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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914145/differential-cell-count-and-crp-level-in-blood-as-predictors-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-in-acute-febrile-patients-during-nosocomial-outbreak
#1
Ga Eun Park, Cheol In Kang, Jae Hoon Ko, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Yae Jean Kim, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae Hoon Song, Doo Ryeon Chung
A case-control study was performed to identify clinical predictors for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection among patients with acute febrile illness during the nosocomial outbreak. Patients with MERS-CoV were more likely to have monocytosis with normal white blood cell (WBC) count and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Simple laboratory data such as complete blood counts (CBC) with differential count could be a useful marker for the prediction of MERS and triage at the initial presentation of acute febrile patients in outbreak setting...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901465/livestock-susceptibility-to-infection-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#2
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Judith M A van den Brand, W Widagdo, Marta Muñoz, Stalin Raj, Debby Schipper, David Solanes, Ivan Cordón, Albert Bensaid, Bart L Haagmans, Joaquim Segalés
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900364/analysis-of-intrapatient-heterogeneity-uncovers-the-microevolution-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#3
Donghyun Park, Hee Jae Huh, Yeon Jeong Kim, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Eu-Hyun Im, Jong-Won Kim, Nam Yong Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Cheol In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Kyong Ran Peck, Sun Shim Choi, Yae-Jean Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Woong-Yang Park
Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non-consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899228/the-recombinant-n-terminal-domain-of-spike-proteins-is-a-potential-vaccine-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-infection
#4
Lan Jiaming, Yao Yanfeng, Deng Yao, Hu Yawei, Bao Linlin, Huang Baoying, Yan Jinghua, George F Gao, Qin Chuan, Tan Wenjie
The persistent public health threat of infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) highlights the need for an effective MERS-CoV vaccine. Previous studies have focused mainly on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the spike protein of MERS-CoV. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective potential of the recombinant N-terminal domain (rNTD) of spike proteins as a vaccine candidate. BALB/c mice vaccinated with 5 or 10μg of rNTD protein demonstrated a significant humoral immune response (serum IgG and neutralizing activity)...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894035/an-isothermal-label-free-and-rapid-one-step-rna-amplification-detection-assay-for-diagnosis-of-respiratory-viral-infections
#5
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Mi Kyoung Park, Heungsup Sung, Se Yoon Park, Hyun Jung Lee, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recently, RNA viral infections caused by respiratory viruses, such as influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus, are a major public health threats in the world. Although myriads of diagnostic methods based on RNA amplification have been developed in the last decades, they continue to lack speed, sensitivity, and specificity for clinical use. A rapid and accurate diagnostic method is needed for appropriate control, including isolation and treatment of the patients...
November 23, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890674/passive-immunotherapy-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-with-equine-immunoglobulin-or-immunoglobulin-fragments-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Yongkun Zhao, Chong Wang, Boning Qiu, Chufang Li, Hualei Wang, Hongli Jin, Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Tiecheng Wang, Weiyang Sun, Feihu Yan, Yuwei Gao, Qian Wang, Jinghua Yan, Ling Chen, Stanley Perlman, Nanshan Zhong, Jincun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal pulmonary infection caused by a coronavirus (CoV), MERS-CoV. With the continuing spread of MERS-CoV, prophylactic and therapeutic treatments are urgently needed. In this study, we prepared purified equine F(ab')2 from horses immunized with MERS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing MERS-CoV S, M and E proteins. Both IgG and F(ab')2 efficiently neutralized MERS-CoV replication in tissue culture. Passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly reduced virus titers and accelerated virus clearance from the lungs of MERS-CoV infected mice...
November 24, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874853/introduction-of-neutralizing-immunogenicity-index-to-the-rational-design-of-mers-coronavirus-subunit-vaccines
#8
Lanying Du, Wanbo Tai, Yang Yang, Guangyu Zhao, Qing Zhu, Shihui Sun, Chang Liu, Xinrong Tao, Chien-Te K Tseng, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Fang Li
Viral subunit vaccines often contain immunodominant non-neutralizing epitopes that divert host immune responses. These epitopes should be eliminated in vaccine design, but there is no reliable method for evaluating an epitope's capacity to elicit neutralizing immune responses. Here we introduce a new concept 'neutralizing immunogenicity index' (NII) to evaluate an epitope's neutralizing immunogenicity. To determine the NII, we mask the epitope with a glycan probe and then assess the epitope's contribution to the vaccine's overall neutralizing immunogenicity...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872828/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-disease-is-rare-in-children-an-update-from-saudi-arabia
#9
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana F Kattan, Ziad A Memish
AIM: To summarize the reported Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases, the associated clinical presentations and the outcomes. METHODS: We searched the Saudi Ministry of Health website, the World Health Organization website, and the Flutracker website. We also searched MEDLINE and PubMed for the keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, MERS-CoV in combination with pediatric, children, childhood, infancy and pregnancy from the initial discovery of the virus in 2012 to 2016...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867585/successful-treatment-of-suspected-organizing-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-a-case-report
#10
Insu Kim, Jeong Eun Lee, Kye-Hyung Kim, Shinwon Lee, Kwangha Lee, Jeong Ha Mok
A 54-year-old man with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection was transferred to our hospital. We initiated anti-viral drugs and supportive care. The patient's fever and chills disappeared 3 days after admission and the results of serial follow-up reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing for MERS-CoV was negative soon thereafter. He was discharged from the hospital 14 days after admission with no symptoms; however, he presented with a fever 7 days after discharge and was re-hospitalized...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864902/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-and-molecular-docking-revealed-a-potency-of-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-drugs-against-human-corona-viruses
#11
Abdo A Elfiky, Samah M Mahdy, Wael M Elshemey
A number of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were reported in the last and present centuries. Some outbreaks of which (e.g. SARS and MERS CoVs) caused the mortality of hundreds of people worldwide. The problem of finding a potent drug against HCoV strains lies in the inability of finding a drug that stops the viral replication through inhibiting its important proteins. In spite of its limited efficacy and potential side effects, Ribavirin is extensively used as a first choice against HCoVs. Therefore, scientists reverted towards the investigation of different drugs that can more specifically target proteins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850596/958-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-severe-mers-cov-a-retrospective-observational-study
#12
Mohammed Alshahrani, Anees Sindi, Bayan Alahmadi, Ahmed Zein, Sultan Alamri, Yaseen Arabi, Fayez Alshamsi, Waleed Al-Hazzani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826140/characterization-of-anti-mers-cov-antibodies-against-various-recombinant-structural-antigens-of-mers-cov-in-an-imported-case-in-china
#13
Wenling Wang, Huijuan Wang, Yao Deng, Tie Song, Jiaming Lan, Guizhen Wu, Changwen Ke, Wenjie Tan
The first imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in China recently occurred, allowing for the characterization of antibody titers in a series of the patient's sera using the following methods based on recombinant viral structural antigens: inactivated MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), recombinant MERS-CoV spike (S, or fragments of S) ELISA, nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA and MERS S pseudovirus particle-based neutralization test (ppNT). A longitudinal profile of the infection showed that seroconversion detected by ELISAs based on the recombinant extracellular domain, S, S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigens occurred as early as neutralizing antibodies were detected by the ppNT and earlier than antibodies were detected by the inactivated MERS-CoV and N-terminal domain (NTD) ELISAs...
November 9, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812197/a-comparative-study-of-clinical-presentation-and-risk-factors-for-adverse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalised-with-acute-respiratory-disease-due-to-mers-coronavirus-or-other-causes
#14
Musa A Garbati, Shamsudeen F Fagbo, Vicky J Fang, Leila Skakni, Mercy Joseph, Tariq A Wani, Benjamin J Cowling, Malik Peiris, Ahmed Hakawi
Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS) first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807241/one-health-a-safe-efficient-dual-use-vaccine-for-humans-and-animals-against-mers-cov-and-rabies-virus
#15
Christoph Wirblich, Christopher M Coleman, Drishya Kurup, Tara S Abraham, John G Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Reed F Johnson, Matthew B Frieman, Matthias J Schnell
: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus. No treatment options against MERS-CoV exist for humans or animals and there are no large-scale clinical trials for therapies against MERS-CoV. To address this need, we developed an inactivated rabies virus (RABV) that contains the MERS-CoV Spike (S) protein expressed on its surface. Our initial recombinant vaccine, BNSP333-S, expresses a full-length wildtype MERS-CoV S protein however it showed significantly reduced viral titers compared to the parental RABV strain and only low incorporation of full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) into RABV particles...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805261/inactivation-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-plasma-products-using-a-riboflavin-based-and-ultraviolet-light-based-photochemical-treatment
#16
Shawn D Keil, Richard Bowen, Susanne Marschner
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been identified as a potential threat to the safety of blood products. The Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology System uses riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light to render blood-borne pathogens noninfectious while maintaining blood product quality. Here, we report on the efficacy of riboflavin and UV light against MERS-CoV when tested in human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: MERS-CoV (EMC strain) was used to inoculate plasma units that then underwent treatment with riboflavin and UV light...
November 2, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797946/avoiding-regions-symptomatic-of-conformational-and-functional-flexibility-to-identify-antiviral-targets-in-current-and-future-coronaviruses
#17
Jordon Rahaman, Jessica Siltberg-Liberles
Within the last 15 years, two related coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) expanded their host range to include humans, with increased virulence in their new host. Coronaviruses were recently found to have little intrinsic disorder compared to many other virus families. Since intrinsically disordered regions have been proposed to be important for rewiring interactions between virus and host, we investigated the conservation of intrinsic disorder and secondary structure in coronaviruses in an evolutionary context...
October 19, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795435/cd8-t-cells-and-macrophages-regulate-pathogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-mers-cov-disease
#18
Christopher M Coleman, Jeanne M Sisk, Gabor Halasz, Jixin Zhong, Sarah E Beck, Krystal L Matthews, Thiagarajan Venkataraman, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Christos A Kyratsous, Matthew B Frieman
: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an important emerging pathogen that was first described in 2012. While the cell surface receptor for MERS-CoV has been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), the mouse DPP4 homologue does not allow for virus entry into cells. Therefore, development of mouse models of MERS-CoV has been hampered by the fact that MERS-CoV does not replicate in commonly available mouse strains. We have previously described a mouse model in which mDPP4 was replaced with hDPP4 such that hDPP4 is expressed under the endogenous mDPP4 promoter...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795425/recombinant-receptor-binding-domains-of-multiple-mers-coronaviruses-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibodies-against-divergent-human-and-camel-mers-coronaviruses-and-antibody-escape-mutants
#19
Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Craig A Fett, Guangyu Zhao, Fang Li, Stanley Perlman, Shibo Jiang, Yusen Zhou, Lanying Du
: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) binds to cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) via spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD contains critical neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important vaccine target. Since RBD mutations occur in different MERS-CoV isolates and antibody-escape mutants, cross-neutralization of divergent MERS-CoV strains by RBD-induced antibodies remains unknown. Here, we constructed four recombinant RBD (rRBD) proteins with single or multiple mutations detected in representative human MERS-CoV strains from the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 outbreaks, respectively, and one rRBD protein with multiple changes derived from camel MERS-CoV strains...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795416/creating-an-artificial-tail-anchor-as-a-novel-strategy-to-enhance-the-potency-of-peptide-based-hiv-fusion-inhibitors
#20
Shan Su, Yun Zhu, Sheng Ye, Qianqian Qi, Shuai Xia, Zhenxuan Ma, Fei Yu, Qian Wang, Rongguang Zhang, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
: T20 (enfuvirtide) and other peptides derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region inhibit HIV fusion by binding to the hydrophobic grooves on the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR)-trimer and blocking the six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation. Several strategies focusing on the binding grooves of NHR-trimer have been adopted to increase antiviral activity of the CHR-peptides. Here we developed a novel and simple strategy to greatly enhance the potency of the existing peptide-based HIV fusion inhibitors...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
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