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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941386/trp64arg-polymorphism-of-the-adrb3-gene-associated-with-maximal-fat-oxidation-and-ldl-c-levels-in-non-obese-adolescents
#2
Íncare Correa de Jesus, Lupe Furtado Alle, Eva Cantalejo Munhoz, Larissa Rosa da Silva, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Luciane Viater Tureck, Katia Sheylla Malta Purim, Ana Claudia Kapp Titski, Neiva Leite
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates (FATMAX) and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. METHODS: 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG), insulin (INS), and basal glycemia (GLIC), were evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#3
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938785/growth-performance-and-gastrointestinal-responses-of-broiler-chickens-fed-corn-soybean-meal-diet-without-or-with-exogenous-epidermal-growth-factor-upon-challenge-with-eimeria
#4
E Kim, H Leung, N Akhtar, J Li, J R Barta, Y Wang, C Yang, E Kiarie
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#5
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938781/differences-in-egg-nutrient-availability-and-embryo-development-in-white-layer-breeder-genotypes
#6
E E Onbasilar, M Kahraman, O Ahlat, Ö F Güngör, A Çalik, S Taban, S Yalçin
Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938764/nutrient-composition-and-retention-in-whole-turkeys-with-and-without-added-solution
#7
J R Williams, J M Roseland, Q V Nguyen, J C Howe, K Y Patterson, P R Pehrsson, L D Thompson
Whole turkeys sold in retail outlets are typically processed with added solutions to improve their taste and tenderness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient composition of whole turkeys with and without added solution, and to update the nutrient profile of turkey for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Eleven pairs of turkeys with added solution were obtained from statistically representative retail outlets using a nationwide sampling plan developed for USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; 4 pairs of turkeys without added solution were purchased from local food outlets...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938763/abnormal-histopathology-fat-percent-and-hepatic-apolipoprotein-a-i-and-apolipoprotein-b100-mrna-expression-in-fatty-liver-hemorrhagic-syndrome-and-their-improvement-by-soybean-lecithin
#8
Yalu Song, Jiming Ruan, Junrong Luo, Tiancheng Wang, Fei Yang, Huabin Cao, Jianzhen Huang, Guoliang Hu
To investigate the etiopathogenesis of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and the protective effects of soybean lecithin against FLHS in laying hens, 135 healthy 300-day-old Hyline laying hens were randomly divided into groups: control (group 1), diseased (group 2), and protected (group 3). Each group contained 45 layers with 3 replicates. The birds in these 3 groups were fed a control diet, a high-energy/low-protein (HELP) diet or the HELP diet supplemented with 3% soybean lecithin instead of maize. The fat percent in the liver was calculated...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938483/varying-susceptibility-of-the-female-mammary-gland-to-in-utero-windows-of-bpa-exposure
#9
Andrea R Hindman, Xiaokui Molly Mo, Hannah L Helber, Claire E Kovalchin, Nanditha Ravichandran, Alina R Murphy, Abigail M Fagan, Pamela M St John, Craig J Burd
In utero exposure to the endocrine disrupting compound bisphenol A (BPA) is known to disrupt mammary gland development and increase tumor susceptibility in rodents. It is unclear if there are different periods of in utero development that may be more susceptible to BPA exposure. Herein, pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to BPA at different times during gestation that correspond to specific milestones of in utero mammary gland development. Mammary glands of early-life and adult female mice, exposed in utero to BPA, were morphologically and molecularly (ERα and Ki67) evaluated for developmental abnormalities...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938473/the-role-of-episodic-postprandial-peptides-in-exercise-induced-compensatory-eating
#10
Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell, Phillipa Caudwell, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Erik Näslund, Graham Finlayson
Purpose: Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control (hunger and energy intake). Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial 'episodic' peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12-weeks aerobic exercise and in response to high (HFLC) and low fat (LFHC) meals. Methods: 32 overweight/obese individuals - 16 completed 12-weeks aerobic exercise and 16 were age- and BMI-matched non-exercising controls...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938459/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-cort125281-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alters-lipid-distribution-in-male-mice
#11
Jan Kroon, Lisa L Koorneef, Jose K van den Heuvel, Cristy R C Verzijl, Nienke M van de Velde, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, and compared this head-to-head with classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, while RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938456/growth-hormone-improves-cardiopulmonary-capacity-and-body-composition-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#12
Donatella Capalbo, Flavia Barbieri, Nicola Improda, Francesco Giallauria, Elisa Di Pietro, Antonio Rapacciuolo, Raffaella Di Mase, Carlo Vigorito, Mariacarolina Salerno
Context: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children may be associated with early cardiovascular risk factors and alterations in left ventricular (LV) structure and function; however, data on cardiopulmonary functional capacity are lacking. Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of GHD and GH therapy on cardiopulmonary functional capacity, left and right cardiac structure and function, and body composition in children and adolescents. Design: Prospective, case-control study...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#13
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938440/sex-differences-in-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-response-to-dietary-protein-dilution
#14
Karlton R Larson, Kimberly A Russo, Yanbin Fang, Niloufar Mohajerani, Michael L Goodson, Karen K Ryan
Consumption of a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet induces a striking increase in circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and increased longevity. Increased lifespan during this dietary protein 'dilution' has been explained by resource-mediated trade-offs between reproduction and survival, such that fecundity is optimized at a greater relative intake of proteins:carbohydrates. The magnitude of this trade-off is thought to be sex-dependent. Here, we tested the hypothesis that metabolic responses to dietary protein dilution are likewise dependent on sex...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938434/fgf21-is-an-insulin-dependent-postprandial-hormone-in-adult-humans
#15
Ricardo J Samms, Jo E Lewis, Luke Norton, Francis B Stephens, Christopher J Gaffney, Tony Butterfield, Dennis Smith, Christine Cheng, James W Perfield, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
Context: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secretion has been shown to respond directly to carbohydrate consumption, with glucose, fructose and sucrose all reported to increase plasma levels of FGF21 in rodents and humans. However, carbohydrate consumption also results in secretion of insulin. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the combined and independent effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on total and bioactive FGF21 in the postprandial period in humans, and determine whether this effect is attenuated in conditions of altered insulin secretion and action...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938424/adiponectin-predicts-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-adults-irrespective-of-body-mass-index-and-fat-distribution
#16
Gunther Marsche, Sieglinde Zelzer, Andreas Meinitzer, Sabine Kern, Sabine Meissl, Gudrun Pregartner, Daniel Weghuber, Gunter Almer, Harald Mangge
Context: Obesity is associated with hypoadiponectemia, dyslipidemia and increased risk of coronary vascular disease (CVD). Mechanisms linking these conditions remain to be fully understood. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a crucial functional property of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that strongly predicts CVD incidence. Objective: To investigate whether age, fat distribution, and other obesity related factors affect CEC in juvenile and adult overweight/obese participants of the STYJOBS/EDECTA cohort (NCT00482924)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938423/igfbp4-is-required-for-adipogenesis-and-influences-the-distribution-of-adipose-depots
#17
David E Maridas, Victoria E DeMambro, Phuong T Le, Subburaman Mohan, Clifford J Rosen
Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF Binding Protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal (iWAT) and gonadal (gWAT) white adipose tissues from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938412/renal-metabolic-programming-is-linked-to-the-dynamic-regulation-of-a-leptin-klf15-axis-and-akt-ampk%C3%AE-signaling-in-male-offspring-of-obese-dams
#18
Philipp Kasper, Christina Vohlen, Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Ruth Janoschek, Jessica Köth, Jan Matthes, Sarah Appel, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. We therefore studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity female mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (SD, Co) prior to mating, during gestation and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac)...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938406/ct-derived-body-fat-distribution-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#19
Morgana L Mongraw-Chaffin, Matthew A Allison, Gregory L Burke, Michael H Criqui, Kunihiro Matsushita, Pamela Ouyang, Ravi V Shah, Christina M Shay, Cheryl A M Anderson
Background: Visceral fat has been shown to be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but the role of subcutaneous fat remains unclear, and evidence from diverse populations is lacking. We hypothesized that visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, would be independently associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: Among 1,910 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with abdominal fat measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans and followed for an average of 9...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#20
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo C Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic CART neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day 21 (PN21) and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
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