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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926859/rapamycin-reverses-metabolic-deficits-in-lamin-a-c-deficient-mice
#1
Chen-Yu Liao, Sydney S Anderson, Nicole H Chicoine, Jarrott R Mayfield, Emmeline C Academia, Joy A Wilson, Chalermkwan Pongkietisak, Morgan A Thompson, Earl P Lagmay, Delana M Miller, Yueh-Mei Hsu, Mark A McCormick, Monique N O'Leary, Brian K Kennedy
The role of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, in regulation of adiposity remains controversial. Here, we evaluate mTOR signaling in lipid metabolism in adipose tissues of Lmna(-/-) mice, a mouse model for dilated cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Lifespan extension by rapamycin is associated with increased body weight and fat content, two phenotypes we link to suppression of elevated energy expenditure. In both white and brown adipose tissue of Lmna(-/-) mice, we find that rapamycin inhibits mTORC1 but not mTORC2, leading to suppression of elevated lipolysis and restoration of thermogenic protein UCP1 levels, respectively...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926856/insulin-dependent-activation-of-mch-neurons-impairs-locomotor-activity-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity
#2
A Christine Hausen, Johan Ruud, Hong Jiang, Simon Hess, Hristo Varbanov, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning
Melanin-concentrating-hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons (MCH neurons) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are critical regulators of energy and glucose homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that insulin increases the excitability of these neurons in control mice. In vivo, insulin promotes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in MCH neurons, and cell-type-specific deletion of the insulin receptor (IR) abrogates this response. While lean mice lacking the IR in MCH neurons (IR(ΔMCH)) exhibit no detectable metabolic phenotype under normal diet feeding, they present with improved locomotor activity and insulin sensitivity under high-fat-diet-fed, obese conditions...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926473/growth-differentiation-factor-15-increases-following-oral-glucose-ingestion-effect-of-meal-composition-and-obesity
#3
Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Dominik Kasses, Christina Tugendsam, Michaela Riedl, Slobodan Peric, Gerhard Prager, Michael Krebs, Miriam Promintzer-Schifferl, Martin Clodi, Anton Luger, Greisa Vila
OBJECTIVE: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a cardiovascular biomarker belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Increased GDF15 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity. We investigated the physiological effects of meal composition and obesity on the regulation of systemic GDF15 levels. DESIGN: Lean (n = 8) and obese (n = 8) individuals received a carbohydrate- or fat-rich meal, a 75 g oral glucose load (OGTT) or short-term fasting...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926462/peri-conception-maternal-lipid-profiles-predict-pregnancy-outcomes
#4
Enitan Ogundipe, Mark R Johnson, Yiqun Wang, Michael A Crawford
In this study, healthy women and those at high-risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes) were selected to assess the effect of fatty acid supplementation. The purpose of this paper is to report two novel findings (i) at recruitment the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for erythrocyte oleic acid predicted spontaneous delivery at 34 weeks gestation (ROC=0.926 n=296) for all women entering the study. Further analysis revealed oleic and all monounsaturated fatty acids were similarly predictive with or without a supplement during the pregnancy...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926457/modulation-of-brain-pufa-content-in-different-experimental-models-of-mice
#5
Corinne Joffre, Stéphane Grégoire, Véronique De Smedt, Niyazi Acar, Lionel Bretillon, Agnès Nadjar, Sophie Layé
The relative amounts of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) govern the different functions of the brain. Their brain levels depend on structures considered, on fatty acid dietary supply and the age of animals. To have a better overview of the different models available in the literature we here compared the brain fatty acid composition in various mice models (C57BL/6J, CD1, Fat-1, SAMP8 mice) fed with different n-3 PUFA diets (deficient, balanced, enriched) in adults and aged animals. Our results demonstrated that brain AA and DHA content is 1) structure-dependent; 2) strain-specific; 3) differently affected by dietary approaches when compared to genetic model of PUFA modulation; 4) different in n-3 PUFA deficient aged C57BL6/J when compared to SAMP8 mouse model of aging...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925712/quantitative-assessment-of-nutrition-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos
#6
Małgorzata Szczuko, Magdalena Skowronek, Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć, Andrzej Starczewski
Background: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is called a pathology of the XX century and affects at least 10-15% women of childbearing age. The therapy involves pharmacotherapy of hormonal imbalance, as well as the change of lifestyle, including the diet. Objective: Performing the quantitative assessment of components of diets of women with PCOS, comparing the results with current dietary standards for Polish people and defining dietary requirements for the patients...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925416/association-of-a-gain-of-function-variant-in-lgr4-with-central-obesity
#7
Yaoyu Zou, Tinglu Ning, Juan Shi, Maopei Chen, Lin Ding, Ya Huang, Sophie Kauderer, Min Xu, Bin Cui, Yufang Bi, Simin Liu, Jie Hong, Ruixin Liu, Guang Ning, Jiqiu Wang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of the gain-of-function variant A750T in leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) with central obesity and related metabolic phenotypes. METHODS: The LGR4 A750T (c.2248 G > A) variant was detected by Sanger sequencing in a discovery young population and a validation community-based population with obesity from eastern China. Fat indices determined by anthropometry and computed tomography scans and clinical biochemical measurements were collected for association analysis...
December 7, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925358/castration-induced-changes-in-the-expression-profiles-and-promoter-methylation-of-the-ghr-gene-in-huainan-male-pigs
#8
Jing Wang, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Binwen Gao, Xianxiao Bai, Yali Lan, Ping Lin, Hongxia Guo, Yuan Gao, Baosong Xing
Castration plays a regulatory role in growth and carcass traits, particularly in fat deposition, but its molecular mechanisms are still not clear. The present study showed that castration significantly reduced the serum growth hormone and the responses of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), IGF-IR and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to castration were similar in different adipose tissues. However, the GHR expression trends were opposite between the liver and the adipose tissues; bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) showed that its methylation in these two tissues was different...
December 7, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925328/screening-for-preeclampsia-in-the-first-trimester-the-usefulness-of-maternal-hemodynamics-and-bioimpedence-in-non-obese-patients
#9
Giulia Gagliardi, Grazia Maria Tiralongo, Damiano Lo Presti, Ilaria Pisani, Daniele Farsetti, Barbara Vasapollo, Gian Paolo Novelli, Angela Andreoli, Herbert Valensise
OBJECTIVE: To test if maternal hemodynamics, and bioimpedance, together with the Combined Screening (maternal history, biophysical and biochemical markers), are able to identify normotensive non-obese patients at risk for preeclampsia (PE) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the first trimester of gestation. METHODS: 150 healthy nulliparous non-obese women (BMI<30Kg/m(2) ) were enrolled in the study in the first trimester of pregnancy and submitted to USCOM to detect hemodynamic parameters, bioimpedence to characterize body composition, and combined screening for preeclampsia (maternal history, biophysical and maternal biochemical markers)...
December 7, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925211/impacts-of-fat-from-ruminants-meat-on-cardiovascular-health-and-possible-strategies-to-alter-its-lipid-composition
#10
REVIEW
Vargas-Bello-Pérez E, Larraín R E
In the last decades there has been an increased consumer interest in the fatty acid (FA) composition of ruminant meat due to its content of saturated FA, which have been implicated in diseases associated with modern life. However, recent studies have questioned the recommendations to reduce intake of fat, saturated FA and cholesterol as a mean of reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, ruminant meat has some bioactive lipids such as C18:1t11 and C18:2 c9, t11 which have been reported to have positive effects on human health...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925195/palmitoleic-acid-improves-metabolic-functions-in-fatty-liver-by-ppar%C3%AE-dependent-ampk-activation
#11
Camila O Souza, Alexandre A S Teixeira, Luana A Biondo, Edson A Lima, Helena A P Batatinha, Jose C Rosa Neto
BACKGROUND: Palmitoleic acid, since described as lipokine, increases glucose uptake by modulation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as increasing lipolysis by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), in adipose tissue. However in liver, the effects of palmitoleic acid on glucose metabolism and the role of PPARα remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether palmitoleic acid improved the hepatic insulin sensitivity of obese mice...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925193/systemic-and-local-adipose-tissue-in-knee-osteoarthritis
#12
REVIEW
Elisa Belluzzi, Hamza El Hadi, Marnie Granzotto, Marco Rossato, Roberta Ramonda, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Roberto Vettor, Marta Favero
Osteoarthritis is a common chronic joint disorder affecting older people. The knee is the major joint affected. The symptoms of osteoarthritis include limited range of motion, joint swelling, and pain causing disability. There are no disease modifying drugs available, and treatments are mainly focused on pain management. Total knee replacement performed at the end stage of the disease is considered the only cure available. It has been found that obese people have an increased risk to develop not only knee but also hand osteoarthritis...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925138/food-insecurity-and-peripheral-arterial-disease-in-older-adult-populations
#13
M L Redmond, F Dong, J Goetz, L T Jacobson, T C Collins
OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity, defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritious and safe foods, is a complex phenomenon and is linked to poor nutrition and diet-sensitive chronic diseases. Dietary patterns that include saturated fats and meat products are potential risk factors for the progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study explored whether there is a relationship between food insecurity and PAD among a national sample of older adults. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis using data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924959/effects-of-ramadan-fasting-on-body-composition-and-arterial-stiffness
#14
Yusuf Sezen, Ibrahim Halil Altiparmak, Muslihittin Emre Erkus, Aydemir Kocarslan, Zekeriya Kaya, Ozgur Gunebakmaz, Recep Demirbag
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924835/longitudinal-study-of-pesticide-residue-levels-in-human-milk-from-western-australia-during-12-months-of-lactation-exposure-assessment-for-infants
#15
Jian Du, Zoya Gridneva, Melvin C L Gay, Ching T Lai, Robert D Trengove, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
The presence of pesticides in human milk (HM) is of great concern due to the potential health effects for the breastfed infant. To determine the relationships between HM pesticides and infant growth and development, a longitudinal study was conducted. HM samples (n = 99) from 16 mothers were collected at 2, 5, 9 and 12 months of lactation. A validated QuEChERS method and Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. Only p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH were detected with a mean concentration (±SD) of 52...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924806/abdominal-fat-distribution-differently-affects-muscle-strength-of-the-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-women
#16
L Otten, A Bosy-Westphal, J Ordemann, E Rothkegel, N Stobäus, U Elbelt, K Norman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In obese subjects, reduced muscle mass and strength are associated with impaired functional and metabolic capacity. We therefore investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution, fat mass index and maximum muscle strength of upper and lower extremities in obese patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and fifty five outpatients with a body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg/m(2) (105 women; 45.1±14.6 years; BMI 43.5±8.2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924292/data-on-melanin-production-in-b16f1-melanoma-cells-in-the-presence-of-emu-oil
#17
Minoru Ito, Kazuhiro Minami, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, Koichi Niwa
Here, we present data on the effects of emu oil, obtained from emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) fat deposits, on melanogenesis in B16F1 murine melanoma cells. The cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of emu oil, and the melanin content of these cells was measured using a microplate reader. Next, melanin content was measured for cells cultured with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. This article reports the different melanin contents as μg melanin/mg cellular protein, by using bar graphs with error bars...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924283/effects-of-the-dietary-detoxification-program-on-serum-%C3%AE-glutamyltransferase-anthropometric-data-and-metabolic-biomarkers-in-adults
#18
Ju Ah Kim, Jin Young Kim, Seung Wan Kang
BACKGROUND: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are well-known environmental contaminants which are associated with chronic diseases. As foods are the major sources of human exposure to toxic pollutants, we developed an integrated dietary and education program to eliminate the chemical toxin throughout the human body. The present study evaluated effects of the dietary detoxification program on serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), anthropometric data and metabolic biomarkers in adults...
September 2016: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924172/hyaluronic-acid-fat-graft-myringoplasty-versus-autologous-platelet-rich-plasma
#19
Salman F Alhabib, Issam Saliba
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty (HAFGM) is an office-based technique for tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) treatment. It is simple, inexpensive, and performed under local anesthesia at the outpatient office department. We aimed to compare HAFGM technique to a recently described topical use of autologous platelet rich plasma myringoplasty (PRPM) in the repair of TMP. We also aimed to assess the hearing level improvement postoperatively. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in an adult tertiary care center between January 2015 and January 2016...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#20
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease-states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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