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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#1
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
May 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527788/taking-control-structural-and-behavioural-plasticity-in-response-to-game-based-inhibition-training-in-older-adults
#2
Simone Kühn, Robert C Lorenz, Markus Weichenberger, Maxi Becker, Marten Haesner, Julie O'Sullivan, Anika Steinert, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Susanne Brandhorst, Thomas Bremer, Jürgen Gallinat
While previous attempts to train self-control in humans have frequently failed, we set out to train response inhibition using computer-game elements. We trained older adults with newly developed game-based inhibition training on a tablet for two months and compared them to an active and passive control group. Behavioural effects reflected in shorter stop signal response times were observed only in the inhibition-training group. This was accompanied by structural growth of right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) triangularis cortical thickness, a brain region that has been associated with response inhibition...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527746/sugar-restriction-leads-to-increased-ad-libitum-sugar-intake-by-overweight-adolescents-in-an-experimental-test-meal-setting
#3
Gillian A O'Reilly, David S Black, Jimi Huh, Jaimie N Davis, Jennifer Unger, Donna Spruijt-Metz
BACKGROUND: The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. DESIGN: This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-are-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#4
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527203/value-of-different-ultrasound-elastography-techniques-in-patients-with-venous-malformations-prior-to-and-after-sclerotherapy
#5
V I Teusch, A P Piehler, W Uller, R Müller-Wille, L Prantl, C Stroszczynski, W A Wohlgemuth, E M Jung
AIM: Comparison of different ultrasound elastography techniques for detection of changes after sclerotherapy within venous malformations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In patients with venous malformations sonography was executed at exactly the same position prior to and after ethanol-gel sclerotherapy. Both examinations included B-Mode, vascular sonography with Color-Coded Duplex Sonography, and additional sonography with different elastography techniques (strain, qualitative and quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography) with a linear transducer (6-9 MHz)...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525511/factors-affecting-acoustics-and-speech-intelligibility-in-the-operating-room-size-matters
#6
Richard R McNeer, Christopher L Bennett, Danielle Bodzin Horn, Roman Dudaryk
INTRODUCTION: Noise in health care settings has increased since 1960 and represents a significant source of dissatisfaction among staff and patients and risk to patient safety. Operating rooms (ORs) in which effective communication is crucial are particularly noisy. Speech intelligibility is impacted by noise, room architecture, and acoustics. For example, sound reverberation time (RT60) increases with room size, which can negatively impact intelligibility, while room objects are hypothesized to have the opposite effect...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524109/unexpected-infection-spikes-in-a-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination
#7
Robert J Smith, Alexandra B Hogan, Geoffry N Mercer
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is an acute respiratory infection that infects millions of children and infants worldwide. Recent research has shown promise for the development of a vaccine, with a range of vaccine types now in clinical trials or preclinical development. We extend an existing mathematical model with seasonal transmission to include vaccination. We model vaccination both as a continuous process, applying the vaccine during pregnancy, and as a discrete one, using impulsive differential equations, applying pulse vaccination...
May 18, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522966/barratt-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-is-associated-with-higher-gray-matter-concentration-in-the-parietal-occipital-cortex-that-represents-peripheral-visual-field
#8
Jaime S Ide, Hsiang C Tung, Cheng-Ta Yang, Yuan-Chi Tseng, Chiang-Shan R Li
Impulsivity is a personality trait of clinical importance. Extant research focuses on fronto-striatal mechanisms of impulsivity and how executive functions are compromised in impulsive individuals. Imaging studies employing voxel based morphometry highlighted impulsivity-related changes in gray matter concentrations in a wide array of cerebral structures. In particular, whereas prefrontal cortical areas appear to show structural alterations in individuals with a neuropsychiatric condition, the findings are less than consistent in the healthy population...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522165/a-new-legal-treatment-for-psychopaths-perplexities-for-legal-thinkers
#9
REVIEW
Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tapia, Ingrid Obsuth, Rachel Heeds
Public perception, fueled not only by popular and news media but also by expert claims that psychopaths are archetypes of evil: incorrigible, remorseless, cold-blooded criminals, whose crimes manifest in the most extreme levels of violence. But is there empirical evidence that psychopaths truly are what they are portrayed to be? If so, should the law respond, and adjust its treatment of psychopaths in court - permitting psychopathy to be admitted under an insanity defense and/or resulting in mitigation? In this paper, we demonstrate that fundamental questions from the law to science remain unanswered and must be addressed before any alternative treatment of psychopathy can be considered...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521736/clinical-characteristics-of-impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-chinese-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#10
Yu Zhang, An Qi He, Lin Li, Wei Chen, Zhen Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Impulse control and related disorders (ICRDs) are clinically complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the clinical characteristics of ICRDs in Chinese PD patients were rarely reported. We aimed to explore the prevalence and the clinical profile of ICRDs in Chinese patients with PD. METHODS: 142 Chinese PD patients were consecutively enrolled. The symptoms of ICRDs were assessed with the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders. The clinical characteristics of patients with ICRDs and without ICRDs were compared...
May 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521376/-images-of-ageing-in-health-care-magazines-of-the-public-health-system
#11
Ilse Hartmann-Tews, Theresa Hoppe
Objectives Collective images of ageing influence attitudes towards ageing and health- related activities. The aim of this study was to explore images of ageing and old age in magazines published by public health institutions, namely health insurance companies and pharmacies. Design A standardized content analysis was conducted covering age-related articles (n=146) and accompanying photographs (n=218) of public health institutions. The stock of material comprises age-related articles of all magazines published 2012-2013 of 2 public health insurance companies (Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse: "Bleib gesund", Barmer Ersatzkasse: "Gesundheit konkret"), 2 private health insurance companies (Gothaer Versicherung: "Gothaer magazin", Deutsche Krankenversicherung: "DKV impulse") and 2 consumer magazines of pharmacies ("Apothekenumschau","Senioren Ratgeber")...
May 18, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#12
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
April 29, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521112/prevalence-of-externalizing-disorders-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Shannon Lange, Jürgen Rehm, Evdokia Anagnostou, Svetlana Popova
Due to their central nervous system impairments, children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) commonly exhibit externalizing behaviours such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or delinquency. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent externalizing behaviours, namely Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), as well as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among children with FASD...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516401/endovascular-crossing-of-chronic-total-occlusions-using-an-impulse-an-explorative-design-study
#14
Aimée Sakes, Marleen van der Wiel, Dimitra Dodou, Paul Breedveld
In this study we investigated whether exerting an impulse on a Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) improves the success rate of CTO crossing as compared to the currently used method of statically pushing the guidewire against the CTO. A prototype (Ø2 mm) was developed that generates translational momentum using a spring-loaded indenter and converts it to an impulse during impact. Mechanical performance was evaluated by measuring the peak force and momentum for different spring compressions and strike distances in air and blood-mimicking fluid...
May 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516101/early-spontaneous-resolution-of-an-iatrogenic-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection
#15
Mohammad A Zafar, Philip Y K Pang, Glen A Henry, Bulat A Ziganshin, Maryann Tranquilli, John A Elefteriades
Acute aortic dissection is a rare but devastating complication during cardiac catheterization. We present the case of an elderly female who incurred a Stanford Type A/DeBakey Type I acute aortic dissection extending into the arch vessels and descending aorta likely occurring during right coronary artery engagement for angioplasty. The patient was treated successfully by immediately sealing the entrance of the dissection via the placement of a stent and anti-impulse therapy. Follow-up computed tomography scan showed complete resolution of the dissection within one month...
December 2016: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515502/ismp-adverse-drug-reactions-pregabalin-induced-stuttering-nitroglycerine-induced-bradycardia-progressing-to-asystole-minocycline-induced-dress-leading-to-liver-transplantation-and-type-1-diabetes-increased-risk-of-vertebral-fractures-in-women-receiving-thiazide
#16
Michael A Mancano
The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested...
April 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514259/does-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-affect-the-shear-wave-velocity-of-the-thyroid-gland-of-children-without-autoimmune-thyroiditis
#17
Dilek Sağlam, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Cengiz Kara, Gülay Can Yilmaz, Asli Tanrivermiş Sayit
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the thyroid gland with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 2015 and April 2016, 35 T1D patients who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic (mean age, 11.88 ± 4.1 years) and 30 children (mean age, 11.3 ± 3.08 years) in the control group were enrolled in the study...
May 16, 2017: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513344/pathological-narcissism-and-nonsuicidal-self-injury
#18
Sindes Dawood, Hans S Schroder, M Brent Donnellan, Aaron L Pincus
Few studies have examined associations between pathological narcissism and self-harm, but those that do indicate that narcissistic vulnerability (not narcissistic grandiosity) relates to self-harm. The current study extends this literature by investigating how facets of pathological narcissism assessed by the Pathological Narcissism Inventory relate to specific nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors assessed by the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury using statistical models appropriate for non-normally distributed count data...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513280/application-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography-in-imaging-of-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-doms-a-comparative-analysis-with-3t-mri
#19
Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder, Rafael Heiss
CONTEXT: DOMS is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports and is associated with reduced muscle strength and frequently observed both in professional and recreational athletes. OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the diagnostic value of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) in imaging of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness by comparing findings to high-resolution 3T MRI T2 weighted sequences. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Laboratory environment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513195/binge-drinking-health-impact-prevalence-correlates-and-interventions
#20
Emmanuel Kuntsche, Sandra Kuntsche, Johannes Thrul, Gerhard Gmel
OBJECTIVE: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and psychosocial correlates of, and interventions for, binge drinking. DESIGN: Narrative review. RESULTS: Mostly occurring among young people at weekends, binge drinking increases the risk of both acute (e...
May 17, 2017: Psychology & Health
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