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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723243/pathogenicity-of-nectriaceous-fungi-on-avocado-in-australia
#1
Louisamarie Parkinson, Roger Shivas, Elizabeth Dann
Black root rot is a severe disease of young avocado trees in Australia causing black necrotic roots, tree stunting, and leaf drop prior to tree death. Nectriaceous fungi (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), are commonly isolated from symptomatic roots. This research tested the pathogenicity of 19 isolates from Calonectria, Cylindrocladiella, Dactylonectria, Gliocladiopsis and Ilyonectria, spp. collected from young avocado trees and other hosts. Glasshouse pathogenicity tests with avocado (Persea americana) cv. Reed seedlings confirmed that Calonectria ilicicola is a severe pathogen of avocado, causing stunting, wilting and seedling death within 5 weeks of inoculation...
July 19, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722817/dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-for-the-determination-of-trace-organochlorine-pesticides-in-apple-juices-using-reduced-graphene-oxide-coated-with-zno-nanocomposites-as-sorbent
#2
Ting Sun, Hefeng Sun, Feng Zhao
In this work, reduced graphene oxide coated with ZnO nanocomposites was used as an efficient sorbent of dispersive solid-phase extraction and successfully applied to extraction of organochlorine pesticides from apple juice followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, including the amount of adsorbent, extraction time, and the pH of the sample solution, as well as the type and volume of eluent solvent, were investigated and optimized...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722752/application-of-a-sensory-instrumental-tool-to-study-apple-texture-characteristics-shaped-by-altitude-and-time-of-harvest
#3
Mathilde Charles, Maria Laura Corollaro, Luigi Manfrini, Isabella Endrizzi, Eugenio Aprea, Angelo Zanella, Luca Corelli Grappadelli, Flavia Gasperi
BACKGROUND: Texture is important in the preferences of apple consumers. Of the pre-harvest factors affecting fruit quality and especially texture, altitude and subsequent climatic conditions are crucial, determining differences in the physiological mechanisms of fruit growth, ripening stage and chemical composition, as demonstrated by several studies. This work applies a detailed sensory-instrumental protocol developed in a previous paper(1) to investigate the impact of altitude, time of harvest and their cross-effect on sensory characteristics of apple, with a focus on texture...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720542/one-step-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-detection-of-apple-chlorotic-leaf-spot-virus
#4
Dandan Peng, Jipeng Xie, Wei Qiang, Kai-Shu Ling, Liyun Guo, Zaifeng Fan, Tao Zhou
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV). In this method, a set of four primers was designed based on the conserved regions in the coat protein gene of ACLSV, and the primers were synthesized for the RT-LAMP assay using total RNA extracted from ACLSV-infected leaf tissues. The optimal reaction temperature and assay time were determined to be 64°C and 75min, respectively. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP reactions was reliable up to a maximum dilution of 1:3125, which was more sensitive than the RT-PCR assay...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719430/high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-improves-the-diagnosis-of-perioperative-mi
#5
Jamie C Brown, Eslam Samaha, Srikar Rao, Mohammad A Helwani, Andreas Duma, Frank Brown, Brian F Gage, J Philip Miller, Allan S Jaffe, Fred S Apple, Mitchell G Scott, Peter Nagele
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) after noncardiac surgery has traditionally relied on using relatively insensitive contemporary cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. We hypothesized that using a recently introduced novel high-sensitivity cTnT (hscTnT) assay would increase the detection rate of perioperative MI. METHODS: In this ancillary study of the Vitamins in Nitrous Oxide trial, readjudicated incidence rates of myocardial injury (new isolated cTn elevation) and MI were compared when diagnosed by contemporary cTnI versus hscTnT...
July 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714234/an-improved-correlation-to-predict-molecular-weight-between-crosslinks-based-on-equilibrium-degree-of-swelling-of-hydrogel-networks
#6
Andrea C Jimenez-Vergara, John Lewis, Mariah S Hahn, Dany J Munoz-Pinto
Accurate characterization of hydrogel diffusional properties is of substantial importance for a range of biotechnological applications. The diffusional capacity of hydrogels has commonly been estimated using the average molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc ), which is calculated based on the equilibrium degree of swelling. However, the existing correlation linking Mc and equilibrium swelling fails to accurately reflect the diffusional properties of highly crosslinked hydrogel networks. Also, as demonstrated herein, the current model fails to accurately predict the diffusional properties of hydrogels when polymer concentration and molecular weight are varied simultaneously...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714091/habitual-diet-and-diet-quality-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a%C3%A2-case-control-study
#7
E F Tigchelaar, Z Mujagic, A Zhernakova, M A M Hesselink, S Meijboom, C W M Perenboom, A A M Masclee, C Wijmenga, E J M Feskens, D M A E Jonkers
BACKGROUND: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. METHODS: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard to nutrients and food products using an extensive food frequency questionnaire. One hundred ninety-four IBS patients were compared to 186 healthy controls using multiple logistic regression analysis...
July 17, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713362/biocontrol-agents-increase-the-specific-rate-of-patulin-production-by-penicillium-expansum-but-decrease-the-disease-and-total-patulin-contamination-of-apples
#8
Xiangfeng Zheng, Qiya Yang, Xiaoyun Zhang, Maurice T Apaliya, Giuseppe Ianiri, Hongyin Zhang, Raffaello Castoria
Synthetic fungicides are commonly employed for the control of postharvest diseases of fruits. However, due to health concerns about the use of these chemicals, alternative control methods including biocontrol based on antagonistic yeasts are gaining in popularity. In this study, we investigated the effects of two biocontrol yeasts, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain 3617 and Rhodotorula kratochvilovae strain LS11, on blue mold and patulin (PAT) contamination caused by Penicillium expansum strains PY and FS7 in artificially inoculated Fuji apples stored at 20°C for 9 days...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713347/generic-amplicon-deep-sequencing-to-determine-ilarvirus-species-diversity-in-australian-prunus
#9
Wycliff M Kinoti, Fiona E Constable, Narelle Nancarrow, Kim M Plummer, Brendan Rodoni
The distribution of Ilarvirus species populations amongst 61 Australian Prunus trees was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS) of amplicons generated using a genus-based generic RT-PCR targeting a conserved region of the Ilarvirus RNA2 component that encodes the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Presence of Ilarvirus sequences in each positive sample was further validated by Sanger sequencing of cloned amplicons of regions of each of RNA1, RNA2 and/or RNA3 that were generated by species specific PCRs and by metagenomic NGS...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713029/successive-odor-matching-and-non-matching-to-sample-in-rats-a-reversal-design
#10
Katherine Bruce, Katherine Dyer, Michael Mathews, Catharine Nealley, Tiffany Phasukkan, Ashley Prichard, Mark Galizio
There is a growing body of research on matching- and non-matching-to-sample (MTS, NMTS) relations with rats using olfactory stimuli; however, the specific characteristics of this relational control are unclear. In the current study we examine MTS and NMTS in rats with an automated olfactometer using a successive (go, no-go) procedure. Ten rats were trained to either match- or non-match-to-sample with common scents (apple, cinnamon, etc.) as olfactory stimuli. After matching or non-matching training with four odorants, rats were tested for transfer twice with four new odorants on each test...
July 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712501/gene-editing-in-polyploid-crops-wheat-camelina-canola-potato-cotton-peanut-sugar-cane-and-citrus
#11
Donald P Weeks
Polyploid crops make up a significant portion of the major food and fiber crops of the world and include wheat, potato, cotton, apple, peanut, citrus, and brassica oilseeds such as rape, canola, and Camelina. The presence of three sets of chromosomes in triploids, four sets in tetraploids, and six sets in hexaploids present significant challenges to conventional plant breeding and, potentially, to efficient use of rapidly emerging gene and genome-editing systems such as zinc finger nucleases, single-stranded oligonucleotides, TALE effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9)...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710812/temperature-heterogeneity-over-leaf-surfaces-the-contribution-of-the-lamina-microtopography
#12
Marc Saudreau, Amélie Ezanic, Boris Adam, Robin Caillon, Pascal Walser, Sylvain Pincebourde
Temperature is spatially heterogeneous over leaf surfaces, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved. We hypothesized that the 3D leaf microtopography determines locally the amount of incoming irradiation flux at leaf surface, thereby driving the temperature gradient over the leaf surface. This hypothesis was tested by developing a model of leaf temperature heterogeneity that includes the development of the leaf boundary layer, the microtopography of the leaf surface and the physiological response of the leaf...
July 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710586/bud-sprouting-and-floral-induction-and-expression-of-ft-in-loquat-eriobotrya-japonica-thunb-lindl
#13
Carmina Reig, Francisco Gil-Muñoz, Francisco Vera-Sirera, Ana García-Lorca, Amparo Martínez-Fuentes, Carlos Mesejo, Miguel A Pérez-Amador, Manuel Agustí
EjFT1 and EjFT2 genes were isolated and sequenced from leaves of loquat. EjFT1 is involved in bud sprouting and leaf development, and EjFT2 in floral bud induction. Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] is an evergreen species belonging to the family Rosaceae, such as apple and pear, whose reproductive development, in contrast with these species, is a continuous process that is not interrupted by winter dormancy. Thus, the study of the mechanism of flowering in loquat has the potential to uncover the environmental and genetic networks that trigger flowering more accurately, contributing for a better understanding of the Rosaceae floral process...
July 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710562/significant-and-unique-changes-in-phosphorylation-levels-of-four-phosphoproteins-in-two-apple-rootstock-genotypes-under-drought-stress
#14
Jing Ren, Juan Mao, Cunwu Zuo, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Xin Zhao, Xinwen Li, Baihong Chen
Drought stress is a major problem around the world and there is still little molecular mechanism about how fruit crops deal with moderate drought stress. Here, the physiological and phosphoproteomic responses of drought-sensitive genotype (M26) and drought-tolerant genotype (MBB) under moderate drought stress were investigated. Our results of the physiology analysis indicated that the MBB genotype could produce more osmosis-regulating substances. Furthermore, phosphoproteins from leaves of both genotypes under moderate drought stress were analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification technology...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710438/simulation-of-long-term-yield-and-soil-water-consumption-in-apple-orchards-on-the-loess-plateau-china-in-response-to-fertilization
#15
Xingxing Peng, Zheng Guo, Yujiao Zhang, Jun Li
The Loess Plateau, China, is the world's largest apple-producing region, and over 80% of the orchards are in rainfed (dryland) areas. Desiccation of the deep soil layer under dryland apple orchards is the main stressor of apple production in this region. Fertilization is a factor that causes soil desiccation in dryland apple orchards. Given its applicability and precision validations, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to simulate the dynamics of fruit yield and deep soil desiccation in apple orchards under six fertilization treatments...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709155/variable-accuracy-of-wearable-heart-rate-monitors-during-aerobic-exercise
#16
Stephen Gillinov, Muhammad Etiwy, Robert Wang, Gordon Blackburn, Dermot Phelan, A Marc Gillinov, Penny Houghtaling, Hoda Javadikasgari, Milind Y Desai
PURPOSE: Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. METHODS: Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement)...
August 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708029/effect-of-surface-roughness-in-model-and-fresh-fruit-systems-on-microbial-inactivation-efficacy-of-cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasma
#17
Siddharth Bhide, Deepti Salvi, Donald W Schaffner, Mukund V Karwe
This study investigates the efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on microbial inactivation as influenced by surface roughness of two types of surfaces: sandpaper and fresh fruit peel. Different grits of closed-coat sandpaper were selected, with their roughness (Pq) values ranging from 6 to 16 μm. Apple, orange, and cantaloupe peels were selected for roughness values that were similar to the sandpapers. The sandpapers and the fruit peel surfaces were spot inoculated with Enterobacter aerogenes (10(9) CFU/63...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707424/a-reproducible-microcosm-biofilm-model-of-subgingival-microbial-communities
#18
M Fernandez Y Mostajo, R A M Exterkate, M J Buijs, W Beertsen, G A van der Weijden, E Zaura, W Crielaard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reproducible subgingival microcosm biofilm model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deep pockets (probing pocket depth ≥6 mm) in each of seven patients with periodontitis and from shallow pockets (probing pocket depth ≤3 mm) in two periodontally healthy donors. An active attachment model and a peptone medium (Thompson et. al., Appl Environ Microbiol 2015;81:8307-8314) supplemented with 30% serum was used...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707217/baseline-glucoregulatory-function-moderates-the-effect-of-dairy-milk-and-fruit-juice-on-postprandial-cognition-in-healthy-young-adults
#19
Jason R Anderson, Misty A W Hawkins, John Updegraff, John Gunstad, Mary Beth Spitznagel
PURPOSE: Few studies have examined acute cognitive effects of dairy products. Prior work suggests baseline glucoregulatory function may moderate the relationship between macronutrient profile and postprandial cognition. This study examined the role of glucoregulatory function in postprandial cognition after milk, fruit juice, and a water control. We hypothesized juice would improve cognition in those with lower fasting glucose, while milk would improve cognition in those with higher fasting glucose...
July 13, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706955/effect-of-sugar-versus-mixed-breakfast-on-metabolic-and-neurofunctional-responses-in-healthy-individuals
#20
Roberto Codella, Stefano Benedini, Stefano Paini, Andrea Caumo, Michela Adamo, Ileana Terruzzi, Anna Ferrulli, Concetta Macrì, Luca Andreoni, Michele Sterlicchio, Livio Luzi
We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
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