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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129042/healthcare-worker-infected-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-korea-2015
#1
Hae-Sung Nam, Mi-Yeon Yeon, Jung Wan Park, Jee-Young Hong, Ji Woong Son
Objectives: During the Korean outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2015, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) confirmed the MERS case of healthcare worker in Daejeon, South Korea. To verify the precise route of infection for the case, we conducted an in-depth epidemiological investigation in cooperation with KCDC. Methods: We reviewed the MERS outbreak investigation report of KCDC, and conducted an interview with the healthcare worker who was recovered from MERS...
November 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128390/nsp3-of-coronaviruses-structures-and-functions-of-a-large-multi-domain-protein
#2
REVIEW
Jian Lei, Yuri Kusov, Rolf Hilgenfeld
The multi-domain non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3) is the largest protein encoded by the coronavirus (CoV) genome, with an average molecular mass of about 200 kD. Nsp3 is an essential component of the replication/transcription complex. It comprises various domains, the organization of which differs between CoV genera, due to duplication or absence of some domains. However, eight domains of Nsp3 exist in all known CoVs: the ubiquitin-like domain 1 (Ubl1), the Glu-rich acidic domain (also called "hypervariable region"), a macrodomain (also named "X domain"), the ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2), the papain-like protease 2 (PL2(pro)), the Nsp3 ectodomain (3Ecto, also called "zinc finger domain"), as well as the domains Y1 and CoV-Y of unknown functions...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126397/no-mers-cov-but-positive-influenza-viruses-in-returning-hajj-pilgrims-china-2013-2015
#3
Xuezheng Ma, Fang Liu, Lijuan Liu, Liping Zhang, Mingzhu Lu, Abuduzhayier Abudukadeer, Lingbing Wang, Feng Tian, Wei Zhen, Pengfei Yang, Kongxin Hu
BACKGROUND: There is global health concern that the mass movement of pilgrims to and from Mecca annually could contribute to the international spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In China, about 11,000 Muslim pilgrims participate in the Hajj gathering in Mecca annually. This is the first report of MERS-CoV and respiratory virus molecular screening of returning pilgrims at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 847 returning Hajj pilgrims participated in this study...
November 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119921/design-and-delivery-of-therapeutic-sirnas-application-to-mers-coronavirus
#4
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Sherif Aly El-Kafrawy, Zeenat Mirza, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Esam Ibraheem Azhar
BACKGROUND: The MERS-CoV is a novel human coronavirus causing respiratory syndrome since April 2012. The replication of MERS-CoV is mediated by ORF 1ab and viral gene activity can be modulated by RNAi approach. The inhibition of virus replication has been documented in cell culture against multiple viruses by RNAi approach. Currently, very few siRNA against MERS-CoV have been computationally designed and published. METHODS: In this review, we have discussed the computationally designing and delivery of potential siRNAs...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116217/diversity-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronaviruses-in-109-dromedary-camels-based-on-full-genome-sequencing-abu-dhabi-united-arab-emirates
#5
Mohammed Farouk Yusof, Krista Queen, Yassir Mohammed Eltahir, Clinton R Paden, Zulaikha Mohamed Abdel Hameed Al Hammadi, Ying Tao, Yan Li, Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla, Mang Shi, Jing Zhang, Muzammil Sayed Ahmed Elhaj Mohamed, Mahmud Hamed Abd Elaal Ahmed, Ihsaan Abdulwahab Azeez, Oum Keltoum Bensalah, Ziyada Swar Eldahab, Farida Ismail Al Hosani, Susan I Gerber, Aron J Hall, Suxiang Tong, Salama Suhail Al Muhairi
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified on the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and is still causing cases and outbreaks in the Middle East. When MERS-CoV was first identified, the closest related virus was in bats; however, it has since been recognized that dromedary camels serve as a virus reservoir and potential source for human infections. A total of 376 camels were screened for MERS-Cov at a live animal market in the Eastern Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. In all, 109 MERS-CoV-positive camels were detected in week 1, and a subset of positive camels were sampled again weeks 3 through 6...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114190/knowledge-and-awareness-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-among-saudi-and-non-saudi-arabian-pilgrims
#6
Hosam M Althobaity, Raed A S Alharthi, Mohammed H Altowairqi, Ziyad A Alsufyani, Nahar S Aloufi, Abdulrahman E Altowairqi, Abdulrahman S Alqahtani, Ali K Alzahrani, Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim
Objective: The current study was intended to evaluate the knowledge and awareness toward Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) of pilgrims from Saudi Arabia and from different Arabian countries. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among pilgrims from Saudi Arabia and those from other Arab nations. A total number of 2120 participants including 736 Saudi pilgrims (436 males and 300 females) and 1384 non-Saudi Arabian pilgrims (1384; 909 males and 475 females) were included in the study...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105044/raising-awareness-of-health-care-providers-about-merscov-infection-in-public-hospitals-in-mecca-saudi-arabia
#7
Mohamed O Nour, Ahmed O Babalghith, Hatim A Natto, Sallahaldeen M Alawneh, Fowzi O Elamin
It is important that health care workers have good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards MERS-CoV, especially in Mecca because of the MERS-CoV threat during hajj and umrah. This study aimed to assess KAP of health care providers in public hospitals in Mecca about MERS-CoV infection and evaluate the effectiveness of a health education intervention to improve KAP. KAP was assessed among 281 participants using a self-administered questionnaire who then underwent the health education intervention using a combination of methods...
October 30, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098145/emerging-and-reemerging-diseases-in-the-world-health-organization-who-eastern-mediterranean-region-progress-challenges-and-who-initiatives
#8
REVIEW
Evans Buliva, Mohamed Elhakim, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Amgad Elkholy, Peter Mala, Abdinasir Abubakar, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089687/follow-up-chest-radiographic-findings-in-patients-with-mers-cov-after-recovery
#9
Karuna M Das, Edward Y Lee, Rajvir Singh, Mushira A Enani, Khalid Al Dossari, Klaus Van Gorkom, Sven G Larsson, Ruth D Langer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the follow-up chest radiographic findings in patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) who were discharged from the hospital following improved clinical symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive patients (9 men, 27 women; age range 21-73 years, mean ± SD 42.5 ± 14.5 years) with confirmed MERS-CoV underwent follow-up chest radiographs after recovery from MERS-CoV. The 36 chest radiographs were obtained at 32 to 230 days with a median follow-up of 43 days...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062261/a-pandemic-risk-assessment-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-saudi-arabia
#10
Saleh A Eifan, Islam Nour, Atif Hanif, Abdelrahman M M Zamzam, Sameera Mohammed AlJohani
Since the initial emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, a high incidence rate has been observed in Saudi Arabia. This suggests that the country is at continuous risk. The epidemic level of MERS-CoV infection was examined in Saudi Arabia by the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model using a Bayesian approach for estimation of time dependent reproduction number (R) across a two-year interval (May, 2013-May, 2015) in five defined clusters, followed by sensitivity analysis of the most significant clusters...
November 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061208/retrospective-epidemiological-cluster-analysis-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-epidemic-using-open-source-data
#11
N D Darling, D E Poss, M P Schoelen, M Metcalf-Kelly, S E Hill, S Harris
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is caused by a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012. Since then, 1806 cases, including 564 deaths, have been reported by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and affected countries as of 1 June 2016. Previous literature attributed increases in MERS-CoV transmission to camel breeding season as camels are likely the reservoir for the virus. However, this literature review and subsequent analysis indicate a lack of seasonality. A retrospective, epidemiological cluster analysis was conducted to investigate increases in MERS-CoV transmission and reports of household and nosocomial clusters...
October 24, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056462/the-sars-cov-fusion-peptide-forms-an-extended-bipartite-fusion-platform-that-perturbs-membrane-order-in-a-calcium-dependent-manner
#12
Alex L Lai, Jean K Millet, Susan Daniel, Jack H Freed, Gary R Whittaker
Coronaviruses are a major infectious disease threat, and include the pathogenic human pathogens of zoonotic origin: SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Entry of coronaviruses into host cells is mediated by the viral spike (S) protein, which is structurally categorized as a class I viral fusion protein, within the same group as influenza virus and HIV. However, S proteins have two distinct cleavage sites that can be activated by a much wider range of proteases. The exact location of the coronavirus fusion peptide (FP) has been disputed...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052924/mers-sars-and-other-coronaviruses-as-causes-of-pneumonia
#13
REVIEW
Yudong Yin, Richard G Wunderink
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been considered to be relatively harmless respiratory pathogens in the past. However, after the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), HCoVs have received worldwide attention as important pathogens in respiratory tract infection. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics among SARS-coronaviruses (CoV), MERS-CoV and other HCoV infections.
October 20, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048984/development-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-vaccines-advances-and-challenges
#14
Heeyoun Cho, Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim, In-Kyu Yoon
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging pathogen with the potential to pose a threat to global public health. Sporadic cases and outbreaks continue to be reported in the Middle East, and case fatality rates remain high at approximately 36% globally. No specific preventive or therapeutic countermeasures currently exist. A safe and effective vaccine could play an important role in protecting against the threat from MERS-CoV. This review discusses human vaccine candidates currently under development, and explores viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology and immunology relevant to MERS-CoV vaccine development...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037978/expected-immunizations-and-health-protection-for-hajj-and-umrah-2018-an-overview
#15
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj and Umrah are one of the largest recurring religious mass gatherings across the globe drawing pilgrims from more than 185 countries. The living circumstances and activities of the pilgrims may create an environment for the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. Each year, the Health authority of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in coordination with international health authorities, updates health requirements for pilgrims. The Hajj for 2017 took place from August 24 to September 5, 2017...
October 14, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035289/molecular-evolution-of-mers-coronavirus-dromedaries-as-a-recent-intermediate-host-or-long-time-animal-reservoir
#16
Susanna K P Lau, Antonio C P Wong, Terrence C K Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
While dromedary camels are the immediate animal source of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, the evolutionary origin of MERS-CoV remains obscure. We analyzed 219 camel and human MERS-CoV genome sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 5 and 214 strains belong to clade A and B, respectively, with clade A further divided into lineage A1 (3 human strains) and lineage A2 (2 camel strains), and clade B divided into B1 to B6 (each containing both human and camel strains). Recombination analysis showed potential recombination events in five strains from dromedaries in Saudi Arabia, with recombination between lineage B5 and B3 in four strains, and between lineage B3 and B4 in one strain...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031867/influenza-is-more-common-than-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-among-hospitalized-adult-saudi-patients
#17
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ali A Rabaan, Kareem Hinedi
BACKGROUND: Since the initial description of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), we adopted a systematic process of screening patients admitted with community acquired pneumonia. Here, we report the result of the surveillance activity in a general hospital in Saudi Arabia over a four year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All admitted patients with community acquired pneumonia from 2012 to 2016 were tested for MERS-CoV. In addition, testing for influenza viruses was carried out starting April 2015...
October 12, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031546/influenza-virus-but-not-mers-coronavirus-circulation-in-iran-2013-2016-comparison-between-pilgrims-and-general-population
#18
Jila Yavarian, Nazanin Zahra Shafiei Jandaghi, Maryam Naseri, Peyman Hemmati, Mohhamadnasr Dadras, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Talat Mokhtari Azad
BACKGROUND: The pilgrimage to Mecca and Karbala bring many Muslims to a confined area. Respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases transmitted during mass gatherings in Hajj, Umrah and Karbala. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza virus infections among Iranian general population and pilgrims with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) returning from Mecca and Karbala during 2013-2016...
October 11, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028812/occurrence-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-across-the-gulf-corporation-council-countries-four-years-update
#19
Mahmoud Aly, Mohamed Elrobh, Maha Alzayer, Sameera Aljuhani, Hanan Balkhy
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections has become a global issue of dire concerns. MERS-CoV infections have been identified in many countries all over the world whereas high level occurrences have been documented in the Middle East and Korea. MERS-CoV is mainly spreading across the geographical region of the Middle East, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, while some imported sporadic cases were reported from the Europe, North America, Africa, and lately Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026532/origins-and-pathogenesis-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-associated-coronavirus-recent-advances
#20
REVIEW
Stephen A Goldstein, Susan R Weiss
Middle East respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a significant research focus since its discovery in 2012. Since 2012, 2,040 cases and 712 deaths have been recorded (as of August 11, 2017), representing a strikingly high case fatality rate of 36%. Over the last several years, MERS-CoV research has progressed in several parallel and complementary directions. This review will focus on three particular areas: the origins and evolution of MERS-CoV, the challenges and achievements in the development of MERS-CoV animal models, and our understanding of how novel proteins unique to MERS-CoV counter the host immune response...
2017: F1000Research
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