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Shan Zhong, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Chang Zhang, Jun Liu, Pei Wang, Wei Zhou, Ping Yang, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
AIMS: Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is involved in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Excess CD36 facilitates liver cells taking fatty acid and activates inflammatory signals to promote hepatic steatosis and inflammation. However, CD36 deficiency paradoxically promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by unknown mechanisms. We explored the probable molecular mechanism of hepatic inflammation induced by CD36 deficiency. RESULTS: CD36 deletion in mice (CD36(-/-) mice) specifically increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in hepatocytes, promoted macrophage migration to the liver, and aggravated hepatic inflammatory response and fibrosis...
January 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Byong H Lee, Deog H Oh
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Optimizing blood pressure results in an overall health outcome. Over the years, the gut microbiota has been found to play a significant role in host metabolic processes, immunity, and physiology. Dietary strategies have therefore become a target for restoring disturbed gut microbiota to treat metabolic diseases. Probiotics and their fermented products have been shown in many studies to lower blood pressure by suppressing nitrogen oxide production in microphages, reducing reactive oxygen species, and enhancing dietary calcium absorption...
November 29, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Juan E Uribe, Suzanne T Williams, José Templado, Barbara Buge, Rafael Zardoya
The subfamily Cantharidinae Gray, 1857 (Trochoidea: Trochidae) includes 23 recognized genera and over 200 known living species. These marine top shell snails are microphagous grazers that generally live in shallow rocky shores and in macroalgae and seagrass beds of sub-tropical and temperate waters from the Central and Western Indo-Pacific biogeographic regions to the Mediterranean Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revising the family Trochidae supported the monophyly of the subfamily Cantharidinae and its sister group relationship to the subfamily Stomatellinae...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Feiyue Zhang, Xiaowen Liang, Wenzhu Zhang, Yong-Lei Wang, Haolu Wang, Yousuf H Mohammed, Bo Song, Run Zhang, Jingli Yuan
Although hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has long been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases in mammalian bodies, the functions of HOCl in specific organs at abnormal conditions, such as liver injury, remain unclear due to its high reactivity and the lack of effective methods for its detection. Herein, a unique Ir(III) complex-based chemosensor, Ir-Fc, was developed for highly sensitive and selective detection of HOCl. Ir-Fc was designed by incorporating a ferrocene (Fc) quencher to a Ir(III) complex through a HOCl-responsive linker...
January 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Zedong Wang, Shuchao Wang, Wei Wang, Yi Gu, Huanhuan Liu, Feng Wei, Quan Liu
Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, encodes two casein kinase 1 (CK1) isoforms, CK1α and CK1β, with only CK1α having enzyme activity. Here we investigated the biological role of CK1α by construction of a CK1α deletion mutant (Δck1α) based on the type I parasite, and complement the mutant with restored expression of CK1α. Deletion of CK1α resulted in markedly defective parasite replication in vitro. Infected mice with Δck1α parasite caused suppression of IL-12 production, severe liver damage, higher tissue burdens, and short survival time relative to the CK1α-positive parental strain...
October 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Soniya Sukumaran, Tejal Vijapure, Priti Kubal, Jyoti Mulik, M A Rokade, Shailesh Salvi, Jubin Thomas, V S Naidu
Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery...
2016: PloS One
Justin C Havird, Scott R Santos
Many crustacean species progress through a series of metamorphoses during the developmental transition from embryo to adult. The molecular genetic basis of this transition, however, is not well characterized for a large number of crustaceans. Here, we employ multiple RNA-Seq methodologies to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between "early" (i.e., Z1 - Z2) as well as "late" (i.e., Z3 - Z4) larval and adult developmental stages of Halocaridina rubra Holthuis (1963), an atyid shrimp endemic to the environmentally variable anchialine ecosystem of the Hawaiian Islands...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Felipe Gusmão, Maikon Di Domenico, A Cecilia Z Amaral, Alejandro Martínez, Brett C Gonzalez, Katrine Worsaae, Juliana A Ivar do Sul, Paulo da Cunha Lana
Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites...
September 2016: Environmental Pollution
Ratna Ghosal, Peter X Xiong, Peter W Sorensen
Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it...
2016: PloS One
Matthew Martin, Han Wei, Tao Lu
During development of a novel treatment for cancer patients, the tumor microenvironment and its interaction with the tumor cells must be considered. Aspects such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), secreted factors, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the host immune response, and tumor-associated microphages (TAM) are critical for cancer progression and metastasis. Additionally, signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) can promote further cytokine release in the tumor environment, and impact tumor progression greatly...
August 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Qin Wu, Wen-Kai Li, Zheng-Ping Zhou, Ying-Ying Li, Ting-Wan Xiong, Yi-Zhi Du, Li-Xin Wei, Jie Liu
UNLABELLED: Zuotai is composed mainly of β-HgS, while cinnabar mainly contains α-HgS. Both forms of HgS are used in traditional medicines and their safety is of concern. This study aimed to compare the hepatotoxicity potential of Zuotai and α-HgS with mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in mice. Mice were orally administrated with Zuotai (30 mg/kg), α-HgS (HgS, 30 mg/kg), HgCl2 (33.6 mg/kg), or CH3HgCl (3.1 mg/kg) for 7 days, and liver injury and gene expressions related to toxicity, inflammation and Nrf2 were examined...
July 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Siamon Gordon
The year 2016 marks the centenary of the death of Elie Metchnikoff, the father of innate immunity and discoverer of the significance of phagocytosis in development, homeostasis and disease. Through a series of intravital experiments on invertebrates and vertebrates, he described the role of specialised phagocytic cells, macrophages and microphages, subsequently renamed neutrophils and polymorphonuclear leucocytes, in the host response to injury, inflammation, infection and tissue repair. As a vigorous proponent of cellular immunity, he championed its importance versus humoral immunity in the so-called antibody wars...
2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
M M Potselueva, A A Naumov, E S Kupriyanova
The dynamics of extracellular nitrogen oxide metabolites localized in the plasma and ascites during Zajdel ascites hepatoma growth in the abdominal cavity has been investigated. An increase in peroxynitrite concentration was found by the levels of nitrotyrosine (up to 10-11 nM) in blood plasma at the initial stage of tumor cell development. In the course of further tumor development, an oxidative stress developed, which might cause oxidation of protein components including tyrosine. All these processes may cause a decrease in the accessible amount of tyrosine for nitration and lead to a fall in nitrotyrosine level (to 3-6 nM) at the final stages of tumor growth...
2015: Tsitologiia
Ye Yu, Wei-lin Bian, Hui-min Zhang, Bo Zhang, Yi-liang He
This work evaluated the cytotoxicity effect of nC60 nano-crystal particle associated with Cu2+ by using mouse peritoneal microphage RAW264. 7 as the test cell line. The results showed that when exposed to nC60 of 6. 6 mg . L-1 and 9. 9 mg . L-1 for 24h, the cell viability decreased 45% and 70% , respectively, and had obvious time-response and dose-response. It was found that Cu2, could reduce the toxicity of nC60 on RAW 264. 7. The cell viability reduced to 25% when exposed to 6. 6 mg . L-1 nC60 with 2 mg ...
July 2015: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Min Li, Fei Lin, Yanliang Lin, Wen Peng
Microphage apoptosis is a critical event in atherosclerotic lesions in patients with diabetes. In the present investigation, high glucose treatment inhibited Akt phosphorylation and activated caspase 3 in primary peritoneal macrophage, leading to cell apoptosis. Hypoxia prolonged macrophage survival in high glucose condition. Extracellular polysaccharide from Bordetella species (EPS) further decreased cell apoptosis in response to high glucose during hypoxia. Under high glucose and hypoxic condition, EPS treatment promoted caveolin-1 phosphorylation by recognizing TLR4...
October 30, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiaojing Zhao, Mingming Gao, Jinhan He, Liangqiang Zou, Ying Lyu, Ling Zhang, Bin Geng, George Liu, Guoheng Xu
AIMS: The objective of this study is to determine the role of perilipin 1 (Plin1) in whole body or bone marrow-derived cells on atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Accumulated evidence have indicated the role of Plin1 in atherosclerosis, however, these findings are controversial. In this study, we showed that Plin1 was assembled and colocalized with CD68 in macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE-/- mice. We further found 39% reduction of plaque size in the aortic roots of Plin1 and ApoE double knockout (Plin1-/-ApoE-/-) females compared with ApoE-/- female littermates...
2015: PloS One
Lifu Wang, Zhitao Li, Jia Shen, Zhen Liu, Jinyi Liang, Xiaoying Wu, Xi Sun, Zhongdao Wu
Exosomes are 30-100-nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are released into the extracellular space upon fusion of the multi-vesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane, while initial studies described that the role of exosomes was a reticulocyte cargo-disposal mechanism allowing remodeling of the plasma membrane during the maturation of reticulocytes to erythrocytes. Recent studies indicate that exosomes are secreted by most cells and pathogens and play an important role in intercellular signaling and exert regulatory function by carrying bioactive molecules...
May 2015: Parasitology Research
Claudia Gérard, Véronique Verrez-Bagnis, Marc Jérôme, Emilien Lasne
The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which is among the most phylogenetically ancient vertebrates, is a hematophagous ectoparasite that feeds on vertebrates and is considered vulnerable in Europe but is a pest in the North American Great Lakes. We conducted a literature review of helminth parasites of P. marinus and investigated postmetamorphic lampreys sampled in rivers and northeast Atlantic coastal waters (western France) during spawning migration. Based on the literature review, 16 helminth taxa have been recorded in P...
April 8, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
D X Li
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly discovered emerging infectious disease that has recently become epidemic in Asia. The causative agent of SFTS is a novel phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, designated SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS clinically presents with high fever, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, gastrointestinal disorders, and multi-organ dysfunction, with a high viral load and a high case-fatality rate. In human infection, SFTSV targets microphages, replicates in the spleen of infected mice, and causes thrombocytopenia and a cytokine storm...
July 2015: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ju-Mi Hong, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, In-Sik Shin, Hyuck-Hwan Song, Na-Rae Shin, Chan-Mi Jeon, Sei-Ryang Oh, Sang-Bae Han, Kyung-Seop Ahn
Physalis alkekengi has been traditionally used for the treatment of coughs, middle ear infections, and sore throats in Korea, Europe, and China. It exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects. The anti-inflammatory effects of the P. alkekengi methanol extract (PA) and its molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, the chromatogram of PA was established by UPLC analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of PA were also investigated using murine microphage cell lines, RAW 264...
January 2015: Immunobiology
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