothildes Ferreira
OBJECTIVES: to describe the awareness about falls among elderly people living in their households in communities, to measure the other risks that they are exposed to in their homes and to evaluate the influence that knowledge on falling brings in the adoption of preventative measures. METHOD: The FRAQ-Brazil questionnaire was used on 473 elderly people as well as a questionnaire on elderly people being exposed to 20 household risk factors. Associations between the variables were analyzed using the chi-squared test with a confidence interval of 95%...
April 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Alessandra De Leo, Horng-Shen Chen, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Paul M Lieberman
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006596.].
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Charles Savoldelli, Emmanuel Chamorey, Georges Bettega
Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is a widely-performed procedure in orthognathic surgery for the correction of dentofacial deformity. Condylar positioning is a critical step during BSSO to maximize functional and morphological results. The unsuitable positioning of condyles represents one of the causative mechanisms that may induce temporomandibular joint noxious effects after BSSO. Repositioning devices can assist surgeons in maintaining the preoperative condylar position; however, empirical repositioning methods based on experience gained are still commonly used...
2018: PloS One
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