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Adult neurogenesis

Lívea Dornela Godoy, Eduardo H L Umeoka, Deidiane Elisa Ribeiro, Victor Rodrigues Santos, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Samia Regiane Lourenço Joca, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
Evidences suggest the contributive role of early-life stress (ELS) to affective and anxiety disorders. Chronic exposure to the same stressor may generate habituation, while the exposure to different and repeated stressors gradually promotes maladaptive plasticity. Therefore, to further understand the effects of heterotypic stressors during early life period, male Wistar rat pups (P1-P21) were exposed to Multimodal ELS paradigm. Results indicate pups did not habituate to multimodal ELS and neonates respond to both physical and psychogenic stressors...
March 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah Twigg, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally, and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Oscar Arias-Carrion, Emmanuel Ortega-Robles, Benito de Celis-Alonso, Artur Palasz, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Miguel A Mendez-Rojas, Jose Salas-Pacheco, Elias Manjarrez
Adult neurogenesis, a specific form of brain plasticity in mammals occurring in the subventricular zone, is subject to complex regulations. Hypocretin/orexin neurons are implicated in the regulation of sleep and arousal states among other functions. Here, we found orexin afferent projections in the rat subventricular zone, which is a neurogenic region. We therefore studied in detail the origin of the orexinergic innervation to the subventricular zone in rats. Post-mortem retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence procedures indicate orexinergic projections toward the subventricular zone...
March 13, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Philipp Abe, Hannah M Wüst, Sebastian J Arnold, Serge A van de Pavert, Ralf Stumm
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in learning and memory processing. It is tightly controlled at several levels including progenitor proliferation as well as migration, differentiation and integration of new neurons. Hippocampal progenitors and immature neurons reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ) and are equipped with the CXCL12-receptor CXCR4 which contributes to defining the SGZ as neurogenic niche. The atypical CXCL12-receptor CXCR7 functions primarily by sequestering extracellular CXCL12 but whether CXCR7 is involved in adult neurogenesis has not been assessed...
March 14, 2018: Glia
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Ericia Pei-Wen Teo, Melina Setiawan, Matthew J Lovatt, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Matthias Fuest, Bee-Tin Goh, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal opacities are a leading cause of global blindness. They are conventionally treated by the transplantation of donor corneal tissue, which is, restricted by a worldwide donor material shortage and allograft rejection. Autologous adult stem cells with a potential to differentiate into corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) could offer a suitable choice of cells for regenerative cell therapy. Postnatal periodontal ligament (PDL) contains a population of adult stem cells, which has a similar embryological origin as CSK, that is cranial neural crest...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Wankun L Li, Monica W Chu, An Wu, Yusuke Suzuki, Itaru Imayoshi, Takaki Komiyama
The rodent olfactory bulb incorporates thousands of newly generated inhibitory neurons daily throughout adulthood, but the role of adult neurogenesis in olfactory processing is not fully understood. Here we adopted a genetic method to inducibly suppress adult neurogenesis and investigated its effect on behavior and bulbar activity. Mice without young adult-born neurons (ABNs) showed normal ability in discriminating very different odorants but were impaired in fine discrimination. Furthermore, two-photon calcium imaging of mitral cells (MCs) revealed that the ensemble odor representations of similar odorants were more ambiguous in the ablation animals...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Laura B Ngwenya, Sarmistha Mazumder, Zachary R Porter, Amy Minnema, Duane J Oswald, H Francis Farhadi
Cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are debilitating and contribute to the morbidity and loss of productivity of over 10 million people worldwide. Cell transplantation has been linked to enhanced cognitive function after experimental traumatic brain injury, yet the mechanism of recovery is poorly understood. Since the hippocampus is a critical structure for learning and memory, supports adult neurogenesis, and is particularly vulnerable after TBI, we hypothesized that stem cell transplantation after TBI enhances cognitive recovery by modulation of endogenous hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Stem Cells International
Marcos Assis Nascimento, Lydia Sorokin, Tatiana Coelho-Sampaio
Fractones are extracellular matrix structures in the neural stem cell niche of the subventricular zone (SVZ), where they appear as round deposits named bulbs or thin branching lines called stems. Their cellular origin and what determines their localization at this site is poorly studied and it remains unclear whether they influence neural stem and progenitor cells formation, proliferation and/or maintenance. To address these questions, we analyzed whole mount preparations of the lateral ventricle of male and female mice by confocal microscopy using different extracellular matrix and cell markers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Naoki Sawada, Takenori Kotani, Tasuku Konno, Jajar Setiawan, Yuka Nishigaito, Yasuyuki Saito, Yoji Murata, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Takashi Matozaki
In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
A Raček, K Beňová, P Arnoul, M Závodská, A Angelidis, V Cigánková, V Šimaiová, E Račeková
Processes of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by environmental factors. Here, we investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MWR) on proliferation and cell dying in the rat rostral migratory stream (RMS) - a migration route for the neuroblasts of the subventricular zone. Adult and juvenile (two weeks old) rats were exposed to a pulsed-wave MWR at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for 3 h daily during 3 weeks. Adult rats were divided into two groups: without survival and with two weeks survival after irradiation...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
March 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Maryam Safahani, Hadi Aligholi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Mahmoud Djalali, Hamideh Pishva, Sayed Mostafa Modarres Mousavi, Fatemeh Alipour, Ali Gorji, Fariba Koohdani
OBJECTIVE: Adult hypothalamic neurogenesis has been considered a central regulator of energy balance. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, influences the body fat mass and reduces the amount of adipose tissue. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of RSV on dynamic of hypothalamic neurons in a diet-induced obesity model of mice. METHODS: Apoptosis, neurogenesis, the expression of the main trophic factors, and the fate of newborn cells were evaluated in the hypothalamus of adult male C57 BL/6 J mice fed a normal diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or an HF diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg RSV (HF + RSV) for 6 wk...
December 2, 2017: Nutrition
Jacki L Coburn, Toby B Cole, Khoi T Dao, Lucio G Costa
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells give rise to new functional neurons in specific regions of the adult brain, a process that occurs throughout life. Significantly, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders present suppressed neurogenesis, activated microglia, and neuroinflammation. Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to adversely affect the central nervous system. As the cardinal effects of air pollution exposure are microglial activation, and ensuing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we investigated whether acute exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) would inhibit adult neurogenesis in mice...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Luise Woost, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Marco Taubert, Robert Trampel, Christine L Tardif, Alexander Garthe, Gerd Kempermann, Ulrich Renner, Günter Stalla, Derek V M Ott, Viola Rjosk, Hellmuth Obrig, Arno Villringer, Elisabeth Roggenhofer, Tilmann A Klein
Physical exercise has been suggested to improve cognitive performance through various neurobiological mechanisms, mediated by growth factors such as BDNF, IGF-I, and VEGF. Moreover, animal research has demonstrated that combined physical and cognitive stimulation leads to increased adult neurogenesis as compared to either experimental condition alone. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether a sequential combination of physical and spatial training in young, healthy adults elicits an additive effect on training and transfer gains...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joon Ha Park, Bich Na Shin, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Il Jun Kang, Ki-Yeon Yoo, In Koo Hwang, Choong Hyun Lee, Yoo Hun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Jong Dai Kim
Background: Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice. Methods: A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Kyung-Joo Seong, Hyeong-Jun Kim, Bangrong Cai, Min-Suk Kook, Ji-Yeon Jung, Won-Jae Kim
The subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG) is a primary site of adult neurogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in neural system development of Drosophila and innate immune response of mammals. TLR2 is expressed abundantly in neurogenic niches such as adult mammalian hippocampus. It regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis is not well studied in global or focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis after photochemically induced cerebral ischemia...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Kyle J Brymer, Erin Y Fenton, Lisa E Kalynchuk, Hector J Caruncho
Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder frequently comorbid with autoimmune disorders. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that repeated corticosterone (CORT) injections in rats reliably increase depressive-like behavior, impair hippocampal-dependent memory, reduce the number and complexity of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus, decrease hippocampal reelin expression, and alter markers of GABAergic function. We hypothesized that peripheral injections of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept could exert antidepressant effects through a restoration of many of these neurobiological changes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shawn F Sorrells, Mercedes F Paredes, Arantxa Cebrian-Silla, Kadellyn Sandoval, Dashi Qi, Kevin W Kelley, David James, Simone Mayer, Julia Chang, Kurtis I Auguste, Edward F Chang, Antonio J Gutierrez, Arnold R Kriegstein, Gary W Mathern, Michael C Oldham, Eric J Huang, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Zhengang Yang, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla
New neurons continue to be generated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus. This process has been linked to learning and memory, stress and exercise, and is thought to be altered in neurological disease. In humans, some studies have suggested that hundreds of new neurons are added to the adult dentate gyrus every day, whereas other studies find many fewer putative new neurons. Despite these discrepancies, it is generally believed that the adult human hippocampus continues to generate new neurons...
March 7, 2018: Nature
Alexandra Angelova, Marie-Catherine Tiveron, Harold Cremer, Christophe Beclin
In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Manoela V Fogaça, Alline C de Campos, Ludmila D Coelho, Ronald S Duman, Francisco S Guimarães
Repeated injections of cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, attenuate the anxiogenic effects induced by Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS). The specific mechanisms remain to be fully understood but seem to involve adult hippocampal neurogenesis and recruitment of endocannabinoids. Here we investigated for the first time if the behavioral and pro-neurogenic effects of CBD administered concomitant the CUS procedure (14 days) are mediated by CB1 , CB2 or 5HT1A receptors, as well as CBD effects on dendritic remodeling and on intracellular/synaptic signaling (fatty acid amide hydrolase - FAAH, Akt, GSK3β and the synaptic proteins Synapsin Ia/b, mGluR1 and PSD95)...
March 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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