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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346793/epicardial-fat-thickness-in-non-obese-neurologically-impaired-children-association-with-unfavorable-cardiometabolic-risk-profile
#1
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Pietro Mariano Casali, Gianluca Iacobellis, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Annalisa de Silvestri, Calogero Comparato, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is reported in disabled children and epicardial fat (EF) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No data on the EF thickness (EFT) evaluation in disabled children have been published. OBJECTIVE: We investigated EFT in neurologically impaired (NI) children; its relationship with their metabolic profile was also considered. METHODS: Clinical data, body composition estimation, biochemical profile, and ultrasound-measured EFT were performed in 32 disabled patients (12...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346772/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-controls-mature-brown-adipocyte-inducibility-through-glycerol-kinase
#2
David Lasar, Matthias Rosenwald, Elke Kiehlmann, Miroslav Balaz, Bettina Tall, Lennart Opitz, Martin E Lidell, Nicola Zamboni, Petra Krznar, Wenfei Sun, Lukas Varga, Patrik Stefanicka, Jozef Ukropec, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi Virtanen, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Sven Enerbäck, Walter Wahli, Christian Wolfrum
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346768/activation-of-ampk-regulated-crh-neurons-in-the-pvh-is-sufficient-and-necessary-to-induce-dietary-preference-for-carbohydrate-over-fat
#3
Shiki Okamoto, Tatsuya Sato, Michihiro Tateyama, Haruaki Kageyama, Yuko Maejima, Masanori Nakata, Satoshi Hirako, Takashi Matsuo, Sanda Kyaw, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Chitoku Toda, Udval Sedbazar, Kumiko Saito, Nur Farehan Asgar, Boyang Zhang, Shigefumi Yokota, Kenta Kobayashi, Fabienne Foufelle, Pascal Ferré, Masamitsu Nakazato, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Seiji Shioda, Toshihiko Yada, Barbara B Kahn, Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Food selection is essential for metabolic homeostasis and is influenced by nutritional state, food palatability, and social factors such as stress. However, the mechanism responsible for selection between a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and a high-fat diet (HFD) remains unknown. Here, we show that activation of a subset of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive neurons in the rostral region of the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) induces selection of an HCD over an HFD in mice during refeeding after fasting, resulting in a rapid recovery from the change in ketone metabolism...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346452/body-shape-indices-are-predictors-for-estimating-fat-free-mass-in-male-athletes
#4
Yohei Takai, Miyuki Nakatani, Toru Aoki, Daisuke Komori, Kazuyuki Oyamada, Kensuke Murata, Eiji Fujita, Takuya Akamine, Yoshihisa Urita, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Kanehisa
It is unknown whether body size and body shape parameters can be predictors for estimating whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in male athletes. This study aimed to investigate whether body size and shape variables can be predictors for FFM in male athletes. Using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whole body fat mass (FM) and FFM were determined in 132 male athletes and 14 sedentary males. The sample was divided into two groups: validation (N = 98) and cross-validation (N = 48) groups. Body height (BH), body mass (BM), and waist circumference at immediately above the iliac crest (W) were measured...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346357/type-of-cows-milk-consumption-and-relationship-to-health-predictors-in-new-zealand-preschool-children
#5
Hajar Mazahery, Carlos A Camargo, Carolyn Cairncross, Lisa A Houghton, Cameron C Grant, Jane Coad, Cathryn A Conlon, Pamela R von Hurst
AIMS: New Zealand dietary guidelines recommend children from two years of age consume low- or reduced-fat milk. We aimed to investigate the predictors of type of milk consumption in preschool children. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study which enrolled preschool children (2-<5 years, n=1,329) from throughout New Zealand. RESULTS: Cows' milk was consumed regularly by 88% of children. Of these, 26% consumed plain low- or reduced-fat milk, while 74% consumed full-fat milk...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346035/determination-of-105-antibiotic-anti-inflammatory-antiparasitic-agents-and-tranquilizers-by-lc-ms-ms-based-on-an-acidic-quechers-like-extraction
#6
Aurélien Desmarchelier, Kaïli Fan, Mai Minh Tien, Marie-Claude Savoy, Adrienne Tarres, Denis Fuger, Alexandre Goyon, Thomas Bessaire, Pascal Mottier
A procedure for screening 105 veterinary drugs in foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is presented. Its scope encompasses raw materials of animal origin (milk, meat, fish, egg and fat) but also related processed ingredients and finished products commonly used and manufactured by food business operators. Due to the complexity of the matrices considered and to efficiently deal with losses during extraction and matrix effects during MS source ionisation, each sample was analyzed twice, that is "unspiked" and "spiked at the screening target concentration" using a QuEChERS-like extraction...
January 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345858/cardiopulmonary-fitness-is-strongly-associated-with-body-cell-mass-and-fat-free-mass
#7
Armin Köhler, Ryan King, Martin Bahls, Stefan Groß, Antje Steveling, Simone Gärtner, Sabine Schipf, Sven Gläser, Henry Völzke, Stephan B Felix, Marcello Ricardo Paulista Markus, Marcus Dörr
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is commonly indexed by total body weight (TBW) to determine cardiopulmonary fitness (CPF). This approach may lead to misinterpretation, particularly in obese subjects. We investigated the normalization of VO2peak by different body composition markers. METHODS: We analyzed combined data of 3,848 subjects (1,914 women; 49.7%), aged 20-90, from two independent cohorts of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND)...
January 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345841/effects-of-high-impact-exercise-on-the-physical-properties-of-bones-of-ovariectomized-rats-fed-to-a-high-protein-diet
#8
Roberta Carminati Shimano, Gabriela Rezende Yanagihara, Ana Paula Macedo, Jessica Suzuki Yamanaka, Antônio Carlos Shimano, João Manuel R S Tavares, João Paulo Mardegan Issa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-impact physical exercise as a prophylactic and therapeutic means in osteopenic bones of rats submitted to ovariectomy and protein diet intake. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n=8 each), being: OVX, ovx, standard diet and sedentary; OVXE, ovx, standard diet and jump; OVXP, ovx, high-protein diet and sedentary; and OVXEP, ovx, high-protein diet and jump; SH, sham, standard diet and sedentary; SHE, sham, standard diet and jump; SHP, sham, high-protein diet and sedentary; and SHEP, sham, high-protein-diet and jump...
January 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345776/allyl-isothiocyanate-ameliorates-obesity-by-inhibiting-galectin-12
#9
Chia-Wen Lo, Chih-Sheng Chen, Ying-Chi Chen, Yu-An Hsu, Chi-Chun Huang, Ching-Yao Chang, Chao-Jen Lin, Cheng-Wen Lin, Hui-Ju Lin, Fu-Tong Liu, Lei Wan
SCOPE: The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways by which allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) reduces adipocyte differentiation and the efficacy of AITC in suppressing galectin-12 levels as a therapeutic for high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: AITC presents anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells by decreasing lipid droplet accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. AITC suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes by decreasing galectin-12 expression and by down-regulating key adipogenic transcription factors...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345748/kudingcha-and-fuzhuan-brick-tea-prevent-obesity-and-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#10
Guijie Chen, Minhao Xie, Zhuqing Dai, Peng Wan, Hong Ye, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Yi Sun
SCOPE: Kudingcha (KDC) from Ilex kudingcha and Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) are popular beverages in China, and their preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the relationship between the gut microbiota modulatory effects of KDC and FBT and prevention of obesity is still not clearly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: KDC and FBT were tested individually for their capacities to prevent obesity and modulate the gut microbiota in high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345609/dietary-patterns-and-their-association-with-adiponectin-and-leptin-concentrations-throughout-pregnancy-a-prospective-cohort
#11
Nadya H Alves-Santos, Paula G Cocate, Ilana Eshriqui, Camila Benaim, Érica G Barros, Pauline M Emmett, Gilberto Kac
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns (DP) with maternal adiposity indicators, leptin, adiponectin and insulin concentrations during pregnancy. A prospective cohort of pregnant women followed up at the 5th-13th, 20th -26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks and 30-40 d postpartum was conducted in Rio de Janeiro. A FFQ was administered in the third trimester (30th-36th gestational weeks). The reduced rank regression procedure was used to identify DP that explain response variables (dietary fibre and total fat) related to indicators of maternal adiposity (postpartum weight retention and gestational weight gain (GWG) adequacy), and plasma leptin, adiponectin and insulin concentrations...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345608/food-choices-to-meet-nutrient-recommendations-for-the-adult-brazilian-population-based-on-the-linear-programming-approach
#12
Quenia Dos Santos, Rosely Sichieri, Nicole Darmon, Matthieu Maillot, Eliseu Verly-Junior
OBJECTIVE: To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes. DESIGN: Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %. SETTING: Brazil. SUBJECTS: Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008-2009...
January 18, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345595/hospital-management-of-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-in-children
#13
Ambika Ashraf, Badhma Valaiyapathi
Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), i.e., triglyceride levels exceeding 1000 mg/dL, is one of the established causes of acute pancreatitis and severe abdominal pain. There are no established pediatric guidelines for treatment of children and adolescents with severe HTG. Management often includes hospital admission, fasting followed by fat free diet until the triglyceride (TG) levels are below 1000 mg/dL. Insulin infusion lowers TG levels in patients, especially in those with diabetes. Plasmapheresis is a limited option due to its restricted availability and scarcity of studies on its efficacy and safety in children...
January 16, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345342/high-fat-diet-and-leptin-promote-tumor-progression-by-inducing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#14
Virginia K Clements, Tiha Long, Ramses Long, Chas Figley, Daniel M C Smith, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer incidence and cancer mortality. The association of obesity and cancer is attributed to multiple factors, but the tightest linkage is with the chronic, low-grade inflammation that accompanies obesity. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are known facilitators of cancer progression that act by suppressing the activation and function of tumor-reactive T cells. Because MDSC quantity and function are driven by chronic inflammation, we hypothesized that MDSC may accumulate in obese individuals and facilitate tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immunity...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345287/intermittent-calorie-restriction-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-alteration-of-energy-metabolism-in-a-mouse-tumor-model
#15
Osamu Kusuoka, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Chie Nakashima, Kiyomu Fujii, Hitoshi Ohmori, Takuya Mori, Shingo Kishi, Yoshihiro Miyagawa, Kei Goto, Isao Kawahara, Hiroki Kuniyasu
The effect of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) on cancer is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of ICR and food content in syngeneic BALB/c mice injected with CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. Mice were subjected to 24-h fasting once a week for 4 weeks, and then provided with a control, high-calorie, or trans fatty acid-rich diet. While ICR resulted in increases in tumor weights, metastasis and in the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumors or blood of mice fed the control and high-fat diets, it had no effect on body weight after 4 weeks...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345253/3-acetyl-oleanolic-acid-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-high-fat-diet-treated-rats-by-activating-ampk-related-pathways
#16
Qiong Ou-Yang, Chun-Xiao Xuan, Xue Wang, Han-Qiong Luo, Jin-E Liu, Lan-Lan Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Yu-Peng Chen, Jun Liu
3-Acetyl-oleanolic acid (3Ac-OA) is a derivative of oleanolic acid (OA), which has shown therapeutic beneficial effects on diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated whether 3Ac-OA exerted beneficial effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and its potential underlying mechanisms. Treatment with 3Ac-OA (1-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the intracellular levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in FFA-treated primary rat hepatocytes and human HepG2 cell lines in vitro...
January 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345242/joint-estimation-of-activity-and-attenuation-for-pet-using-pragmatic-mr-based-prior-application-to-clinical-tof-pet-mr-whole-body-data-for-fdg-and-non-fdg-tracers
#17
Sangtae Ahn, Lishui Cheng, Dattesh D Shanbhag, Hua Qian, Sandeep S Kaushik, Floris P Jansen, Florian Wiesinger
Accurate and robust attenuation correction remains challenging in hybrid PET/MR particularly for torsos because it is difficult to segment bones, lungs and internal air in MR images. Additionally, MR suffers from susceptibility artifacts when a metallic implant is present. Recently, joint estimation (JE) of activity and attenuation based on PET data, also known as maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA), has gained considerable interest because of (1) its promise to address the challenges in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC), and (2) recent advances in time-of-flight (TOF) technology, which is known to be the key to the success of JE...
January 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345213/matcha-green-tea-drinks-enhance-fat-oxidation-during-brisk-walking-in-females
#18
Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin, Matthew David Cook
Intake of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine and is consumed as a drink. We examined the effect of Matcha green tea drinks on metabolic, physiological and perceived intensity responses during brisk walking. Thirteen females (age: 27±8 yr, body mass: 65±7 kg, height: 166±6 cm) volunteered. Resting metabolic equivalent (1-MET) was measured using Douglas bags (1-MET: 3.4±0.3 ml·kg-1·min-1)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345173/effects-of-3-day-serial-sodium-bicarbonate-loading-on-performance-and-physiological-parameters-during-a-simulated-basketball-test-in-female-university-players
#19
Anne Delextrat, Sinead MacKessy, Luis Arceo-Rendon, Aaron Scanlan, Roger Ramsbottom, Julio Calleja-González
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3-day serial sodium bicarbonate ingestion on repeated sprint and jump performance. Fifteen female university basketball players (23.3±3.4 years; 173.1±5.8 cm; 65.8±6.3 kg; 23.6±4.9% body fat) ingested 0.4 g·kg-1 of body mass of sodium bicarbonate or placebo for 3 days (split in 3 equal daily doses), before completing a simulated basketball exercise. Sprint and circuit times, jump heights, performance decrements and gastrointestinal (GI) side effects were recorded during the test and blood lactate concentration was measured pre- and post-test...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345161/caffeine-improves-triathlon-performance-a-field-study-in-males-and-females
#20
Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H Wright, Carine Smith
The ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance exercise is commonly accepted. We aimed to elucidate realistically the effect of caffeine on triathlon event performance using a field study design, while allowing investigation into potential mechanisms at play. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, field trial was conducted. Twenty-six triathletes (14 males, 12 females) participated (age: 37.8±10.6 years, habitual caffeine intake: 413±505 mg/day, percentage body fat: 14.5±7.2%, training/week: 12.8±4.5 hours)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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