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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587976/mechanosensing-of-matrix-by-stem-cells-from-contractility-and-matrix-heterogeneity-to-cardiogenesis-and-muscle-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545680/a-role-for-tropomyosins-in-activity-dependent-bulk-endocytosis
#2
REVIEW
R S Gormal, N Valmas, T Fath, F A Meunier
Bulk endocytosis allows stimulated neurons to take up a large portion of the presynaptic plasma membrane in order to regenerate synaptic vesicle pools. Actin, one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic cells, plays an important role in this process, but a detailed mechanistic understanding of the involvement of the cortical actin network is still lacking, in part due to the relatively small size of nerve terminals and the limitation of optical microscopy. We recently discovered that neurosecretory cells display a similar, albeit much larger, form of bulk endocytosis in response to secretagogue stimulation...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506910/omecamtiv-mecarbil-activates-ryanodine-receptors-from-canine-cardiac-but-not-skeletal-muscle
#3
Péter Nánási, Marta Gaburjakova, Jana Gaburjakova, János Almássy
Due to the limited results achieved in the clinical treatment of heart failure, a new inotropic strategy of myosin motor activation has been developed. The lead molecule of myosin activator agents is omecamtiv mecarbil, which binds directly to the heavy chain of the cardiac β-myosin and enhances cardiac contractility by lengthening the lifetime of the acto-myosin complex and increasing the number of the active force-generating cross-bridges. In the absence of relevant data, the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on canine cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR 2) has been investigated in the present study by measuring the electrical activity of single RyR 2 channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayer...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477431/ehrho1-regulates-plasma-membrane-blebbing-through-pi3-kinase-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#4
Ravi Bharadwaj, Ranjana Arya, M Shahid Mansuri, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries. Motility of E. histolytica is important for its pathogenesis. Blebbing is an essential process contributing to cellular motility in many systems. In mammalian cells, formation of plasma membrane blebs is regulated by Rho-GTPases through its effectors, such as Rho kinase, mDia1, and acto-myosin proteins. In this study, we have illuminated the role of EhRho1 in bleb formation and motility of E...
May 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467684/cardiac-contractility-motor-function-and-cross-bridge-kinetics-in-n47k-rlc-mutant-mice
#5
Li Wang, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Chen-Ching Yuan, Sunil Yadav, Masataka Kawai, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary
We have investigated the physiology and mechanical profiles of skinned papillary muscle fibers from transgenic mice expressing the N47K mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), shown to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans. The results were compared with wild-type (WT) mice, both expressing the human ventricular RLC. Rate constants of a cross-bridge (XB) cycle were deduced from tension transients induced by sinusoidal length changes during maximal Ca(2+) activation, and were studied as a function of MgATP, MgADP, and Pi concentrations...
June 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371863/hypercontractile-mutant-of-ventricular-myosin-essential-light-chain-leads-to-disruption-of-sarcomeric-structure-and-function-and-results-in-restrictive-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#6
Chen-Ching Yuan, Katarzyna Kazmierczak, Jingsheng Liang, Rosemeire Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Thomas C Irving, Aldrin V Gomes, Yihua Wang, Thomas P Burghardt, Danuta Szczesna-Cordary
Aims: The E143K (Glu→Lys) mutation in the myosin essential light chain (ELC) has been associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) in humans, but the mechanisms that underlie the development of defective cardiac function are unknown. Using transgenic E143K-RCM mice, we sought to determine the molecular and cellular triggers of E143K-induced heart remodeling. Methods and Results: The E143K-induced abnormalities in cardiac function and morphology observed by echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics were paralleled by augmented active and passive tension measured in skinned papillary muscle fibers compared with wild-type (WT)-generated force...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370940/-molecular-activity-painting-switch-like-light-controlled-perturbations-inside-living-cells
#7
Xi Chen, Muthukumaran Venkatachalapathy, Dominic Kamps, Simone Weigel, Ravi Kumar, Michael Orlich, Ruben Garrecht, Michael Hirtz, Christof M Niemeyer, Yao-Wen Wu, Leif Dehmelt
Acute subcellular protein targeting is a powerful tool to study biological networks. However, signaling at the plasma membrane is highly dynamic, making it difficult to study in space and time. In particular, sustained local control of molecular function is challenging owing to the lateral diffusion of plasma membrane targeted molecules. Herein we present "molecular-activity painting" (MAP), a novel technology which combines photoactivatable chemically induced dimerization (pCID) with immobilized artificial receptors...
March 29, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361956/role-for-formin-like-1-dependent-acto-myosin-assembly-in-lipid-droplet-dynamics-and-lipid-storage
#8
Simon G Pfisterer, Gergana Gateva, Peter Horvath, Juho Pirhonen, Veijo T Salo, Leena Karhinen, Markku Varjosalo, Samppa J Ryhänen, Pekka Lappalainen, Elina Ikonen
Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular organelles specialized in triacylglycerol (TG) storage undergoing homotypic clustering and fusion. In non-adipocytic cells with numerous LDs this is balanced by poorly understood droplet dissociation mechanisms. We identify non-muscle myosin IIa (NMIIa/MYH-9) and formin-like 1 (FMNL1) in the LD proteome. NMIIa and actin filaments concentrate around LDs, and form transient foci between dissociating LDs. NMIIa depletion results in decreased LD dissociations, enlarged LDs, decreased hydrolysis and increased storage of TGs...
March 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248237/comparative-skeletal-muscle-proteomics-using-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis
#9
REVIEW
Sandra Murphy, Paul Dowling, Kay Ohlendieck
The pioneering work by Patrick H. O'Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry1975, 250, 4007-4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O'Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques...
September 9, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174246/mechanical-tension-and-spontaneous-muscle-twitching-precede-the-formation-of-cross-striated-muscle-in-vivo
#10
Manuela Weitkunat, Martina Brasse, Andreas R Bausch, Frank Schnorrer
Muscle forces are produced by repeated stereotypical actomyosin units called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are chained into linear myofibrils spanning the entire muscle fiber. In mammalian body muscles, myofibrils are aligned laterally, resulting in their typical cross-striated morphology. Despite this detailed textbook knowledge about the adult muscle structure, it is still unclear how cross-striated myofibrils are built in vivo Here, we investigate the morphogenesis of Drosophila abdominal muscles and establish them as an in vivo model for cross-striated muscle development...
April 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130336/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression-induces-alterations-in-cardiac-myofilaments-in-a-pressure-overload-model-of-hypertrophy
#11
Chehade N Karam, Chad M Warren, Marcus Henze, Natasha H Banke, E Douglas Lewandowski, R John Solaro
Although alterations in fatty acid (FA) metabolism have been shown to have a negative impact on contractility of the hypertrophied heart, the targets of action remain elusive. In this study we compared the function of skinned fiber bundles from transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress a relatively low level of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and nontransgenic (NTg) littermates. The mice (NTg-T and Tg-T) were stressed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and compared with shams (NTg-S and Tg-S)...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126731/prestretched-airway-smooth-muscle-response-to-length-oscillation
#12
Ahmed M Al-Jumaily, Kevin Roos, Sandy Bessaguet, Miguel Jo Avila
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperconstriction is the cause of many respiratory diseases including asthma. In vitro testing has demonstrated that the active forces of ASM are reduced by length oscillation (LO) mimicking tidal breathing. In a previous study, we demonstrated that this force reduction can be further enhanced when superimposing oscillations (with certain frequencies and amplitudes) on this LO In contrast, it has been reported that pressurizing the lung may help in relieving asthmatic airway constrictions...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076581/-social-determinants-of-health-and-convergence-in-health-agendas-of-regional-agencies-in-south-america
#13
Ximena Pamela Díaz-Bermúdez, Flavia Bueno, Luis Francisco Sánchez Otero, Annela Jean Auer
Objective: Characterize areas of interinstitutional cooperation and converging health agendas of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the Health Council of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) in South America based on social determinants of health. Methods: A qualitative study based on official documentary sources from the three organizations, using a comparative analysis of the health agendas of these agencies and the Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health (2011)...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990827/coordination-between-intra-and-extracellular-forces-regulates-focal-adhesion-dynamics
#14
Bibhu Ranjan Sarangi, Mukund Gupta, Bryant L Doss, Nicolas Tissot, France Lam, René-Marc Mège, Nicolas Borghi, Benoît Ladoux
Focal adhesions (FAs) are important mediators of cell-substrate interactions. One of their key functions is the transmission of forces between the intracellular acto-myosin network and the substrate. However, the relationships between cell traction forces, FA architecture, and molecular forces within FAs are poorly understood. Here, by combining Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based molecular force biosensors with micropillar-based traction force sensors and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, we simultaneously map molecular tension across vinculin, a key protein in FAs, and traction forces at FAs...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942003/biochemical-and-cellular-determinants-of-renal-glomerular-elasticity
#15
Addie E Embry, Hamid Mohammadi, Xinying Niu, Liping Liu, Borren Moe, William A Miller-Little, Christopher Y Lu, Leslie A Bruggeman, Christopher A McCulloch, Paul A Janmey, R Tyler Miller
The elastic properties of renal glomeruli and their capillaries permit them to maintain structural integrity in the presence of variable hemodynamic forces. Measured by micro-indentation, glomeruli have an elastic modulus (E, Young's modulus) of 2.1 kPa, and estimates from glomerular perfusion studies suggest that the E of glomeruli is between 2 and 4 kPa. F-actin depolymerization by latrunculin, inhibition of acto-myosin contractility by blebbistatin, reduction in ATP synthesis, and reduction of the affinity of adhesion proteins by EDTA reduced the glomerular E to 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901489/membrane-bound-icam-1-contributes-to-the-onset-of-proinvasive-tumor-stroma-by-controlling-acto-myosin-contractility-in-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts
#16
Stephanie Bonan, Jean Albrengues, Eloise Grasset, Sanya-Eduarda Kuzet, Nicolas Nottet, Isabelle Bourget, Thomas Bertero, Bernard Mari, Guerrino Meneguzzi, Cedric Gaggioli
Acto-myosin contractility in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts leads to assembly of the tumor extracellular matrix. The pro-inflammatory cytokine LIF governs fibroblast activation in cancer by regulating the myosin light chain 2 activity. So far, however, how LIF mediates cytoskeleton contractility remains unknown. Using phenotypic screening assays based on knock-down of LIF-dependent genes in fibroblasts, we identified the glycoprotein ICAM-1 as a crucial regulator of stroma fibroblast proinvasive matrix remodeling...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861469/-the-national-medical-arbitration-commission-20-years
#17
Juan Ramón de la Fuente
Cuando la Secretaría de Salud todavía tenía el logotipo azul que decía SSA, corrían tiempos difíciles porque no había dinero y la idea de crear nuevas instituciones era recibida con reservas, no sólo por el Presidente Zedillo, siempre generoso y atento a las necesidades de salud de la población, sino también, como ya es costumbre, por el secretario de Hacienda, responsable de cuidar el erario público. Y es que la idea de hacer crecer el gasto corriente del gobierno se percibía, no sin razón, como un acto que podía infligir el riesgo de fomentar estructuras administrativas ineficaces y obesas...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784612/forces-shaping-the-drosophila-wing
#18
REVIEW
M C Diaz de la Loza, B J Thompson
How genes encode the three-dimensional shape of tissues is a fascinating problem in biology. Pioneering genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila have identified key genes that control the generation of force patterns in the developing wing. Shortrange force patterns generated by planar polarised myosins can promote boundary formation and tissue elongation during the larval wing disc stage. Long-range force patterns are also crucial to shaping the wing during the pupal stage. We review the different ways in which both local and global force patterns can be generated, such as: patterned acto-myosin contractility, patterned anchorage to the extracellular matrix, and patterned tissue growth...
April 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756617/expression-of-profilin-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-identification-of-some-of-its-ligands
#19
Juan Felipe Osorio-Méndez, Andrea Vizcaíno-Castillo, Rebeca Manning-Cela, Roberto Hernández, Ana María Cevallos
The role and regulation of actin in Trypanosoma cruzi and other related parasites is largely unknown. Based on early genome analysis, it was proposed that there was a reduced dependency on the acto-myosin system in the trypanosomatid parasites. However, more recent studies have extended the set of potential actin regulatory proteins, particularly for T. cruzi. One of the identified actin-binding proteins in trypanosomatids is profilin. In other systems, it is capable of simultaneously binding both monomeric actin and several actin-regulatory factors...
November 25, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671484/two-boundary-first-exit-time-of-gauss-markov-processes-for-stochastic-modeling-of-acto-myosin-dynamics
#20
Giuseppe D'Onofrio, Enrica Pirozzi
We consider a stochastic differential equation in a strip, with coefficients suitably chosen to describe the acto-myosin interaction subject to time-varying forces. By simulating trajectories of the stochastic dynamics via an Euler discretization-based algorithm, we fit experimental data and determine the values of involved parameters. The steps of the myosin are represented by the exit events from the strip. Motivated by these results, we propose a specific stochastic model based on the corresponding time-inhomogeneous Gauss-Markov and diffusion process evolving between two absorbing boundaries...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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