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Manon Robillard, Annie Roy-Charland, Sylvie Cazabon
Purpose: This study examined the role of cognition on the navigational process of a speech-generating device (SGD) among individuals with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective was to investigate the role of various cognitive factors (i.e., cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, categorization, fluid reasoning, and working memory) on the ability to navigate an SGD with dynamic paging and taxonomic grids in individuals with ASD. Method: Twenty individuals aged 5 to 20 years with ASD were assessed using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997) and the Automated Working Memory Assessment (Alloway, 2007)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Megan N Biango-Daniels, Tristan W Wang, Kathie T Hodge
Paecilomyces niveus is an extremotolerant fungus with surprising powers to survive high temperatures and infect apples and aphids. These abilities make it a formidable enemy in food and agricultural environments. In addition, it produces patulin, the most significant mycotoxin in apples.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Patrik Byholm, Sanna Mäkeläinen, Andrea Santangeli, Dave Goulson
The evidence of negative impacts of agricultural pesticides on non-target organisms is constantly growing. One of the most widely used group of pesticides are neonicotinoids, used in treatments of various plants, e.g. oilseed crops, corn and apples, to prevent crop damage by agricultural insect pests. Treatment effects have been found to spill over to non-target insects, such as bees, and more recently also to other animal groups, among them passerine birds. Very little is known, however, on the presence of neonicotinoids in other wild species at higher trophic levels...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Larry J Kricka
Predictions about the future of laboratory medicine have had a mixed success, and in some instances they have been overambitious and incorrectly assessed the future impact of emerging technologies. Current predictions suggest a more highly automated and connected future for diagnostic testing. The central laboratory of the future may be dominated by more robotics and more connectivity in order to take advantage of the benefits of the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence (AI)-based systems (e.g. decision support software and imaging analytics)...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Jack S Peltz, Ronald D Rogge, Melissa L Sturge-Apple
In the current study, we examined the potential for transactional relations among parents' marital satisfaction, coparental cooperation and conflict, and parent-child relationship satisfaction in a sample of 249 families with 2-3-year-old children. Using a novel multiwave design with frequent assessments to better capture transactional family processes, mothers and fathers were assessed across 5 waves with 2-month lags; mean age of the target children (53% girls) was 2.8 years ( SD = 0.62) at baseline. Cross-lagged, multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses using an actor-partner interdependence modeling framework revealed coparental cooperation and conflict as likely mechanisms within the family system...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Md Maruf Khan, Yoon Seok Choi, Young Kyun Kim, Jin Cheol Yoo
Pectin degrading enzyme has been increasing interest in an industrial application as biocatalysts, such as juice, textile, and wine industry. Bacillus paralicheniformis CBS3, isolated from popular traditional Korean food (kimchi), produced a novel extracellular thermostable alkaline endopolygalacturonase (BPN3). In this study, BPN3 was purified to 22.04-fold with a recovery yield of 18.93% and specific activity of 2216.41 U/mg by gel filtration and anion exchange column chromatography. The molecular mass of BPN3 was approximately 53 kDa as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and pectic zymography...
June 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jian-Ping An, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Lai-Qing Song, Ling-Ling Zhao, Chun-Xiang You, Yu-Jin Hao
Ethylene regulates climacteric fruit ripening, and EIN3-LIKE1 (EIL1) plays an important role in this process. In apple (Malus domestica), fruit coloration is accompanied by ethylene release during fruit ripening, but the molecular mechanism that underlies these two physiological processes is unknown. In this study, we found that ethylene treatment markedly induced fruit coloration as well as the expression of MdMYB1, a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration. In addition, we found that MdEIL1 directly bound to the promoter of MdMYB1 and transcriptionally activated its expression, which resulted in anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration...
June 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Z-Z Chen, L-X Xu, L-L Li, H-B Wu, Y-Y Xu
The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an important pest in many commercial orchards including apple, pear and peach orchards, and responsible for substantial economic losses every year. To help in attaining a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the ecological tolerances of G. molesta, we collected life history data of individuals reared on apples under different constant temperature regimes and compared the data with moths reared under a variable outdoor temperature environment. Because G...
June 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Masumeh Abbasi, Kamran Rudkhaneei, Monireh Aghajany-Nasab
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low testosterone levels in serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of apple vinegar on fertility indices in a rat model of NAFLD. To study this effect, 32 adult male rats were divided into four groups: A-normal diet, B-high-fat diet (HFD), C-apple vinegar and D-HFD plus apple vinegar. At the end of the week 22, the Lee index, serum lipid profiles, liver enzymes, glucose and total antioxidant levels (TAC) in serum were determined. In addition, liver and testis tissue homogenate, histopathology, serum testosterone and sperm parameters were measured and HOMA-IR calculated...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
Kristy Martin, Romain Meeusen, Kevin G Thompson, Richard Keegan, Ben Rattray
Mental fatigue reflects a change in psychobiological state, caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has been well documented that mental fatigue impairs cognitive performance; however, more recently, it has been demonstrated that endurance performance is also impaired by mental fatigue. The mechanism behind the detrimental effect of mental fatigue on endurance performance is poorly understood. Variables traditionally believed to limit endurance performance, such as heart rate, lactate accumulation and neuromuscular function, are unaffected by mental fatigue...
June 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
Dong H Cha, Thomas H Q Powell, Jeffrey L Feder, Charles E Linn
A new blend of volatiles was identified for the fruit of downy red hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, that is attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies infesting this host in the northeastern USA. The new blend was as attractive as the previously identified mixture but is more complex in the number of odorants (six in the old versus ten in the new) and differs significantly in the ratio of three volatiles, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, butyl hexanoate, and dihydro-β-ionone, that are common to both blends and exerted agonist or antagonist effects on behavior in a flight tunnel assay...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ayesha Murtaza, Zafarullah Muhammad, Aamir Iqbal, Rabia Ramzan, Yan Liu, Siyi Pan, Wanfeng Hu
This study investigated the effects of heat treatment after purification on dissociation, aggregation, and structural modification of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity from apple ( Malus domestica ) juice. PPO activity at the 70°C for 10 min was still activated and drastically decreased since 20-60 min with catechol and pyrogallol as substrate. Moreover, spectral results of fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) indicated that increasing temperature for shorter and longer durations can cause reorganization of the secondary structure of PPO and demolished the native configuration of PPO respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Bowen Liang, Tengteng Gao, Qi Zhao, Changqing Ma, Qi Chen, Zhiwei Wei, Cuiying Li, Chao Li, Fengwang Ma
The frequency and intensity of water deficits is expected to increase because of global warming. Drought stress is often one of the most limiting factors for plant growth. We conducted greenhouse pot experiments to address how dopamine affects the drought-resistance traits of apple trees at the physiological and molecular levels. Our factorial design consisted of dopamine and no-dopamine applications combined with well-watered and moderate-drought conditions. Seedling biomass, photosynthesis rates, chlorophyll concentrations, and stomatal apertures were markedly reduced under stress but dopamine treatment mitigated the inhibiting effects of drought on plant growth and helped maintain strong photosynthesis, chlorophyll levels, and stomatal functioning...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mian Zhang, Hao Feng, Yuhuan Zhao, Linlin Song, Chen Gao, Xiangming Xu, Lili Huang
The Valsa canker, caused by Valsa mali ( V. mali ), is a destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia. Effector proteins are important for fungal pathogenicity. We studied a candidate effector VmPxE1 isolated based on the genome information of V. mali. By using the yeast invertase secretion assay system, VmPxE1 was shown to contain a signal peptide with secretory functions. VmPxE1 can suppress BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX)-induced cell death with a high efficacy of 92% in Nicotiana benthamiana . The expression of VmPxE1 was upregulated during the early infection stage and deletion of VmPxE1 led to significant reductions in virulence on both apple twigs and leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Atsushi Kogure, Yu Mori, Hidetatsu Tanaka, Masayuki Kamimura, Naoya Masahashi, Shuji Hanada, Eiji Itoi
Intramedullary nailing is widely performed for internal fixation of fractures. The applicable elasticity of materials composing intramedullary nails remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the elastic property of β-type titanium alloy nails on fracture healing compared with conventional Ti-6Al-4V alloy nails using a rabbit tibial osteotomy model. Two types of intramedullary nails composed of β-type Ti-Nb-Sn alloy (Young's modulus: 37 GPa) or Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Young's modulus: 110 GPa) were used for osteotomy fixation in the tibiae of rabbits...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Ke-Ting Li, Jie Zhang, Yan-Hui Kang, Meng-Chen Chen, Ting-Ting Song, Hui Geng, Ji Tian, Yun-Cong Yao
In higher plants, anthocyanins are protective secondary metabolites, which contribute to the color of leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits, and have been found to have an antioxidant role in human health. In this study, we determined the expression of McMYB10 and its specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, McCOP1, in crabapple leaves during the course of a day and in five leaf development stages. Interestingly, the results showed that the transcription level of McCOP1 genes was higher in daylight than at night, and the transcripts of McMYB10 presented a positive correlation with the transcription of McCOP1-1 and McCOP1-2 and anthocyanin accumulation in a crabapple cultivar with red-colored leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fatemeh Ahadi Yulghunlu, Fahimeh Sehhatie Shafaie, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Hamideh Mohaddesi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childbirth consists of a three stage period beginning with uterine contractions and ending in the expulsion of the placenta. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of Ringer's solution, dextrose solution 5% and oral intake on the duration of total labor and labor stages (primary outcome) and the frequency of oxytocin administration and prolonged labor (secondary outcome) in nulliparous women with spontaneous vaginal delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted on 201 nulliparous women in labor assigned with a randomized block design to three groups, each receiving either Ringer's solution plus oral fluids, dextrose solution 5% solution plus oral fluids or oral fluids alone...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nan Wang, Wenjun Liu, Tianliang Zhang, Shenghui Jiang, Haifeng Xu, Yicheng Wang, Zongying Zhang, Chuanzeng Wang, Xuesen Chen
In plants, flavonoids are important secondary metabolites that contribute to the nutritional quality of many foods. Apple is a popular and frequently consumed food because of its high flavonoid content. In this study, flavonoid composition and content were detected and compared between the red- and white-fleshed apples in a BC1 hybrid populations using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Transcriptomic analysis of the red- and white-fleshed apples was then performed using RNA-seq technology...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nabil El Jaouhari, Aziz Abouabdillah, Rachid Bouabid, Mohamed Bourioug, Lotfi Aleya, Mohamed Chaoui
This study was conducted over three consecutive years, 2015, 2016 and 2017, in the Imouzzer Kander region located in northwestern Morocco. The main objective is to evaluate apple tree responses to two sustainable deficit irrigation strategies with 75% (T2) and 50% (T3) of calculated crop evapotranspiration (ETc), compared to a control irrigated with 100% ETc (T1). During the three experiment years, estimated reference evapotranspiration (ET0 ) was 630, 684 and 728 mm, respectively, in 2015, 2016 and 2017...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah S Poulsen, Anne T Saber, Andrew Williams, Ole Andersen, Carsten Købler, Rambabu Atluri, Maria E Pozzebon, Stefano P Mucelli, Monica Simion, David Rickerby, Alicja Mortensen, Petra Jackson, Zdenka O Kyjovska, Kristian Mølhave, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Keld A Jensen, Carole L Yauk, Håkan Wallin, Sabina Halappanavar, Ulla Vogel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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