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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901489/membrane-bound-icam-1-contributes-to-the-onset-of-proinvasive-tumor-stroma-by-controlling-acto-myosin-contractility-in-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts
#1
Stephanie Bonan, Jean Albrengues, Eloise Grasset, Sanya-Eduarda Kuzet, Nicolas Nottet, Isabelle Bourget, Thomas Bertero, Bernard Mari, Guerrino Meneguzzi, Cedric Gaggioli
Acto-myosin contractility in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts leads to assembly of the tumor extracellular matrix. The pro-inflammatory cytokine LIF governs fibroblast activation in cancer by regulating the myosin light chain 2 activity. So far, however, how LIF mediates cytoskeleton contractility remains unknown. Using phenotypic screening assays based on knock-down of LIF-dependent genes in fibroblasts, we identified the glycoprotein ICAM-1 as a crucial regulator of stroma fibroblast proinvasive matrix remodeling...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861469/-the-national-medical-arbitration-commission-20-years
#2
Juan Ramón de la Fuente
Cuando la Secretaría de Salud todavía tenía el logotipo azul que decía SSA, corrían tiempos difíciles porque no había dinero y la idea de crear nuevas instituciones era recibida con reservas, no sólo por el Presidente Zedillo, siempre generoso y atento a las necesidades de salud de la población, sino también, como ya es costumbre, por el secretario de Hacienda, responsable de cuidar el erario público. Y es que la idea de hacer crecer el gasto corriente del gobierno se percibía, no sin razón, como un acto que podía infligir el riesgo de fomentar estructuras administrativas ineficaces y obesas...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784612/forces-shaping-the-drosophila-wing
#3
REVIEW
M C Diaz de la Loza, B J Thompson
How genes encode the three-dimensional shape of tissues is a fascinating problem in biology. Pioneering genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila have identified key genes that control the generation of force patterns in the developing wing. Shortrange force patterns generated by planar polarisedmyosins can promote boundary formation and tissue elongation during the larval wing disc stage. Long-range force patterns are also crucial to shaping the wing during the pupal stage. We review the different ways in which both local and global force patterns can be generated, such as: patterned acto-myosin contractility, patterned anchorage to the extracellular matrix, and patterned tissue growth...
October 23, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756617/expression-of-profilin-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-identification-of-some-of-its-ligands
#4
Juan Felipe Osorio-Méndez, Andrea Vizcaíno-Castillo, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Roberto Hernandez, Ana María Cevallos
The role and regulation of actin in Trypanosoma cruzi and other related parasites is largely unknown. Based on early genome analysis, it was proposed that there was a reduced dependency on the acto-myosin system in the trypanosomatid parasites. However, more recent studies have extended the set of potential actin regulatory proteins, particularly for T. cruzi. One of the identified actin-binding proteins in trypanosomatids is profilin. In other systems, it is capable of simultaneously binding both monomeric actin and several actin-regulatory factors...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671484/two-boundary-first-exit-time-of-gauss-markov-processes-for-stochastic-modeling-of-acto-myosin-dynamics
#5
Giuseppe D'Onofrio, Enrica Pirozzi
We consider a stochastic differential equation in a strip, with coefficients suitably chosen to describe the acto-myosin interaction subject to time-varying forces. By simulating trajectories of the stochastic dynamics via an Euler discretization-based algorithm, we fit experimental data and determine the values of involved parameters. The steps of the myosin are represented by the exit events from the strip. Motivated by these results, we propose a specific stochastic model based on the corresponding time-inhomogeneous Gauss-Markov and diffusion process evolving between two absorbing boundaries...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642290/machine-learning-to-predict-rapid-progression-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#6
Xia Hu, Peter D Reaven, Aramesh Saremi, Ninghao Liu, Mohammad Ali Abbasi, Huan Liu, Raymond Q Migrino
OBJECTIVES: Prediabetes is a major epidemic and is associated with adverse cardio-cerebrovascular outcomes. Early identification of patients who will develop rapid progression of atherosclerosis could be beneficial for improved risk stratification. In this paper, we investigate important factors impacting the prediction, using several machine learning methods, of rapid progression of carotid intima-media thickness in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participants. METHODS: In the Actos Now for Prevention of Diabetes (ACT NOW) study, 382 participants with IGT underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ultrasound evaluation at baseline and at 15-18 months, and were divided into rapid progressors (RP, n = 39, 58 ± 17...
December 2016: EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics & Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635194/toxicological-evaluation-of-subchronic-use-of-pioglitazone-in-mice
#7
Said Said Elshama, Ayman El-Meghawry El-Kenawy, Hosam-Eldin Hussein Osman
OBJECTIVES: Pioglitazone (Actos) is one of the most controversial recent oral antidiabetic drugs. It was originally authorized in the European Union in 2000, and approved as an oral monotherapy for overweight second type of diabetic patients in 2002. It belongs to the thiazolidinedione group which some of its members have been withdrawn from the market due to the hepatotoxicity or cardiotoxicity effects. This study investigates sub-chronic use of pioglitazone induced toxicity in mice by the assessment of renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes, and some hematological indices with histological changes of liver, kidney, heart, and bladder...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598375/sexual-violence-as-a-limiting-factor-on-the-perception-and-management-of-the-risk-of-hiv-in-women-married-to-migrants
#8
Yesica Yolanda Rangel Flores
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the influence of sexual violence on the perception and management of the risk of HIV in women married to migrants. METHODS: study with an ethnographic approach carried out in urban and rural communities. Data were obtained by methodological triangulation, with participant and non-participant observation, as well as interviews. The informants were 21 women married to international migrants. The interviews were transcribed and discourse analysis was applied to them...
2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541056/apkc%C3%AE-affects-directed-cell-migration-through-the-regulation-of-myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation
#9
Daria Petrov, Inbal Dahan, Einav Cohen-Kfir, Shoshana Ravid
Cell motility is an essential cellular process for a variety of biological events. It requires cross-talk between the signaling and the cytoskeletal systems. Despite the recognized importance of aPKCζ for cell motility, there is little understanding of the mechanism by which aPKCζ mediates extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton. In the present study, we report that aPKCζ is required for the cellular organization of acto-non-muscle myosin II (NMII) cytoskeleton, for proper cell adhesion and directed cell migration...
August 19, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498166/traction-force-dynamics-predict-gap-formation-in-activated-endothelium
#10
Erik T Valent, Geerten P van Nieuw Amerongen, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, Peter L Hordijk
In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability...
September 10, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447488/timely-endocytosis-of-cytokinetic-enzymes-prevents-premature-spindle-breakage-during-mitotic-exit
#11
Cheen Fei Chin, Kaiquan Tan, Masayuki Onishi, YuanYuan Chew, Beryl Augustine, Wei Ren Lee, Foong May Yeong
Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS) formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR) constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p) neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421270/new-pharmacological-agents-to-aid-smoking-cessation-and-tobacco-harm-reduction-what-has-been-investigated-and-what-is-in-the-pipeline
#12
REVIEW
Emma Beard, Lion Shahab, Damian M Cummings, Susan Michie, Robert West
A wide range of support is available to help smokers to quit and to aid attempts at harm reduction, including three first-line smoking cessation medications: nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Despite the efficacy of these, there is a continual need to diversify the range of medications so that the needs of tobacco users are met. This paper compares the first-line smoking cessation medications with (1) two variants of these existing products: new galenic formulations of varenicline and novel nicotine delivery devices; and (2) 24 alternative products: cytisine (novel outside Central and Eastern Europe), nortriptyline, other tricyclic antidepressants, electronic cigarettes, clonidine (an anxiolytic), other anxiolytics (e...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383012/game-of-zones-how-actin-binding-proteins-organize-muscle-contraction
#13
COMMENT
Eugenia Butkevich, Dieter R Klopfenstein, Christoph F Schmidt
Locomotion of C. elegans requires coordinated, efficient transmission of forces generated on the molecular scale by myosin and actin filaments in myocytes to dense bodies and the hypodermis and cuticle enveloping body wall muscles. The complex organization of the acto-myosin scaffold with its accessory proteins provides a fine-tuned machinery regulated by effectors that guarantees that sarcomere units undergo controlled, reversible cycles of contraction and relaxation. Actin filaments in sarcomeres dynamically undergo polymerization and depolymerization...
April 2016: Worm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378946/molecular-and-functional-effects-of-a-splice-site-mutation-in-the-myl2-gene-associated-with-cardioskeletal-myopathy-and-early-cardiac-death-in-infants
#14
Zhiqun Zhou, Wenrui Huang, Jingsheng Liang, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary
The homozygous appearance of the intronic mutation (IVS6-1) in the MYL2 gene encoding for myosin ventricular/slow-twitch skeletal regulatory light chain (RLC) was recently linked to the development of slow skeletal muscle fiber type I hypotrophy and early cardiac death. The IVS6-1 (c403-1G>C) mutation resulted from a cryptic splice site in MYL2 causing a frameshift and replacement of the last 32 codons by 19 different amino acids in the RLC mutant protein. Infants who were IVS6-1(+∕+)-positive died between 4 and 6 months of age due to cardiomyopathy and heart failure...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378156/cell-sized-liposome-doublets-reveal-active-tension-build-up-driven-by-acto-myosin-dynamics
#15
V Caorsi, J Lemière, C Campillo, M Bussonnier, J Manzi, T Betz, J Plastino, K Carvalho, C Sykes
Cells modulate their shape to fulfill specific functions, mediated by the cell cortex, a thin actin shell bound to the plasma membrane. Myosin motor activity, together with actin dynamics, contributes to cortical tension. Here, we examine the individual contributions of actin polymerization and myosin activity to tension increase with a non-invasive method. Cell-sized liposome doublets are covered with either a stabilized actin cortex of preformed actin filaments, or a dynamic branched actin network polymerizing at the membrane...
July 20, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376776/proteomic-profiling-of-muscle-fibre-type-shifting-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#16
Paul Dowling, Sandra Murphy, Kay Ohlendieck
INTRODUCTION: Mature skeletal muscles are composed of a complex assembly of slow-twitching, fast-twitching and hybrid fibres. Since muscle fibres exhibit a high degree of cellular plasticity, changed physiological conditions or pathophysiological disturbances have generally a substantial impact on fibre specification. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the findings from comparative proteomic profiling studies that have focused on neuromuscular diseases and discusses the identified protein changes of fibre type shifting...
August 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363521/still-and-rotating-myosin-clusters-determine-cytokinetic-ring-constriction
#17
Viktoria Wollrab, Raghavan Thiagarajan, Anne Wald, Karsten Kruse, Daniel Riveline
The cytokinetic ring is essential for separating daughter cells during division. It consists of actin filaments and myosin motors that are generally assumed to organize as sarcomeres similar to skeletal muscles. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here we show that the internal organization and dynamics of rings are different from sarcomeres and distinct in different cell types. Using micro-cavities to orient rings in single focal planes, we find in mammalian cells a transition from a homogeneous distribution to a periodic pattern of myosin clusters at the onset of constriction...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357130/quantifying-cadherin-mechanotransduction-machinery-assembly-disassembly-dynamics-using-fluorescence-covariance-analysis
#18
Pavan Vedula, Lissette A Cruz, Natasha Gutierrez, Justin Davis, Brian Ayee, Rachel Abramczyk, Alexis J Rodriguez
Quantifying multi-molecular complex assembly in specific cytoplasmic compartments is crucial to understand how cells use assembly/disassembly of these complexes to control function. Currently, biophysical methods like Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy provide quantitative measurements of direct protein-protein interactions, while traditional biochemical approaches such as sub-cellular fractionation and immunoprecipitation remain the main approaches used to study multi-protein complex assembly/disassembly dynamics...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291932/revisiting-frank-starling-regulatory-light-chain-phosphorylation-alters-the-rate-of-force-redevelopment-ktr-in-a-length-dependent-fashion
#19
Christopher N Toepfer, Timothy G West, Michael A Ferenczi
KEY POINTS: Regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation has been shown to alter the ability of muscle to produce force and power during shortening and to alter the rate of force redevelopment (ktr ) at submaximal [Ca(2+) ]. Increasing RLC phosphorylation ∼50% from the in vivo level in maximally [Ca(2+) ]-activated cardiac trabecula accelerates ktr . Decreasing RLC phosphorylation to ∼70% of the in vivo control level slows ktr and reduces force generation. ktr is dependent on sarcomere length in the physiological range 1...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273580/myosin-xi-i-is-mechanically-and-enzymatically-unique-among-class-xi-myosins-in-arabidopsis
#20
Takeshi Haraguchi, Motoki Tominaga, Akihiko Nakano, Keiichi Yamamoto, Kohji Ito
Arabidopsis possesses 13 genes encoding class-XI myosins. Among these, myosin XI-I is phylogenetically distant. To examine the molecular properties of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-I (At myosin XI-I), we performed in vitro mechanical and enzymatic analyses using recombinant constructs of At myosin XI-I. Unlike other biochemically studied class-XI myosins, At myosin XI-I showed extremely low actin-activated ATPase activity (Vmax = 3.7 Pi s(-1) head(-1)). The actin-sliding velocity of At myosin XI-I was 0.25 µm s(-1), >10 times lower than those of other class-XI myosins...
August 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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