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Adult neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774535/physiology-and-molecular-biology-of-barrier-mechanisms-in-the-fetal-and-neonatal-brain
#1
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765864/non-canonical-post-transcriptional-rna-regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-potential
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Rolando, Verdon Taylor
Adult brain structures and complexity emerge from a single layer of neuroepithelial cells that early during the development give rise to neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs persist in restricted regions of the postnatal brain where they support neurogenesis throughout life thus allowing brain plasticity and adaptation. NSC regulation involves a precise coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that finely modulate the neurogenic process. Here we will discuss new mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation that act in the embryonic and adult brain to regulate NSC maintenance and differentiation...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765863/autophagy-and-adult-neurogenesis-discoveries-made-half-a-century-ago-yet-in-their-infancy-of-being-connected
#3
REVIEW
Jagroop Dhaliwal, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Diane C Lagace
Within the brain, the physiological and pathological functions of autophagy in development and throughout the lifespan are being elucidated. This review summarizes recent in vitro and in vivo results that are defining the role of autophagy-related genes during the process of adult neurogenesis. We also discuss the need for future experiments to determine the molecular mechanism and functional significance of autophagy in the different neural stem cell populations and throughout the stages of adult neurogenesis...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765859/mirna-mediated-regulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-implications-for-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Pascal Bielefeld, Catherine Mooney, David C Henshall, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) proliferate and differentiate to generate new neurons across the life span of most mammals, including humans. This process takes place within a characteristic local microenvironment where NSPCs interact with a variety of other cell types and encounter systemic regulatory factors. Within this microenvironment, cell intrinsic gene expression programs are modulated by cell extrinsic signals through complex interactions, in many cases involving short non-coding RNA molecules, such as miRNAs...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765857/dna-methylation-and-adult-neurogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Emily M Jobe, Xinyu Zhao
The role of DNA methylation in brain development is an intense area of research because the brain has particularly high levels of CpG and mutations in many of the proteins involved in the establishment, maintenance, interpretation, and removal of DNA methylation impact brain development and/or function. These include DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET), and Methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBPs). Recent advances in sequencing breadth and depth as well the detection of different forms of methylation have greatly expanded our understanding of the diversity of DNA methylation in the brain...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765856/regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis-2-0-beyond-signaling-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators
#7
EDITORIAL
Helena Mira, D Chichung Lie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764526/cannabinoid-signalling-in-embryonic-and-adult-neurogenesis-possible-implications-for-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders
#8
Rúbia W de Oliveira, Cilene L Oliveira, Francisco S Guimarães, Alline C Campos
Cannabinoid signalling modulates several aspects of brain function, including the generation and survival of neurons during embryonic and adult periods. The present review intended to summarise evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system on the control of neurogenesis and neurogenesis-dependent functions. Studies reporting participation of cannabinoids on the regulation of any step of neurogenesis and the effects of cannabinoid compounds on animal models possessing neurogenesis-dependent features were selected from Medline...
May 16, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760681/sex-steroids-adult-neurogenesis-and-inflammation-in-cns-homeostasis-degeneration-and-repair
#9
REVIEW
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760680/disruption-in-thyroid-signaling-pathway-a-mechanism-for-the-effect-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-child-neurodevelopment
#10
REVIEW
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760072/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-proliferation-of-enteric-glia-and-differentiation-of-neurons-in-the-myenteric-plexus-after-damage
#11
F D'Errico, G Goverse, Y Dai, W Wu, M Stakenborg, E Labeeuw, V De Simone, B Verstockt, P J Gomez-Pinilla, M Warner, A Di Leo, G Matteoli, J A Gustafsson
Injury to the enteric nervous system (ENS) can cause several gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including achalasia, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroparesis. Recently, a subpopulation of enteric glial cells with neuronal stem/progenitor properties (ENSCs) has been identified in the adult ENS. ENSCs have the ability of reconstituting the enteric neuronal pool after damage of the myenteric plexus. Since the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is expressed in enteric glial cells and neurons, we investigated whether a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, can influence neuronal and glial cell differentiation...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756519/adipose-derived-stem-cells-stimulated-with-n-butylidenephthalide-exhibit-therapeutic-effects-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Kang Chi, Ru-Huei Fu, Yu-Chuen Huang, Shih-Yin Chen, Ching-Ju Hsu, Shinn-Zong Lin, Chi-Tang Tu, Li-Hsun Chang, Ping-An Wu, Shih-Ping Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and dopaminergic cell death. Drug treatments can effectively reduce symptoms but often cause unwanted side effects. Stem cell therapies using cell replacement or indirect beneficial secretomes have recently emerged as potential therapeutic strategies. Although various types of stem cells have been proposed as possible candidates, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are easily obtainable, more abundant, less ethically disputed, and able to differentiate into multiple cell lineages...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755323/environmental-enrichment-prevents-transcriptional-disturbances-induced-by-alpha-synuclein-overexpression
#13
Zinah Wassouf, Thomas Hentrich, Sebastian Samer, Carola Rotermund, Philipp J Kahle, Ingrid Ehrlich, Olaf Riess, Nicolas Casadei, Julia M Schulze-Hentrich
Onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, including synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, have been associated with various environmental factors. A highly compelling association from a therapeutic point of view has been found between a physically active lifestyle and a significantly reduced risk for Parkinson's disease. Mimicking such conditions in animal models by promoting physical activity, social interactions, and novel surroundings yields in a so-called enriched environment known to enhance adult neurogenesis, increase synaptic plasticity, and decelerate neuronal loss...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754175/stem-cell-therapies-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Kiminobu Sugaya, Manjusha Vaidya
Stem cell therapies have been proposed as a treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases, but the best stem cell source and therapeutic efficacy for neuroregeneration remain uncertain. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs), which can efficiently generate neural cells, could be good candidates but they pose ethical and practical issues. Not only difficult to find the good source of those cells but also they alway pose immunorejection problem since they may not be an autologous cells. Even if we overcome the immunorejection problem, it has also been reported that transplantation of ESCs develop teratoma...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753753/dietary-polyphenols-and-neurogenesis-molecular-interactions-and-implication-for-brain-ageing-and-cognition
#15
REVIEW
F Sarubbo, D Moranta, G Pani
The increased number of elderly people worldwide poses a major medical and socio-economic challenge: the search of strategies to combat the consequences of the aging process. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been pointed out as the leading causes of brain aging, which in turn alters the functionality of brain. In this context, decline in adult neurogenesis (AN), due to modifications in the neural progenitor stem cells (NSCs) and their microenvironment, is among the aging alterations contributing to cognitive decline...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#16
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752725/identification-of-neun-immunopositive-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-subventricular-zone
#17
Kengo Saito, Taro Koike, Fumiaki Kawashima, Hirofumi Kurata, Taku Shibuya, Takemasa Satoh, Yoshio Hata, Hisao Yamada, Tetsuji Mori
In the adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ), there are neural stem cells (NSCs) and the specialized neurogenic niche is critical to maintain their stemness. . To date, many cellular and non-cellular factors that compose the neurogenic niche and markers to identify subpopulations of Type A cells have been confirmed. In particular, neurotransmitters regulate adult neurogenesis and mature neurons in the SVZ have been only partially analyzed. Moreover, Type A cells, descendants of NSCs, are highly heterogeneous and more molecular markers are still needed to identify them...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748916/zbtb20-regulates-developmental-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-and-gliogenesis-after-adult-brain-injury
#18
Thorsten R Doeppner, Josephine Herz, Mathias Bähr, Anton B Tonchev, Anastassia Stoykova
The transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 is important for the hippocampal specification and the regulation of neurogenesis of neocortical projection neurons. Herein, we show a critical involvement of the TF Zbtb20 in the neurogenesis of both projection neurons and interneurons of the olfactory bulb during embryonic stages. Our data indicate that the lack of Zbtb20 significantly diminishes the generation of a set of early-born Tbr2+ neurons during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Zbtb20 regulates the transition between neurogenesis to gliogenesis in cortical radial glial progenitor cells at the perinatal (E18...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746611/adult-human-hippocampus-no-new-neurons-in-sight
#19
Jon I Arellano, Brian Harding, Jean-Leon Thomas
In this issue of Cerebral Cortex, Cipriani et al. are following up on the recent report of Sorrels et al. to add novel immunohistological observations indicating that, unlike rodents, adult and aging humans do not acquire new neurons in the hippocampus. The common finding emerging from these 2 different, but almost simultaneous studies is highly significant because the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was, until recently, considered as the only structure in the human brain that may continue neurogenesis throughout the full life span...
May 9, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743494/a-behavioral-task-with-more-opportunities-for-memory-acquisition-promotes-the-survival-of-new-neurons-in-the-adult-dentate-gyrus
#20
Ida E J Aasebø, Ameya Sanjay Kasture, Marzia Passeggeri, Ayumu Tashiro
It has been suggested that the dentate gyrus, particularly its new neurons generated via adult neurogenesis, is involved in memory acquisition and recall. Here, we trained rats in two types of Morris water maze tasks that are differentially associated with these two memory processes, and examined whether new neurons are differently affected by the two tasks performed during the second week of neuronal birth. Our results indicate that the task involving more opportunities to acquire new information better supports the survival of new neurons...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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