keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Macroglia

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588350/elevated-glucose-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-differentially-affect-retinal-microglial-cell-proliferation
#1
Filipa I Baptista, Célia A Aveleira, Áurea F Castilho, António F Ambrósio
Diabetic retinopathy is considered a neurovascular disorder, hyperglycemia being considered the main risk factor for this pathology. Diabetic retinopathy also presents features of a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease, including increased levels of cytokines in the retina, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). However, how high glucose and IL-1β affect the different retinal cell types remains to be clarified. In retinal neural cell cultures, we found that IL-1β and IL-1RI are present in microglia, macroglia, and neurons...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510630/local-and-systemic-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-diabetic-retinopathy-an-integrative-approach
#2
Stela Vujosevic, Rafael Simó
Purpose: To review the usefulness of local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to implement a more personalized treatment. Methods: An integrated research (from ophthalmologist and diabetologist point of view) of most significant literature on serum, vitreous, and aqueous humor (AH) biochemical biomarkers related to inflammation at early and advanced stages of DR (including diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative DR) was performed...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487180/secretoneurin-a-inhibits-aromatase-b-cyp19a1b-expression-in-female-goldfish-carassius-auratus-radial-glial-cells
#3
Dillon F Da Fonte, Lei Xing, Myy Mikwar, Vance L Trudeau
In the teleost brain, radial glial cells (RGCs) are the main macroglia and are stem-like progenitors that express key steroidogenic enzymes, including the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase B (cyp19a1b). As a result, RGCs are integral to neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis, however little is known about the regulatory factors and signaling mechanisms that control these functions. A potential new role of the secretogranin II-derived neuropeptide secretoneurin A (SNa) in the control of goldfish (Carassius auratus) RGC function is the subject of this study...
May 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#4
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350400/immune-involvement-in-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-on-postmortem-brain-studies
#5
C F M G van Kesteren, H Gremmels, L D de Witte, E M Hol, A R Van Gool, P G Falkai, R S Kahn, I E C Sommer
Although the precise pathogenesis of schizophrenia is unknown, genetic, biomarker and imaging studies suggest involvement of the immune system. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating factors related to the immune system in postmortem brains of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Forty-one studies were included, reporting on 783 patients and 762 controls. We divided these studies into those investigating histological alterations of cellular composition and those assessing molecular parameters; meta-analyses were performed on both categories...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#6
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185609/olfactory-ensheathing-cells-inhibit-gliosis-in-retinal-degeneration-by-downregulation-of-the-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-notch-signaling-pathway
#7
Jing Xie, Shujia Huo, Yijian Li, Jiaman Dai, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
Retinal regeneration and self-repair, whether in response to injury or degenerative disease, are severely impeded by glial scar formation by Müller cells (specialized retinal macroglia). We have previously demonstrated that the activation of Müller cells and gliosis in the degenerative retina are significantly suppressed by the subretinal transplantation of a mixture of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and olfactory nerve fibroblasts. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Here we transplanted purified rat OECs into the subretinal space of pigmented Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a classic rodent model of retinal degeneration...
June 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099189/productive-infection-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-by-r5-tropic-hiv-1-opiate-co-exposure-heightens-infectivity-and-functional-vulnerability
#8
Joyce M Balinang, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
OBJECTIVE: HIV type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Reports of hNPC infection remain controversial. We rigorously examined this question, testing whether hNPCs propogated infection, and whether HIV affected hNPCs absent their infection...
March 27, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816769/in-vivocharacterization-of-the-aspartyl-trna-synthetase-dars-homing-in-on-the-leukodystrophy-hbsl
#9
Dominik Fröhlich, Alexandra K Suchowerska, Ziggy H T Spencer, Georg von Jonquieres, Claudia B Klugmann, Andre Bongers, Fabien Delerue, Holly Stefen, Lars M Ittner, Thomas Fath, Gary D Housley, Matthias Klugmann
BACKGROUND: The recently diagnosed leukodystrophy Hypomyelination with Brain stem and Spinal cord involvement and Leg spasticity (HBSL) is caused by mutations of the cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase geneDARS. The physiological role of DARS in translation is to accurately pair aspartate with its cognate tRNA. Clinically, HBSL subjects show a distinct pattern of hypomyelination and develop progressive leg spasticity, variable cognitive impairment and epilepsy. To elucidate the underlying pathomechanism, we comprehensively assessed endogenous DARS expression in mice...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754822/role-of-purines-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#10
Andreas Reichenbach, Andreas Bringmann
Müller glia, the principal macroglia of the retina, express diverse subtypes of adenosine and metabotropic purinergic (P2Y) receptors. Müller cells of several species, including man, also express ionotropic P2X7 receptors. ATP is liberated from Müller cells after activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and during osmotic and mechanical induction of membrane stretch; adenosine is released through equilibrative nucleoside transporters. Müller cell-derived purines modulate the neuronal activity and have autocrine effects, for example, induction of glial calcium waves and regulation of the cellular volume...
October 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622292/hypothermia-and-rewarming-activate-a-macroglial-unfolded-protein-response-independent-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-piglets
#11
Jennifer K Lee, Bing Wang, Michael Reyes, Jillian S Armstrong, Ewa Kulikowicz, Polan T Santos, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Raymond C Koehler, Lee J Martin
Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in neonates. We previously showed that cortical neuron and white matter apoptosis are promoted by hypothermia and early rewarming in a piglet model of HI. The unfolded protein response (UPR) may be one of the potential mediators of this cell death. Here, neonatal piglets underwent HI or sham surgery followed by 29 h of normothermia, 2 h of normothermia + 27 h of hypothermia or 18 h of hypothermia + rewarming...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609273/microglia-response-in-retina-and-optic-nerve-in-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Lioba Horstmann, Sandra Kuehn, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Kathrin Haak, Christiane Pfarrer, H Burkhard Dick, Ingo Kleiter, Stephanie C Joachim
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a common rodent model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the long-term consequences for retina and optic nerve (ON) are unknown. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an encephalitogenic peptide (MOG35-55) and the controls received the carriers or PBS. Clinical symptoms started at day 8, peaked at day 14, and were prevalent until day 60. They correlated with infiltration and demyelination of the ON. In MOG-immunized animals more microglia cells in the ONs and retinas were detected at day 60...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497914/the-importance-of-glial-cells-in-the-homeostasis-of-the-retinal-microenvironment-and-their-pivotal-role-in-the-course-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Saverio Sorrentino, Michael Allkabes, Giulia Salsini, Claudio Bonifazzi, Paolo Perri
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a remarkable microvascular complication of diabetes and it has been considered the leading cause of legal blindness in working-age adults in the world. Several overlapping and interrelated molecular pathways are involved in the development of this disease. DR is staged into different levels of severity, from the nonproliferative to the advanced proliferative form. Over the years the progression of DR evolves through a series of changes involving distinct types of specialized cells: neural, vascular and glial...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391553/specific-inner-retinal-layer-cell-damage-in-an-autoimmune-glaucoma-model-is-induced-by-gdnf-with-or-without-hsp27
#14
Christina Casola, Sabrina Reinehr, Sandra Kuehn, Gesa Stute, Bernhard M Spiess, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
PURPOSE: Previously, immunization of rats with ocular antigens induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. We investigated the effect of immunization with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or GDNF in combination with heat shock protein 27 (GDNF+HSP) on RGCs and other retinal cells. METHODS: Rats were immunized with GDNF or GDNF+HSP. After 4 weeks, retinas were stained with Brn-3a and NeuN to quantify RGCs. GFAP and vimentin staining were used to investigate macroglia...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314460/high-glucocorticoid-levels-during-gestation-activate-the-inflammasome-in-hippocampal-oligodendrocytes-of-the-offspring
#15
Carola J Maturana, Adam Aguirre, Juan C Sáez
Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) during early life induces long-lasting neuroinflammation. GCs induce rapid degranulation of mast cells, which release proinflammatory molecules promoting activation of microglia and astrocytes. The possible involvement of oligodendrocytes, however, remains poorly understood. It was studied whether high GC levels during gestation activates the inflammasome in hippocampal oligodendrocytes of mouse offspring. Oligodendrocytes of control pups showed expression of inflammasome components (NLRP3, ACS, and caspase-1) and their levels were increased by prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic GC...
May 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306788/changes-in-the-proliferative-capacity-of-ng2-cell-subpopulations-during-postnatal-development-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#16
Behrouz Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Pavel Dublin, Gerald Seifert, Katja Jennissen, Christian Steinhäuser, Karl W Kafitz, Christine R Rose
Besides astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, NG2 proteoglycan-expressing cells (NG2 glia) represent a third subtype of macroglia in the brain. Originally described as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, they feature several characteristics not expected from mere progenitor cells, including synaptic connections with neurons. There is accumulating evidence that the properties of NG2 glia differ between different brain regions and developmental stages. To further analyze this proposed heterogeneity, we studied electrophysiological properties, transcript and protein expression, distribution and proliferative capacity of NG2 glia during postnatal development, focusing on the hippocampus and corpus callosum...
June 15, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294114/retinal-macroglial-responses-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Rosa de Hoz, Blanca Rojas, Ana I Ramírez, Juan J Salazar, Beatriz I Gallego, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez
Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia) provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255598/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-parp-1-inhibitors-reduce-reactive-gliosis-and-improve-angiostatin-levels-in-retina-of-diabetic-rats
#18
Mykhailo M Guzyk, Artem A Tykhomyrov, Victor S Nedzvetsky, Irina V Prischepa, Tatiana V Grinenko, Lesya V Yanitska, Tamara M Kuchmerovska
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial disease characterized by reactive gliosis and disbalance of angiogenesis regulators, contributing to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications. This study was organized to elucidate whether poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition could attenuate diabetes-induced damage to macroglia and correct angiogenic disbalance in diabetic rat retina. After 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, Wistar male rats were treated with PARP-1 inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAm) or 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) (100 and 30 mg/kg/daily i...
October 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175482/induction-of-the-type-i-interferon-response-in-neurological-forms-of-gaucher-disease
#19
Einat B Vitner, Tamar Farfel-Becker, Natalia Santos Ferreira, Dena Leshkowitz, Piyush Sharma, Karl S Lang, Anthony H Futerman
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a key phenomenon in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which brain inflammation is engaged and delineating the key players in the immune response and their contribution to brain pathology is of great importance for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for these devastating diseases. Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disease, is caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene and is a significant risk factor for Parkinson's disease; in some forms of Gaucher disease, neuroinflammation is observed...
May 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163643/the-glial-cell-modulator-ibudilast-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-enhances-retinal-ganglion-cell-viability-in-glaucoma-through-protein-kinase-a-signaling
#20
Jorge L Cueva Vargas, Nicolas Belforte, Adriana Di Polo
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Vision deficits in glaucoma result from the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Glial cell-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed to contribute to disease pathophysiology, but whether this response is harmful or beneficial for RGC survival is not well understood. To test this, we characterized the role of ibudilast, a clinically approved cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor with preferential affinity for PDE type 4 (PDE4)...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
keyword
keyword
23020
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"