keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Abstinence

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645063/assessing-phosphatidylethanol-peth-levels-reflecting-different-drinking-habits-in-comparison-to-the-alcohol-use-disorders-identification-test-c-audit-c
#1
Alexandra Schröck, Friedrich M Wurst, Natasha Thon, Wolfgang Weinmann
In addition to monitoring problematic or harmful alcohol consumption, drinking experiments indicated the potential of phosphatidylethanols (PEth) in abstinence monitoring. To date, no profound evaluation of thresholds for the differentiation of abstinence from moderate drinking and for detection of excessive consumption based on PEth homologues exists. Investigations with a large group of healthy volunteers (n=300) were performed to establish PEth reference values reflecting different drinking habits. Blood samples were analyzed for PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 by online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644037/lower-risk-cannabis-use-guidelines-a-comprehensive-update-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#2
Benedikt Fischer, Cayley Russell, Pamela Sabioni, Wim van den Brink, Bernard Le Foll, Wayne Hall, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643800/striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-varies-across-smoking-status
#3
Corinde E Wiers, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Şükrü B Demiral, Sung Won Kim, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
To assess how tobacco smoking status affects baseline dopamine D2/D3 (D2R) receptor availability and methylphenidate-induced dopamine (DA) release, we retrospectively analyzed D2R availability measures of 8 current smokers, 10 ex-smokers, and 18 non-smokers who were scanned with Positron Emission Tomography and [(11)C]raclopride, after administration of an injection of placebo or 0.5 mg/kg iv methylphenidate. There was a significant effect of smoking status on baseline striatal D2R availability; with current smokers showing lower striatal D2R availability compared to non-smokers (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) and to ex-smokers (caudate and putamen)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643133/children-with-elevated-psychosocial-risk-load-benefit-most-from-a-family-based-preventive-intervention-exploratory-differential-analyses-from-the-german-strengthening-families-program-10-14-adaptation-trial
#4
Sonja Bröning, Christiane Baldus, Monika Thomsen, Peter-Michael Sack, Nicolas Arnaud, Rainer Thomasius
While the effectiveness of substance use prevention programs such as the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP) has been demonstrated in the USA, European SFP adaptations have not replicated these sizable effects. Following the rationale of the risk moderation hypothesis positing that elevated risk groups may benefit more from a preventive intervention than lower-risk groups, we reanalyzed evaluation data from a randomized controlled trial testing the adapted German version of SFP (SFP-D). We hypothesized a differential impact of risk status on intervention results...
June 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642299/dysfunctional-neutrophil-effector-organelle-mobilisation-and-microbicidal-protein-release-in-alcohol-related-cirrhosis
#5
Thomas Henry Tranah, Godhev K Manakkat Vijay, Jennifer M Ryan, Robin Daniel Abeles, Paul Kevin Middleton, Debbie Lindsay Shawcross
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (ALD) are prone to infection. Circulating neutrophils in ALD are dysfunctional and predict development of sepsis, organ dysfunction and survival. Neutrophil granules are important effector organelles containing a toxic array of microbicidal proteins, whose controlled release is required to kill micro-organisms whilst minimising inflammation and damage to host tissue. We investigated the role of these granular responses in contributing to immune disarray in ALD...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641534/interest-of-single-hair-analysis-to-document-drug-exposure-literature-review-and-a-case-report-involving-zuclopenthixol
#6
Nathalie Allibe, Pascal Kintz, Amandine Faure, François Paysant, Anne-Pascale Michard-Lenoir, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Virginie Scolan, Hélène Eysseric-Guerin
The analysis of hair to detect drugs and drugs of abuse is performed in various contexts, including child protection cases, abstinence control programs, and workplace drug testing. This alternative matrix offers several advantages, such as a large detection window (months) and non-invasive collection. Segmental analysis of multiple hair strands for drugs and metabolites has been widely reported in the literature over the past three decades, whereas a review of the literature showed that there are only 26 articles that report the analysis of a single hair...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641520/try-to-remember-interplay-between-memory-and-substance-use-disorder
#7
Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed, Jaya Kumar, Ernie Yap, Isa Naina Mohamed, Hatta Sidi, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das
Memories associated with substance use disorders, or substance-associated cues increase the likelihood of craving and relapse during abstinence. There is growing consensus that manipulation of synaptic plasticity may reduce the strength of substance abuse-related memories. On the biological front, there are new insights that suggest memories associated with substance use disorder may follow unique neurobiological pathways that render them more accessible to pharmacological intervention. In parallel to this, research in neurochemistry has identified several potential candidate molecules that could influence the formation and maintenance of long-term memory...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639813/contingency-management-interventions-for-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-in-pregnancy
#8
Dennis J Hand, Jennifer D Ellis, Meagan M Carr, Diane J Abatemarco, David M Ledgerwood
Contingency management (CM) is an effective intervention for reducing use of licit and illicit substances in a variety of populations. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population with much to gain from effective interventions for substance use disorders, and for whom CM interventions may be especially well-suited. We reviewed the literature on CM interventions among pregnant women with tobacco and other substance use disorders with 3 aims: (a) describe the effectiveness of CM for reducing use of tobacco and other substances during pregnancy, (b) describe the effects of CM interventions on infant outcomes, and (c) identify needs for future research on CM in pregnancy...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#9
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639106/time-to-selected-quit-date-and-subsequent-rates-of-sustained-smoking-abstinence
#10
George L Anesi, Scott D Halpern, Michael O Harhay, Kevin G Volpp, Kathryn Saulsgiver
In efforts to combat tobacco dependence, most smoking cessation programs offer individuals who smoke the choice of a target quit date. However, it is uncertain whether the time to the selected quit date is associated with participants' chances of achieving sustained abstinence. In a pre-specified secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of four financial-incentive programs or usual care to encourage smoking cessation (Halpern et al. in N Engl J Med 372(22):2108-2117, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414293 , 2015), study participants were instructed to select a quit date between 0 and 90 days from enrollment...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638356/how-can-smoking-cessation-be-induced-before-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-behavior-change-techniques-and-other-intervention-characteristics
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Prestwich, Sally Moore, Alwyn Kotze, Luke Budworth, Rebecca Lawton, Ian Kellar
Background: Smokers who continue to smoke up to the point of surgery are at increased risk of a range of complications during and following surgery. Objective: To identify whether behavioral and/or pharmacological interventions increase the likelihood that smokers quit prior to elective surgery and which intervention components are associated with larger effects. Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, and Embase Classic, CINAHL, CENTRAL. Study selection: Studies testing the effect of smoking reduction interventions delivered at least 24 h before elective surgery were included...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637193/effect-of-intensive-personalized-5as-5rs-intervention-on-smoking-cessation-in-hospitalized-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-not-ready-to-quit-immediately-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Jing-Guang Luo, Ling Han, Li-Wei Chen, Yun Gao, Xiao-Jun Ding, Ying Li, Ye Ja, Ming Yang, Chang-Sheng Ma
Introduction: The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who are not ready to quit smoking immediately have an extremely low rate of cessation. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intensive personalized '5As+5Rs'intervention (IPANR intervention) on smoking cessation in this population. Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial was carried out, which compared IPANR intervention with routine 5Rs (control) at Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Bei Jing, China...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636795/cancer-related-disease-factors-and-smoking-cessation-treatment-analysis-of-an-ongoing-clinical-trial
#13
Allison J Carroll, Anna K Veluz-Wilkins, Sonja Blazekovic, Ravi Kalhan, Frank T Leone, E Paul Wileyto, Robert A Schnoll, Brian Hitsman
OBJECTIVE: Smoking cessation treatment should be an important aspect of cancer care. In this study, we evaluated whether cancer-related disease factors adversely influence smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Smokers with cancer (within 5 years of diagnosis, any tumor site) were recruited for an ongoing trial of varenicline for smoking cessation. Disease factors, assessed at baseline, included tumor site, cancer treatment, time since diagnosis, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL)...
June 21, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#14
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635346/effect-of-drug-related-cues-on-response-inhibition-through-abstinence-a-pilot-study-in-male-heroin-abstainers
#15
Bobo Su, Ling Yang, Grace Y Wang, Sha Wang, Shaomei Li, Hua Cao, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic heroin use can cause a deficit of inhibitory function, leading to a loss of control over drug use. Exposure to drug-related cues is considered as one of the contributing factors. However, it is unclear whether there are dynamic changes on the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition following prolonged abstinence. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effect of drug-related cues on response inhibition in heroin abstainers at different abstinent phases...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#16
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626785/blunted-amygdala-functional-connectivity-during-a-stress-task-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#17
Natasha E Wade, Claudia B Padula, Robert M Anthenelli, Erik Nelson, James Eliassen, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625784/heightened-sympathetic-arousal-is-demonstrated-by-skin-conductance-responsivity-to-auditory-stimuli-in-a-small-cohort-of-neonates-with-opiate-withdrawal
#18
Christiana N Oji-Mmuo, Fumiyuki Chin Gardner, Kim K Doheny
To determine the effects of auditory stimulus on skin conductance (SC) in infants with severe neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) that required morphine treatment (MT) compared with NAS infants that did not require morphine treatment (non-MT). We prospectively enrolled opiate-exposed term infants without polysubstance exposure. Skin conductance responses to an auditory stimulus (ringing a bell for 3seconds) near the time of discharge were obtained. Skin conductance was measured before, during, and after the stimulus...
June 15, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624760/how-do-smoking-cessation-medicines-compare-with-respect-to-their-neuropsychiatric-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#19
Kyla H Thomas, Deborah Caldwell, Michael N Dalili, David Gunnell, Marcus R Munafò, Matt Stevenson, Nicky J Welton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#20
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
keyword
keyword
23028
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"