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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204745/heterogeneity-and-function-of-hippocampal-macroglia
#1
REVIEW
Gerald Seifert, Christian Steinhäuser
The contribution of glial cells to normal and impaired hippocampal function is increasingly being recognized, although important questions as to the mechanisms that these cells use for their crosstalk with neurons and capillaries are still unanswered or lead to controversy. Astrocytes in the hippocampus are morphologically variable and a single cell contacts with its processes more than 100,000 synapses. They predominantly express inward rectifier K+ channels and transporters serving homeostatic function but may also release gliotransmitters to modify neuronal signaling and brain circulation...
December 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097753/secretoneurin-a-regulates-neurogenic-and-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus-radial-glia
#2
Dillon F Da Fonte, Christopher J Martyniuk, Lei Xing, Adrian Pelin, Nicolas Corradi, Wei Hu, Vance L Trudeau
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are the most abundant macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis; however, their transcriptome remains uncharacterized, which limits functional understanding of this important cell type. Using cultured goldfish RGCs, RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly were performed, generating the first reference transcriptome for fish RGCs with 17,620 unique genes identified. These data revealed that RGCs express a diverse repertoire of receptors and signaling molecules, suggesting that RGCs may respond to and synthesize an array of hormones, peptides, cytokines, and growth factors...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057162/augmenting-endogenous-levels-of-retinal-annexin-a1-suppresses-uveitis-in-mice
#3
Peter J Gardner, Samia Yazid, Joana Ribeiro, Robin R Ali, Andrew D Dick
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin A1 (AnxA1) in mice and human retinae during uveitis and to determine whether local administration of human recombinant AnxA1 (hrAnxA1) can suppress uveitis in mice. METHODS: Retinal sections from mice (healthy normal and uveitis) and postmortem human (no history of eye disease (n = 5) and uveitis (n = 7)) were stained for AnxA1 expression and imaged by immunofluorescence microscopy...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034506/microglial-induced-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-gliosis-is-attenuated-by-progesterone-in-a-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#4
Sarah L Roche, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Jennifer N Moloney, Ashleigh M Byrne, Thomas G Cotter
Norgestrel, a progesterone analogue, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Neuroprotection is achieved in part through Norgestrels anti-inflammatory properties, alleviating detrimental microglial activity. Gliosis is a feature of many neurodegenerative diseases of the retina, including retinitis pigmentosa. Müller glia, a type of macroglia found in the retina, are major contributors of gliosis, characterized by the upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
October 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034063/targeting-orthotopic-gliomas-with-renal-clearable-luminescent-gold-nanoparticles
#5
Chuanqi Peng, Xiaofei Gao, Jing Xu, Bujie Du, Xuhui Ning, Shaoheng Tang, Robert M Bachoo, Mengxiao Yu, Woo-Ping Ge, Jie Zheng
A major clinical translational challenge in nanomedicine is the potential of toxicity associated with the uptake and long-term retention of non-degradable nanoparticles (NPs) in major organs. The development of inorganic NPs that undergo renal clearance could potentially resolve this significant biosafety concern. However, it remains unclear whether inorganic NPs that can be excreted by the kidneys remain capable of targeting tumors with poor permeability. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant orthotopic brain tumor, presents a unique challenge for NP delivery because of the blood-brain barrier and robust blood-tumor barrier of reactive microglia and macroglia in the tumor microenvironment...
April 2017: Nano Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953973/macroglia-derived-thrombospondin-2-regulates-alterations-of-presynaptic-proteins-of-retinal-neurons-following-elevated-hydrostatic-pressure
#6
Shuchao Wang, Tu Hu, Zhen Wang, Na Li, Lihong Zhou, Lvshuang Liao, Mi Wang, Libin Liao, Hui Wang, Leping Zeng, Chunling Fan, Hongkang Zhou, Kun Xiong, Jufang Huang, Dan Chen
Many studies on retinal injury and repair following elevated intraocular pressure suggest that the survival ratio of retinal neurons has been improved by various measures. However, the visual function recovery is far lower than expected. The homeostasis of retinal synapses in the visual signal pathway is the key structural basis for the delivery of visual signals. Our previous studies found that complicated changes in the synaptic structure between retinal neurons occurred much earlier than obvious degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in rat retinae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883484/astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-grey-and-white-matter-regions-of-the-brain-metabolize-fatty-acids
#7
Kristina Hofmann, Rosalia Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Anne Gaebler, Núria Casals, Anja Scheller, Lars Kuerschner
The grey and white matter regions of the mammalian brain consist of both neurons and neuroglial cells. Among the neuroglia, the two macroglia oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are the most abundant cell types. While the major function of oligodendrocytes is the formation of the lipid-rich myelin structure, the heterogeneous group of astrocytes fulfils a multitude of important roles in cerebral development and homeostasis. Brain lipid homeostasis involves the synthesis of a specific cerebral lipidome by local lipid metabolism...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878627/optic-nerve-degeneration-after-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-a-rodent-model
#8
Marina Renner, Gesa Stute, Mohammad Alzureiqi, Jacqueline Reinhard, Susanne Wiemann, Heiko Schmid, Andreas Faissner, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia is a common pathomechanism in many ocular disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or retinal vascular occlusion. Several studies demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to morphological and functional changes of different retinal cell types. However, little is known about the ischemic effects on the optic nerve. The goal of this study was to evaluate these effects. Ischemia was induced by raising the intraocular pressure (IOP) in one eye of rats to 140 mmHg for 1 h followed by natural reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866699/a-sudden-paediatric-death-due-to-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-the-importance-of-vigilance
#9
R Rahimi, E Omar, T S Tuan Soh, S F A Mohd Nawi, S Md Noor
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus A16 (CVA16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The diagnostic hallmarks are oral ulcers and maculo-papular or vesicular rash on the hands and feet. Severe form of this disease can lead to death due to neurological and cardiopulmonary complications. This case report aims to describe a fatal case of HFMD with minimal oral and skin manifestations. CASE REPORT: A four-year-old girl was brought to a hospital after suddenly becoming unresponsive at home...
August 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800629/protective-effects-on-the-retina-after-ranibizumab-treatment-in-an-ischemia-model
#10
Stephanie C Joachim, Marina Renner, Jacqueline Reinhard, Carsten Theiss, Caroline May, Stephanie Lohmann, Sabrina Reinehr, Gesa Stute, Andreas Faissner, Katrin Marcus, H Burkhard Dick
Retinal ischemia is common in eye disorders, like diabetic retinopathy or retinal vascular occlusion. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of an intravitreally injected vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor (ranibizumab) on retinal cells in an ischemia animal model via immunohistochemistry (IF) and quantitative real-time PCR (PCR). A positive binding of ranibizumab to rat VEGF-A was confirmed via dot blot. One eye underwent ischemia and a subgroup received ranibizumab...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757158/a-short-term-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-in-mice-impairs-optic-nerve-recovery-after-injury-and-this-is-not-reversed-by-exercise
#11
Vicki Chrysostomou, Peter van Wijngaarden, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan G Crowston
The aim of the current work was to test whether increased intake of dietary fat and sucrose in mice modifies the response of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the optic nerve to injury, and whether any effects of diet are influenced by physical activity levels. C57BL/6J mice were given a high-fat high-sucrose (HFS) diet for 7 weeks, with or without exposure to regular exercise by swimming (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Injury to RGCs was subsequently induced by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinas were assessed for function and structure...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588350/elevated-glucose-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-differentially-affect-retinal-microglial-cell-proliferation
#12
Filipa I Baptista, Célia A Aveleira, Áurea F Castilho, António F Ambrósio
Diabetic retinopathy is considered a neurovascular disorder, hyperglycemia being considered the main risk factor for this pathology. Diabetic retinopathy also presents features of a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease, including increased levels of cytokines in the retina, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). However, how high glucose and IL-1β affect the different retinal cell types remains to be clarified. In retinal neural cell cultures, we found that IL-1β and IL-1RI are present in microglia, macroglia, and neurons...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510630/local-and-systemic-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-diabetic-retinopathy-an-integrative-approach
#13
REVIEW
Stela Vujosevic, Rafael Simó
Purpose: To review the usefulness of local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to implement a more personalized treatment. Methods: An integrated research (from ophthalmologist and diabetologist point of view) of most significant literature on serum, vitreous, and aqueous humor (AH) biochemical biomarkers related to inflammation at early and advanced stages of DR (including diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative DR) was performed...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487180/secretoneurin-a-inhibits-aromatase-b-cyp19a1b-expression-in-female-goldfish-carassius-auratus-radial-glial-cells
#14
Dillon F Da Fonte, Lei Xing, Myy Mikwar, Vance L Trudeau
In the teleost brain, radial glial cells (RGCs) are the main macroglia and are stem-like progenitors that express key steroidogenic enzymes, including the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase B (cyp19a1b). As a result, RGCs are integral to neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis, however little is known about the regulatory factors and signaling mechanisms that control these functions. A potential new role of the secretogranin II-derived neuropeptide secretoneurin A (SNa) in the control of goldfish (Carassius auratus) RGC function is the subject of this study...
May 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#15
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350400/immune-involvement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-on-postmortem-brain-studies
#16
C F M G van Kesteren, H Gremmels, L D de Witte, E M Hol, A R Van Gool, P G Falkai, R S Kahn, I E C Sommer
Although the precise pathogenesis of schizophrenia is unknown, genetic, biomarker and imaging studies suggest involvement of the immune system. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating factors related to the immune system in postmortem brains of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Forty-one studies were included, reporting on 783 patients and 762 controls. We divided these studies into those investigating histological alterations of cellular composition and those assessing molecular parameters; meta-analyses were performed on both categories...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#17
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185609/olfactory-ensheathing-cells-inhibit-gliosis-in-retinal-degeneration-by-downregulation-of-the-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-notch-signaling-pathway
#18
Jing Xie, Shujia Huo, Yijian Li, Jiaman Dai, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
Retinal regeneration and self-repair, whether in response to injury or degenerative disease, are severely impeded by glial scar formation by Müller cells (specialized retinal macroglia). We have previously demonstrated that the activation of Müller cells and gliosis in the degenerative retina are significantly suppressed by the subretinal transplantation of a mixture of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Here we transplanted purified rat OECs into the subretinal space of pigmented Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a classic rodent model of retinal degeneration...
June 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099189/productive-infection-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-by-r5-tropic-hiv-1-opiate-co-exposure-heightens-infectivity-and-functional-vulnerability
#19
Joyce M Balinang, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
OBJECTIVE: HIV type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Reports of hNPC infection remain controversial. We rigorously examined this question, testing whether hNPCs propogated infection, and whether HIV affected hNPCs absent their infection...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816769/in-vivocharacterization-of-the-aspartyl-trna-synthetase-dars-homing-in-on-the-leukodystrophy-hbsl
#20
Dominik Fröhlich, Alexandra K Suchowerska, Ziggy H T Spencer, Georg von Jonquieres, Claudia B Klugmann, Andre Bongers, Fabien Delerue, Holly Stefen, Lars M Ittner, Thomas Fath, Gary D Housley, Matthias Klugmann
BACKGROUND: The recently diagnosed leukodystrophy Hypomyelination with Brain stem and Spinal cord involvement and Leg spasticity (HBSL) is caused by mutations of the cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase geneDARS. The physiological role of DARS in translation is to accurately pair aspartate with its cognate tRNA. Clinically, HBSL subjects show a distinct pattern of hypomyelination and develop progressive leg spasticity, variable cognitive impairment and epilepsy. To elucidate the underlying pathomechanism, we comprehensively assessed endogenous DARS expression in mice...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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