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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449281/effect-of-0-5%C3%A2-mg-vs-1%C3%A2-mg-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Natalia Fouz-Rosón, Teodoro Montemayor-Rubio, Virginia Almadana-Pacheco, Soledad Montserrat-García, Ana Paulina Gómez-Bastero, Concepción Romero-Muñoz, Juan Polo-Padillo
AIMS: Varenicline is used in smoking cessation. The aims of the trial were to test for differences between standard 1 mg and 0.5 mg dose (both twice daily during 8 weeks) in 1) abstinence 2) adherence 3) side effects. DESIGN: Open-label randomized parallel-group controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. All those randomized were included in the final sample using an intention-to-treat (ITT) approach. SETTING: Stop-Smoking Clinic of the Virgen Macarena University Hospital in Seville, Spain...
April 27, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448378/a-mixed-method-review-of-tobacco-cessation-for-the-cardiopulmonary-rehabilitation-clinician
#2
Ana Mola, Madeleine M Lloyd, Miguel A Villegas-Pantoja
PURPOSE: To systematically survey the literature, describe the current tobacco science, and perform a mixed method review of randomized control trials of tobacco research in the cardiopulmonary population. METHODS: Mixed method review was conducted on major resource databases. Inclusion criteria were English language with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, published between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2016; adult smokers ≥18 years of age with cardiovascular and/or pulmonary disease; initiation of subject recruitment from hospital or community; tobacco cessation (TC) as the main aim of the study; biometric validation of smoking status; first-line TC medications; and nonpharmacological treatments...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447766/supervised-dosing-with-a-long-acting-opioid-medication-in-the-management-of-opioid-dependence
#3
REVIEW
Rosella Saulle, Simona Vecchi, Linda Gowing
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence (OD) is an increasing clinical and public health problem worldwide. International guidelines recommend opioid substitution treatment (OST), such as methadone and buprenorphine, as first-line medication treatment for OD. A negative aspect of OST is that the medication used can be diverted both through sale on the black market, and the unsanctioned use of medications. Daily supervised administration of medications used in OST has the advantage of reducing the risk of diversion, and may promote therapeutic engagement, potentially enhancing the psychosocial aspect of OST, but costs more and is more restrictive on the client than dispensing for off-site consumption...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447103/comparison-of-clinical-outcomes-following-head-and-neck-surgery-among-patients-who-contract-to-abstain-from-alcohol-vs-patients-who-abuse-alcohol
#4
Azeem S Kaka, Songzhu Zhao, Enver Ozer, Amit Agrawal, Stephen Kang, James Rocco, Ricardo Carrau, Theodoros Teknos, John D Clapp, Harrison Weed, Matthew O Old
Importance: Alcohol abuse is highly prevalent in the population of patients with head and neck cancer, and active abuse at the time of surgery results in poor postoperative outcomes. Objective: To determine the association of alcohol abstinence with postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers undergoing major surgical procedures of the head and neck. Design, Setting, and Participants: As a case-control study, from July 2013 to August 2015, outcomes were collected in patients at an academic tertiary referral center requiring free flap reconstruction who had undergone an abstinence contract (n = 15) and compared with those who were abusers of alcohol prior to the inception of the protocol (n = 30)...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446210/cognitive-changes-in-alcohol-induced-psychotic-disorder
#5
Melany L Hendricks, R A Emsley, D G Nel, H B Thornton, G P Jordaan
AIMS: This study aimed to explore the neuro-cognitive deficits of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder as compared to the cognitive deficits of uncomplicated alcohol dependence. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the acute psychiatric admission wards of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch and Stikland and Tygerberg Academic Hospitals in the Western-Cape, South Africa. Participants who met DSM IV TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445899/evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-pharmacologic-management-of-methamphetamine-dependence-relapse-prevention-chronic-methamphetamine-related-and-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-in-post-acute-settings
#6
Roland Härtel-Petri, Anne Krampe-Scheidler, Wolf-Dietrich Braunwarth, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Peter Jeschke, Winfried Looser, Stephan Mühlig, Ingo Schäfer, Norbert Scherbaum, Lydia Bothe, Corinna Schaefer, Willem Hamdorf
The increasing abuse of the street drug crystal meth (methamphetamine) in many countries worldwide has resulted in a growing demand to treat patients who have acquired a methamphetamine-related disorder. The results of a systematic literature search which led to the consensus-based recommendations by the Working Group of the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (Ärztliches Zentrum für Qualität in der Medizin - ÄZQ) are presented. Pharmacological treatments were reviewed in 58 out of the 103 publications included...
April 26, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445303/lifetime-and-recent-alcohol-use-and-bone-mineral-density-in-adults-with-hiv-infection-and-substance-dependence
#7
Alicia S Ventura, Michael R Winter, Timothy C Heeren, Meg M Sullivan, Alexander Y Walley, Michael F Holick, Gregory J Patts, Seville M Meli, Jeffrey H Samet, Richard Saitz
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in people living with HIV infection (PLWH), increasing fracture risk. Alcohol use is also common in PLWH and is a modifiable risk factor for both HIV disease progression and low BMD. In PLWH, alcohol's effect on BMD is not well understood.We studied adult PLWH with substance dependence. We measured lifetime alcohol use (kg) and recent (i.e., past 30-day) alcohol use (categorized as: abstinent, low risk, or high risk). In adjusted multivariable regression analyses, we tested associations between lifetime and recent alcohol use and (i) mean BMD (g/cm) at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine and (ii) low BMD diagnosis (i...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444627/level-of-cigarette-consumption-and-duration-of-smoking-abstinence-during-failed-quit-attempts-among-long-term-daily-smokers-the-role-of-race-ethnicity-and-cessation-aids
#8
Julia N Soulakova, Lisa J Crockett
The goal of this study was to determine whether race/ethnicity and use of smoking cessation aids are associated with the duration of the last serious quit attempt and reductions in cigarette consumption among long-term daily smokers who tried, and failed, to quit smoking during the preceding year. Data came from the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement survey conducted in the USA, and analyses included 6672 reports of long-term daily smokers (i.e., smokers who smoked daily for 1 year or longer) who made at least one serious quit attempt in the past 12 months...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444326/preclinical-evidence-that-5-ht1b-receptor-agonists-show-promise-as-medications-for-psychostimulant-use-disorders
#9
Raul Garcia, Austin R Cotter, Kenneth Leslie, M Foster Olive, Janet L Neisewander
Background: 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) agonists enhance cocaine intake during daily self-administration sessions, but decrease cocaine intake when tested after prolonged abstinence. We examined if 5-HT1BR agonists produce similar abstinence-dependent effects on methamphetamine intake. Methods: Male rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg, IV) on low (FR5 and VR5) and high (progressive ratio; PR) effort schedules of reinforcement until intake was stable...
April 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443616/effects-of-extended-cannabis-abstinence-on-cognitive-outcomes-in-cannabis-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-versus-non-psychiatric-controls
#10
Rachel A Rabin, Mera S Barr, Michelle S Goodman, Yarissa Herman, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Stephen J Kish, Michael Kiang, Gary Remington, Tony P George
Cross-sectional studies of the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia have produced mixed results. Heavy and persistent cannabis use in schizophrenia is a common clinical problem, and effects of controlled abstinence from cannabis in these patients have not been carefully evaluated. The present study sought to determine the effects of cannabis abstinence on cognition in patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis dependence. We utilized a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm to investigate the state-dependent effects of cannabis on select cognitive outcomes in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442453/clickotine-a-personalized-smartphone-app-for-smoking-cessation-initial-evaluation
#11
Brian M Iacoviello, Joshua R Steinerman, David B Klein, Theodore L Silver, Adam G Berger, Sean X Luo, Nicholas J Schork
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and the annual economic burden attributable to smoking exceeds US $300 billion. Obstacles to smoking cessation include limited access and adherence to effective cessation interventions. Technology can help overcome these obstacles; many smartphone apps have been developed to aid smoking cessation, but few that conform to the US clinical practice guideline (USCPG) have been rigorously tested and reported in the literature...
April 25, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441272/treating-smoking-in-adults-with-co-occurring-acute-psychiatric-and-addictive-disorders
#12
Smita Das, Norval J Hickman, Judith J Prochaska
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco use is undertreated in individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUDs), with concerns that quitting smoking may compromise recovery. We evaluated outcomes of a tobacco intervention among psychiatric patients with co-occurring SUDs. METHODS: Data from 2 randomized tobacco treatment trials conducted in inpatient psychiatry were combined; analyses focused on the subsample with co-occurring SUDs (n = 216). Usual care provided brief advice to quit and nicotine replacement therapy during the smoke-free hospitalization...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438062/associations-of-maternal-obesity-and-smoking-status-with-perinatal-outcomes
#13
Julie K Phillips, Sarah E King, Ira M Bernstein, Joan M Skelly, Stephen T Higgins
Maternal obesity and smoking are associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. These prevalent conditions contribute to health disparities. In this study we examine whether maternal BMI moderates the impact of smoking cessation on short-term perinatal outcomes. This is a secondary analysis of assessments conducted from several prospective clinical trials examining the efficacy of incentives to promote smoking cessation during pregnancy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive financial incentives contingent upon smoking abstinence or a control condition...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438055/text-and-mobile-media-smoking-cessation-service-for-young-adults-in-south-texas-operation-and-cost-effectiveness-estimation
#14
Amelie G Ramirez, Patricia Chalela, David Akopian, Edgar Munoz, Kipling J Gallion, Cliff Despres, Jafet Morales, Rodrigo Escobar, Alfred L McAlister
To realize the promising potential of services delivered via smart phones to help young adults quit smoking at a high level of cost-efficiency, we constructed a texting and mobile media system that was promoted in South Texas via social media advertising and other recruitment channels. During the 6-month service period described here, enrollments were achieved for 798 participants with a mean age of 29.3 years. Seven-month texted follow-up found that 21% (171) of the enrollees reported abstinence at that point...
April 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434654/compulsive-addiction-like-aggressive-behavior-in-mice
#15
Sam A Golden, Conor Heins, Marco Venniro, Daniele Caprioli, Michelle Zhang, David H Epstein, Yavin Shaham
BACKGROUND: Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. METHODS: In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice...
March 17, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433423/prefrontal-cortex-expression-of-chromatin-modifier-genes-in-male-wsp-and-wsr-mice-changes-across-ethanol-dependence-withdrawal-and-abstinence
#16
Joel G Hashimoto, David P Gavin, Kristine M Wiren, John C Crabbe, Marina Guizzetti
Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of AUD. Studies carried out so far have focused on a few specific epigenetic modifications. The goal of this project was to investigate gene expression changes of epigenetic regulators that mediate a broad array of chromatin modifications after chronic alcohol exposure, chronic alcohol exposure followed by 8 h withdrawal, and chronic alcohol exposure followed by 21 days of abstinence in Withdrawal-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) selected mouse lines...
March 14, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432301/ampk-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-mediates-cue-induced-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking
#17
Xue-Jiao Gao, Kai Yuan, Lu Cao, Wei Yan, Yi-Xiao Luo, Min Jian, Jian-Feng Liu, Qin Fang, Ji-Shi Wang, Ying Han, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Relapse to drug seeking can be caused by exposure to drug-associated cues, provoking drug craving even after prolonged abstinence. Recent studies demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates neuronal morphology and membrane excitability in neurons. Here, we investigated the role of AMPK activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in relapse to cocaine seeking. We found that exposure to drug-related cues reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior and increased AMPK and p70s6k phosphorylation in the NAc core but not shell...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432210/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-to-reduce-children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-the-home
#18
Elena Ratschen, Rebecca Thorley, Laura Jones, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Juliette Cook, Ann McNeill, John Britton, Tim Coleman, Sarah Lewis
OBJECTIVES: Exposing children to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) causes significant harm and occurs predominantly through smoking by caregivers in the family home. We report a trial of a complex intervention designed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit smoking. DESIGN: An open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Deprived communities in Nottingham City and County, England PARTICIPANTS: Caregivers resident in Nottingham City and County in England who were at least 18 years old, the main caregiver of a child aged under 5 years living in their household, and reported that they were smoking tobacco inside their home...
April 21, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431293/cigarette-dependence-and-depressive-symptoms-as-predictors-of-smoking-status-at-five-year-follow-up-after-a-workplace-smoking-cessation-program
#19
Gemma Nieva, Marina Comín, Sergi Valero, Eugeni Bruguera
Workplace smoking cessation interventions increase quit rates compared to no treatment or minimal interventions. However, most studies report data up to one year. This study aims to evaluate long-term effects of a worksite smoking cessation intervention based on cognitive behavioral cessation groups combined with first-line medications, and determine to what extent cigarette dependence (FTCD) and depressive symptoms may influence results at five-year follow-up. Participants were invited to answer a short survey five years after starting the program...
April 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#20
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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