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Adult neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440814/depletion-of-adult-neurogenesis-using-the-chemotherapy-drug-temozolomide-in-mice-induces-behavioural-and-biological-changes-relevant-to-depression
#1
M Egeland, C Guinaudie, A Du Preez, K Musaelyan, P A Zunszain, C Fernandes, C M Pariante, S Thuret
Numerous studies have examined links between postnatal neurogenesis and depression using a range of experimental methods to deplete neurogenesis. The antimitotic drug temozolomide (TMZ) has previously been used successfully as an experimental tool in animals to deplete adult neurogenesis and is used regularly on human patients as a standard chemotherapy for brain cancer. In this study, we wanted to evaluate whether TMZ as a model for chemotherapy treatment could affect parameters related to depression in an animal model...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440309/glypican-2-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-predict-the-status-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#2
S Lugert, T Kremer, R Jagasia, A Herrmann, S Aigner, C Giachino, I Mendez-David, A M Gardier, J P Carralot, H Meistermann, A Augustin, M D Saxe, J Lamerz, G Duran-Pacheco, A Ducret, V Taylor, D J David, C Czech
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain plasticity through which new neurons are generated throughout life. Despite its important roles in cognition and emotion and its modulation in various preclinical disease models, the functional importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in human health has not been revealed because of a lack of tools for monitoring adult neurogenesis in vivo. Therefore, we performed an unbiased proteomics screen to identify novel proteins expressed during neuronal differentiation using a human neural stem cell model, and we identified the proteoglycan Glypican-2 (Gpc2) as a putative secreted marker of immature neurons...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439518/diabetes-adult-neurogenesis-and-brain-remodeling-new-insights-from-rodent-and-zebrafish-models
#3
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, David Couret, Anaïs Hoarau, Olivier Meilhac, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Nicolas Diotel
The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as (1) decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell survival), (2) decreased brain volumes, (3) increased blood-brain barrier leakage, (4) increased cognitive impairments, as well as (5) increased stroke incidence and worse neurologic outcomes following stroke...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436627/-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#4
Liying Chen, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and severe neurological disorder which is often intractable. It can not only damage the normal structure and function of hippocampus, but also affect the neurogenesis in dentate gyrus (DG). It is well documented from researches on the animal models of TLE that after a latent period of several days, prolonged seizure activity leads to a dramatic increase in mitotic activity in the hippocampal DG. However, cell proliferation returns to baseline levels within 3-4 weeks after status epilepticus (SE)...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435980/-glial-cells-function-as-neural-stem-cells-and-progenitor-cells
#5
Zi-Jian Tan, Shu-Hui Ju, Xiao Huang, Ya-Kun Gu, Zhi-Da Su
Glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NG2-glia, etc, are broadly distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Also, it has been well known that glial cells play multi-roles in physiological and pathological processes in the CNS, such as maintaining homeostasis, providing neurotrophins for neurons and regulating neural signal transmission. Recently, increasing evidence showed that glial cells may also function as neural stem/progenitor cells and contribute to adult neurogenesis or neuroregeneration...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434161/can-valproic-acid-regulate-neurogenesis-from-nestin-cells-in-the-adult-midbrain
#6
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes the motor symptoms (e.g. tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally agreed that replacing these neurons will provide better motor symptom relief and fewer side effects than current pharmacotherapies. One potential approach to this is up-regulating endogenous DA neurogenesis in SNc. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analyses to identify signalling pathways that control expression of Pax6 and Msx1 genes, which have been identified as potentially important neurogenic regulators in the adult midbrain...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433461/severely-impaired-adult-brain-neurogenesis-in-cyclin-d2-knock-out-mice-produces-very-limited-phenotypic-changes
#7
REVIEW
Robert K Filipkowski, Leszek Kaczmarek
The discovery of new neurons being produced in the brains of adult mammals (adult brain neurogenesis) began a quest to determine the function(s) of these cells. Major hypotheses in the field have assumed that these neurons play pivotal role, in particular, in learning and memory phenomena, mood control, and epileptogenesis. In our studies summarized herein, we used cyclin D2 knockout (KO) mice, as we have shown that cyclin D2 is the key factor in adult brain neurogenesis and thus its lack produces profound impairment of the process...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431685/galr3-mediates-galanin-proliferative-effects-on-postnatal-hippocampal-precursors
#8
D Khan, M Khan, Johan Runesson, M Zaben, W P Gray
Galanin, a neuropeptide co-released from noradrenergic and serotonergic projection neurons to the dentate gyrus, has recently emerged as an important mediator for signaling neuronal activity to the subgranular neurogenic stem cell niche supporting adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Galanin and its receptors appear to play key roles in depression-like behavior, and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis are relevant to pharmacological strategies for treating depression, which in part appear to rely on restoring altered neurogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431266/reduced-abnormal-integration-of-adult-generated-granule-cells-does-not-attenuate-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-mice
#9
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Epileptic seizures lead to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, including increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs). Previous results from ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures have been controversial with regards to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). While ablation of hippocampal newborn cells was effective, a sufficient decrease of subsequent abnormal integrations in chronically epileptic hippocampus was not well-established in these studies...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430000/neuroprotective-and-regenerative-roles-of-intranasal-wnt-3a-administration-after-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#10
Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Tammi M Taylor, Xiaohuan Gu, Yingying Zhao, Ling Wei
Wnt signaling is a conserved pathway involved in expansion of neural progenitors and lineage specification during development. However, the role of Wnt signaling in the post-stroke brain has not been well-elucidated. We hypothesized that Wnt-3a would play an important role for neurogenesis and brain repair. Adult male mice were subjected to a focal ischemic stroke targeting the sensorimotor cortex. Mice that received Wnt-3a (2 µg/kg/day, 1 h after stroke and once a day for the next 2 days, intranasal delivery) had reduced infarct volume compared to stroke controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428263/different-requirements-of-functional-telomeres-in-neural-stem-cells-and-terminally-differentiated-neurons
#11
Anastasia Lobanova, Robert She, Simon Pieraut, Charlie Clapp, Anton Maximov, Eros Lazzerini Denchi
Telomeres have been studied extensively in peripheral tissues, but their relevance in the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the roles of telomeres at distinct stages of murine brain development by using lineage-specific genetic ablation of TRF2, an essential component of the shelterin complex that protects chromosome ends from the DNA damage response machinery. We found that functional telomeres are required for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but their uncapping has surprisingly no detectable consequences on terminally differentiated neurons...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427858/mice-with-conditional-neurod1-knockout-display-reduced-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-but-no-change-in-epileptic-seizures
#12
Rebecca Brulet, Jingfei Zhu, Mahafuza Aktar, Jenny Hsieh, Kyung-Ok Cho
Adult neurogenesis is significantly increased in the hippocampus of rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). These adult-generated neurons have recently been shown to play a contributing role in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). In order to eventually target pro-epileptic adult neurogenesis in the clinical setting, it will be important to identify molecular players involved in the control of aberrant neurogenesis after seizures. Here, we focused on NeuroD1 (ND1), a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors previously shown to play an essential role in the differentiation and maturation of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427055/aquaporin-4-mediates-the-suppressive-effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#13
Rui Liang, Shoulei Yong, Xu Huang, Hui Kong, Gang Hu, Yi Fan
OBJECTIVE: Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a key molecule for water homeostasis in the brain, is associated with adult neurogenesis, but its mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells (aNSC) remain largely unexplored. Neuroinflammation has a relevant influence on adult neurogenesis, which is a common feature in various neurodegenerative diseases. Considering the possible link between neuroinflammation and AQP4, we speculate that AQP4 may mediate the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines in glia and then indirectly regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
April 21, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424582/hypothalamic-neurogenesis-as-an-adaptive-metabolic-mechanism
#14
REVIEW
Antonia Recabal, Teresa Caprile, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423311/physiological-plasticity-of-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells-in-the-adult-mammalian-carotid-body
#15
Valentina Annese, Elena Navarro-Guerrero, Ismael Rodríguez-Prieto, Ricardo Pardal
Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs) are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#16
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421538/roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-isoforms-in-neurogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Cheong-Meng Chong, Nana Ai, Minjing Ke, Yuan Tan, Zhijian Huang, Yong Li, Jia-Hong Lu, Wei Ge, Huanxing Su
Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been widely explored as a mediator of neuroinflammation, neuronal damages, and neurodegeneration at its pathological levels. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that NO plays key roles in mediating adult neurogenesis, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) to generate newborn neurons for replacing damaged neurons or maintaining the function of the brain. NO synthase (NOS) is a major enzyme catalyzing the generation of NO in the brain...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420791/adult-enteric-nervous-system-in-health-is-maintained-by-a-dynamic-balance-between-neuronal-apoptosis-and-neurogenesis
#18
Subhash Kulkarni, Maria-Adelaide Micci, Jenna Leser, Changsik Shin, Shiue-Cheng Tang, Ya-Yuan Fu, Liansheng Liu, Qian Li, Monalee Saha, Cuiping Li, Grigori Enikolopov, Laren Becker, Nikolai Rakhilin, Michael Anderson, Xiling Shen, Xinzhong Dong, Manish J Butte, Hongjun Song, E Michelle Southard-Smith, Raj P Kapur, Milena Bogunovic, Pankaj J Pasricha
According to current dogma, there is little or no ongoing neurogenesis in the fully developed adult enteric nervous system. This lack of neurogenesis leaves unanswered the question of how enteric neuronal populations are maintained in adult guts, given previous reports of ongoing neuronal death. Here, we confirm that despite ongoing neuronal cell loss because of apoptosis in the myenteric ganglia of the adult small intestine, total myenteric neuronal numbers remain constant. This observed neuronal homeostasis is maintained by new neurons formed in vivo from dividing precursor cells that are located within myenteric ganglia and express both Nestin and p75NTR, but not the pan-glial marker Sox10...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417659/effects-of-nphe-1-arg-14-lys-15-n-ofq-nh2-ufp-101-a-potent-nop-receptor-antagonist-on-molecular-cellular-and-behavioural-alterations-associated-with-chronic-mild-stress
#19
Giovanni Vitale, Monica Filaferro, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Valentina Ruggieri, Carlo Cifani, Remo Guerrini, Michele Simonato, Silvia Zucchini
The present study investigated the effect of [Nphe(1)] Arg(14), Lys(15)-N/OFQ-NH2 (UFP-101), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, in chronic mild stress (CMS) in male Wistar rats. NOP receptor antagonists were reported to elicit antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Our aim was to investigate UFP-101 effects on CMS-induced anhedonia and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. UFP-101 (10 nmol/rat intracerebroventricularly) did not influence sucrose intake in non-stressed animals, but reinstated basal sucrose consumption in stressed animals from the second week of treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407680/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reverses-behavioural-deficits-and-impaired-neurogenesis-caused-by-prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid
#20
Nikolai Gobshtis, Matanel Tfilin, Marina Wolfson, Vadim E Fraifeld, Gadi Turgeman
Neurodevelopmental impairment can affect lifelong brain functions such as cognitive and social behaviour, and may contribute to aging-related changes of these functions. In the present study, we hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) administration may repair neurodevelopmental behavioural deficits by modulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Indeed, postnatal intracerebral transplantation of MSC has restored cognitive and social behaviour in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA)...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
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