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Adult neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#1
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324888/transcription-factor-runx1-is-pro-neurogenic-in-adult-hippocampal-precursor-cells
#2
Hirokazu Fukui, Annette Rünker, Klaus Fabel, Frank Buchholz, Gerd Kempermann
Transcription factor Runx1 (Runt Related Transcription Factor 1), plays an important role in the differentiation of hematopoetic stem cells, angiogenesis and the development of nociceptive neurons. These known functions have in common that they relate to lineage decisions. We thus asked whether such role might also be found for Runx1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a process, in which such decisions have to be regulated lifelong. Runx1 shows a widespread low expression in the adult mouse brain, not particularly prominent in the hippocampus and the resident neural precursor cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324300/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-links-maternal-obesity-with-impaired-neuronal-plasticity-in-adult-offspring
#3
Lisa Schmitz, Rebecca Kuglin, Inga Bae-Gartz, Ruth Janoschek, Sarah Appel, Andrea Mesaros, Igor Jakovcevski, Christina Vohlen, Marion Handwerk, Regina Ensenauer, Jörg Dötsch, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity and a disturbed metabolic environment during pregnancy and lactation have been shown to result in many long-term health consequences for the offspring. Among them, impairments in neurocognitive development and performance belong to the most dreaded ones. So far, very few mechanistic approaches have aimed to determine the responsible molecular events. METHODS: In a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity and perinatal hyperinsulinemia, we assessed adult offspring's hippocampal insulin signaling as well as concurrent effects on markers of hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and function using western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
December 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321633/olfactory-memory-is-enhanced-in-mice-exposed-to-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-modulation-of-subventricular-zone-neurogenesis
#4
Alessia Mastrodonato, Saviana Antonella Barbati, Lucia Leone, Claudia Colussi, Katia Gironi, Marco Rinaudo, Roberto Piacentini, Christine A Denny, Claudio Grassi
Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEF) influences the expression of key target genes controlling adult neurogenesis and modulates hippocampus-dependent memory. Here, we assayed whether ELFEF stimulation affects olfactory memory by modulating neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that 30 days after the completion of an ELFEF stimulation protocol (1 mT; 50 Hz; 3.5 h/day for 12 days), mice showed enhanced olfactory memory and increased SVZ neurogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320740/plexina2-forward-signaling-through-rap1-gtpases-regulates-dentate-gyrus-development-and-schizophrenia-like-behaviors
#5
Xiao-Feng Zhao, Rafi Kohen, Rachel Parent, Yuntao Duan, Grace L Fisher, Matthew J Korn, Lingchao Ji, Guoqiang Wan, Jing Jin, Andreas W Püschel, David F Dolan, Jack M Parent, Gabriel Corfas, Geoffrey G Murphy, Roman J Giger
Dentate gyrus (DG) development requires specification of granule cell (GC) progenitors in the hippocampal neuroepithelium, as well as their proliferation and migration into the primordial DG. We identify the Plexin family members Plxna2 and Plxna4 as important regulators of DG development. Distribution of immature GCs is regulated by Sema5A signaling through PlxnA2 and requires a functional PlxnA2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Rap1 small GTPases. In adult Plxna2-/- but not Plxna2-GAP-deficient mice, the dentate GC layer is severely malformed, neurogenesis is compromised, and mossy fibers form aberrant synaptic boutons within CA3...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313978/olfactory-receptor-neuronal-dendrites-become-mostly-intra-sustentacularly-enwrapped-upon-maturity
#6
Fengyi Liang
The mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) sustains persistent neurogenesis even in the adult. Sustentacular cells therein play both epithelial and neuroglial roles, although their relation with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their function in ORN maturation remain insufficiently understood. Sustentacular wrapping of ORN dendrites has been long known but always considered a minor presence, as opposed to the supposedly unwrapped majority of ORN dendrites at inter-sustentacular borderlines. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and immuno-electron microscopy, the current study examined cytoarchitectonic organization and maturation of ORN dendrites at the rat OE apical layer...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311652/adult-generated-neurons-born-during-chronic-social-stress-are-uniquely-adapted-to-respond-to-subsequent-chronic-social-stress
#7
Zurine De Miguel, Ursula Haditsch, Theo D Palmer, Arantza Azpiroz, Robert M Sapolsky
Chronic stress is a recognized risk factor for psychiatric and psychological disorders and a potent modulator of adult neurogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that during stress, neurogenesis decreases; however, during the recovery from the stress, neurogenesis increases. Despite the increased number of neurons born after stress, it is unknown if the function and morphology of those neurons are altered. Here we asked whether neurons in adult mice, born during the final 5 days of chronic social stress and matured during recovery from chronic social stress, are similar to neurons born with no stress conditions from a quantitative, functional and morphological perspective, and whether those neurons are uniquely adapted to respond to a subsequent stressful challenge...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311646/generation-of-functional-dopaminergic-neurons-from-reprogramming-fibroblasts-by-nonviral-based-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#8
Jen-Hsuan Chang, Ping-Hsing Tsai, Kai-Yi Wang, Yu-Ting Wei, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chung-Yuan Mou
Direct-lineage conversion of the somatic cell by reprogramming, in which mature cells were fully converted into a variety of other cell types bypassing an intermediate pluripotent state, is a promising regenerative medicine approach. Due to the risk of tumorigenesis by viral methods, a non-viral carrier for the delivery of reprogramming factors is very desirable. This study utilized the mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a non-viral delivery system for transduction of the three key factors to achieve conversion of mouse fibroblasts (MFs) into functional dopaminergic neuron-like cells (denoted as fDA-neurons)...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311593/neogenin-a-regulator-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-prevents-depressive-like-behavior
#9
Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Lu Zhao, Dae-Hoon Lee, Jin-Xia Hu, Fu-Lei Tang, Jin-Xiu Pan, Lin Mei, Xiao-Juan Zhu, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309796/prenatal-exposure-to-valproic-acid-alters-the-development-of-excitability-in-the-postnatal-rat-hippocampus
#10
Yukiko Fueta, Yuko Sekino, Sachiko Yoshida, Yasunari Kanda, Susumu Ueno
Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure is a well-known animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that produces alterations in embryonic and adult neurogenesis as well as adolescent/adulthood neurobehavioral phenotypes. However, the effects of prenatal VPA exposure on neural network excitability, especially during the synaptogenic period around eye opening, are not fully understood. In this study, we orally administered VPA (300 mg/kg) to pregnant Wistar rats on gestation day 15 and subsequently performed field potential recording in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from control (saline-exposed) and VPA-exposed rat pups between postnatal day (PND) 13 and PND18...
January 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309310/nuclear-translocation-of-dj-1-protects-adult-neuronal-stem-cells-in-an-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Yi Sun, Yupeng Wang, Xin Zhao, Xiaoping Pu
DJ-1, originally identified as an oncogene product, is involved in multiple processes, including cellular transformation, the oxidative stress response, and transcriptional regulation. We had previously found that DJ-1 was closely associated with the proliferation and differentiation of cultured neuronal stem cells. In this study, we further investigated the functions of DJ-1 to determine how adult neurogenesis was affected in the subgranular zones (SGZ), subventricular zone (SVZ), and olfactory bulb (OB), which are brain areas closely related to early nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, using a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
January 5, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309205/effects-of-fractionated-whole-brain-irradiation-on-cellular-composition-and-cognitive-function-in-the-rat-brain
#12
Soňa Bálentová, Eva Hajtmanová, Barbora Filová, Veronika Borbélyová, Ján Lehotský, Marian Adamkov
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate whether histopathological changes in the neurogenic region correlate with appropriate cognitive impairment in the experimental model of radiation-induced brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats randomized into sham (0 Gy) and 2 experimental groups (survived 30 and 100 days after treatment) received fractionated whole-brain irradiation (one 5Gy fraction/week for 4 weeks) with a total dose of 20 Gy of gamma rays...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-open-chromatin-during-human-cortical-neurogenesis
#13
Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jason L Stein, Hyejung Won, Carli K Opland, Dan Liang, Daning Lu, Daniel H Geschwind
Non-coding regions comprise most of the human genome and harbor a significant fraction of risk alleles for neuropsychiatric diseases, yet their functions remain poorly defined. We created a high-resolution map of non-coding elements involved in human cortical neurogenesis by contrasting chromatin accessibility and gene expression in the germinal zone and cortical plate of the developing cerebral cortex. We link distal regulatory elements (DREs) to their cognate gene(s) together with chromatin interaction data and show that target genes of human-gained enhancers (HGEs) regulate cortical neurogenesis and are enriched in outer radial glia, a cell type linked to human cortical evolution...
January 2, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306978/vascular-pattern-of-the-dentate-gyrus-is-regulated-by-neural-progenitors
#14
Ana Pombero, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Alicia Estirado, Salvador Martinez
Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role...
January 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304004/effects-of-fluoxetine-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-neuroprotection-in-the-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#15
Marina Khodanovich, Alena Kisel, Marina Kudabaeva, Galina Chernysheva, Vera Smolyakova, Elena Krutenkova, Irina Wasserlauf, Mark Plotnikov, Vasily Yarnykh
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, has recently attracted a significant interest as a neuroprotective therapeutic agent. There is substantial evidence of improved neurogenesis under fluoxetine treatment of brain ischemia in animal stroke models. We studied long-term effects of fluoxetine treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis, neuronal loss, inflammation, and functional recovery in a new model of global cerebral ischemia (GCI). Brain ischemia was induced in adult Wistar male rats by transient occlusion of three main vessels originating from the aortic arch and providing brain blood supply...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301063/aberrant-epigenetic-gene-regulation-in-gabaergic-interneuron-subpopulations-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-mouse-offspring-following-developmental-exposure-to-hexachlorophene
#16
Yousuke Watanabe, Hajime Abe, Kota Nakajima, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Katsuhide Igarashi, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Maternal hexachlorophene (HCP) exposure causes transient disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. We examined epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to this HCP-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were dietary exposed to 0 or 100 ppm HCP from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses on PND 21. Validation analyses on methylation identified three genes, Dlx4, Dmrt1, and Plcb4, showing promoter-region hypermethylation...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300914/local-klotho-enhances-neuronal-progenitor-proliferation-in-the-adult-hippocampus
#17
Felipe Salech, Lorena Varela-Nallar, Sebastián B Arredondo, Daniel B Bustamante, Gabriela A Andaur, Rodrigo Cisneros, Daniela P Ponce, Patricia Ayala, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, José L Valdés, María I Behrens, Andrés Couve
Klotho is an aging-related protein associated with hippocampal cognitive performance in mammals. Klotho regulates progenitor cell proliferation in non-neuronal tissues, but its role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) has not been explored. Klotho expression in the adult mouse hippocampus was examined by immunofluorescence and PCR. AHN was evaluated in the hippocampus of klotho knock-out mice (KO), klotho KO/vitamin D-receptor mutant mice, and in a model of local klotho hippocampal knockdown. The recombinant Klotho effect on proliferation was measured in mouse-derived hippocampal neural progenitor cells...
December 30, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298609/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-neuronal-repair-by-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-ischemic-rats
#18
Guilong Zhang, Xiaoyuan Guo, Lukui Chen, Bingqian Li, Bin Gu, Hong Wang, Guojian Wu, Jun Kong, Wanghao Chen, Yongbo Yu
Ischemic stroke represents the leading cause of adult neurological disability, with no effective therapeutic strategy. Stem cell transplantation promises a new promising for treating stroke, via cell replacement and cytokines paracrine. However, due to the effect of hostile immune microenvironment, the survival and differentiation of stem cells is limited in vivo. Furthermore, the delayed inflammatory response to stroke induced secondary neurological injury. IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokine has the potential to protect stem cell population during inflammatory response, as well stimulates neurogenesis of stem cells...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289719/the-distribution-of-ki-67-and-doublecortin-immunopositive-cells-in-the-brains-of-three-strepsirrhine-primates-galago-demidoff-perodicticus-potto-and-lemur-catta
#19
Thandi M Fasemore, Nina Patzke, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
This study investigated the pattern of adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of three prosimian primate species using immunohistochemical techniques for endogenous markers of this neural process. Two species, Galago demidoff and Perodicticus potto were obtained from wild populations in the primary rainforest of central Africa, while one species, Lemur catta, was captive-bred. Two brains from each species, perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, were sectioned (50 µm section thickness) in sagittal and coronal planes...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287246/neural-stem-cells-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Roberto Sacco, Emanuele Cacci, Gaia Novarino
The precise control of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation is crucial for the development and function of the human brain. Here, we review the emerging links between the alteration of embryonic and adult neurogenesis and the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia (SCZ), as well as the advances in stem cell-based modeling and the novel therapeutic targets derived from these studies.
December 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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