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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806637/want-need-and-habit-as-drivers-of-smoking-behaviour-a-preliminary-analysis
#1
Luis Wehbe, Harveen Kaur Ubhi, Robert West
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Models of tobacco smoking behaviour propose that anticipated pleasure or satisfaction, the need to alleviate a nicotine-induced drive state and a stimulus-driven impulse potentially play an important role. This study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of how far urges to smoke are reported by smokers and whether the strength of such urges prior to a quit attempt predicts short-term success at quitting. METHODS: In a prospective study, 566 smokers attending a treatment programme to help smokers quit completed a written questionnaire covering frequency of different types of urge to smoke (automatic impulse - 'automatic urges', anticipated pleasure - 'pleasure urges', and fulfilling a need - 'need urges')...
July 19, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806585/relationship-between-craving-and-plasma-leptin-concentrations-in-patients-with-cocaine-addiction
#2
Giovanni Martinotti, Chiara Montemitro, Gaia Baroni, Sara Andreoli, Flaminia Alimonti, Marco Di Nicola, Federico Tonioni, Lorenzo Leggio, Massimo di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
BACKGROUND: There is robust evidence indicating an overlap between neurobiological circuitry and pathways that regulate addictions and those that regulate appetite and food intake. Rodent work suggests a role of the appetitive peptide leptin in cocaine-seeking behaviours. The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use in patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. METHODS: Patients (N=43) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of cocaine dependence were studied before starting detoxification (baseline; T0) and then again 14days after (T1; only those patients who abstained from cocaine during the study)...
August 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#3
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#4
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805173/latent-traits-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-toward-dimensional-psychiatry
#5
S R Chamberlain, J Stochl, S A Redden, J E Grant
BACKGROUND: The concepts of impulsivity and compulsivity are commonly used in psychiatry. Little is known about whether different manifest measures of impulsivity and compulsivity (behavior, personality, and cognition) map onto underlying latent traits; and if so, their inter-relationship. METHODS: A total of 576 adults were recruited using media advertisements. Psychopathological, personality, and cognitive measures of impulsivity and compulsivity were completed...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804465/personality-traits-related-to-binge-drinking-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Ana Adan, Diego A Forero, José Francisco Navarro
The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD) or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803592/brain-alterations-potentially-associated-with-aggression-and-terrorism
#7
Bernhard Bogerts, Maria Schöne, Stephanie Breitschuh
A large proportion of the persons who join terrorist groups as well as lone-acting terrorists have a history of violent behavior or mental disorder that predated their becoming terrorists. This suggests that brain alterations found to occur in violent perpetrators may also be present in a significant percentage of terrorists. After a short delineation of phylogenetically old neuronal networks that are important for the generation of aggressive behavior in inconspicuous brains, this review summarizes structural and functional brain-imaging studies in violent offenders published over the last 10 years...
August 14, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800494/a-time-domain-model-and-experimental-validation-of-the-acoustic-field-radiated-by-air-coupled-transducers
#9
Ji Li, Bogdan Piwakowski
This paper presents a time-domain model for the prediction of an acoustic field in an air-coupled, non-contact, ultrasonic setup, which includes an air-coupled Emitter, the Propagation space and an air-coupled Receiver (EPR). The model takes into account the finite size of the aperture receiver, attenuation in air, and the electric response of the emitter-receiver set he. The attenuation is characterized by a causal time-domain Green's function, allowing the wideband attenuation of a lossy medium obeying the power law α(ω)=α0ω(η),1⩽η⩽2 to be included...
August 1, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800355/work-related-stress-and-role-of-personality-in-a-sample-of-italian-bus-drivers
#10
Margherita Bergomi, Alberto Modenese, Enrica Ferretti, Angela Ferrari, Giuseppe Licitra, Roberto Vivoli, Fabriziomaria Gobba, Gabriella Aggazzotti
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. OBJECTIVE: Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. METHODS: Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800269/the-connections-among-suicidal-behavior-lipid-profile-and-low-grade-inflammation-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-specific-relationship-with-the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio
#11
Okan Ekinci, Asli Ekinci
OBJECTIVES: The role of inflammation and lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior has received particular attention in recent years. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been suggested as a new and more reliable indicator of low-grade inflammation. NLR has been found to be altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) and has been related to various factors, including chronic stress and impulsivity that were previously reported to be related to suicidal behavior...
August 11, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800192/efficacy-and-safety-of-driver-guided-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
F Daniel Ramirez, David H Birnie, Girish M Nair, Agnieszka Szczotka, Calum J Redpath, Mouhannad M Sadek, Pablo B Nery
INTRODUCTION: Targeting localized drivers (electrical rotors or focal impulses) during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been proposed as a strategy to improve procedural success. However, the strength and quality of the evidence to support this approach is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical studies reporting efficacy or safety outcomes of driver-guided ablation for AF were identified in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed, and conference abstracts from major scientific meetings...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799846/interpersonal-sensitivity-as-a-mediator-between-cumulative-childhood-traumatic-events-and-adult-sexual-disturbance
#13
Sandy Krammer, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Andrea Burri, Michael Soyka, Alex Gamma, Michael Liebrenz
Previous research has shown that cumulative childhood traumatic events are stronger predictors of sexual disturbances than childhood sexual abuse. Additional factors are likely to influence this relationship. Whereas socio-interpersonal factors such as interpersonal sensitivity have repeatedly been shown to be salutogenic in the aftermath of traumatic events, the specific underlying mechanisms are little understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cumulative childhood traumatic events and adult sexual disturbances (i...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797564/impact-of-anxiety-apathy-and-reduced-functional-autonomy-on-perceived-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Alfonsina D'Iorio, Carmine Vitale, Fausta Piscopo, Chiara Baiano, Anna Paola Falanga, Katia Longo, Marianna Amboni, Paolo Barone, Gabriella Santangelo
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that may impact negatively on the activities of the patient's daily life and reduce Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study explored the impact of specific non-motor symptoms on the HRQoL in PD. METHODS: Eighty-four outpatients underwent the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) assessing global functioning and several questionnaires to assess depression, apathy, impulse control disorders (ICD), anxiety, anhedonia and functional impact of cognitive impairment...
August 5, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796535/delay-discounting-and-probability-discounting-but-not-response-inhibition-are-associated-with-sexual-risk-taking-in-adults
#15
Steven R Lawyer, Colin T Mahoney
Sexual risk behavior (SRB) is associated with impulsivity, but it is not clear whether different aspects of impulsivity are uniquely related to SRBs in adults. Unmarried adults ages 18 to 30 (N = 296; 41.0% male) recruited from the community reported their frequency of SRBs over the past six months using the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS; Turchik & Garske, 2009) and completed three behavioral measures of impulsivity: insensitivity to delayed consequences (delay discounting [DD]), insensitivity to probabilistic consequences (probability discounting [PD]) and response inhibition (stop signal task [SST])...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796410/steatosis-severity-affects-the-diagnostic-performances-of-noninvasive-fibrosis-tests-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Sae Kyung Joo, Won Kim, Donghee Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Sohee Oh, Kook Lae Lee, Mee Soo Chang, Yong Jin Jung, Young Ho So, Myoung Seok Lee, Jeong Mo Bae, Byeong Gwan Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a wide spectrum of heterogeneous metabolic subtypes. This study compared the diagnostic performances of noninvasive fibrosis tests in predicting advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and examined the effects of the subgroup on their diagnostic performances. METHODS: Three hundred fifteen patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were prospectively enrolled. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) was performed to obtain liver stiffness measurements (LSMs)...
August 10, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796107/the-effect-of-functional-mandibular-shift-on-the-muscle-spindle-systems-in-head-neck-muscles-and-the-related-neurotransmitter-histamine
#17
Bing-Li Du, Jiang-Ning Li, Hong-Ming Guo, Song Li, Biao Liu
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of abnormal occlusion and functional recovery caused by functional mandible deviation on the head and neck muscles and muscle spindle sensory-motor system by electrophysiological response and endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters' distribution in the nucleus of the spinal tract. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: normal control group, 2W experimental control group, 2W functional mandible deviation group, 2W functional mandible deviation recovery group, 4W experimental control group, 4W functional mandible deviation group, 4W functional mandible deviation recovery group...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795437/bioinspired-energy-conversion-in-nanofluidics-a-paradigm-of-material-evolution
#18
REVIEW
Yaping Feng, Weiwei Zhu, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
Well-developed structure-function relationships in living systems have become inspirations for the design and application of innovative materials. Building artificial nanofluidic systems for energy conversion undergoes three essential steps of structural and functional development with the uptake of separate biological inspirations. This research field started from the mimicking of the bioelectric function of electric eels, wherein a transmembrane ion concentration gradient is converted into ultrastrong electrical impulses via membrane-protein-regulated ion transport...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794688/aberrantly-methylated-differentially-expressed-genes-and-pathways-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Jingwei Liu, Hao Li, Liping Sun, Zhenning Wang, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Methylation plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to identify aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways in CRC by comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: Data of gene expression microarrays (GSE68468, GSE44076) and gene methylation microarrays (GSE29490, GSE17648) were downloaded from GEO database. Aberrantly methylated-DEGs were obtained by GEO2R. Functional and enrichment analyses of selected genes were performed using DAVID database...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793864/in-vitro-examination-of-the-positive-inotropic-effect-of-caffeine-and-taurine-the-two-most-frequent-active-ingredients-of-energy-drinks
#20
R Chaban, A Kornberger, N Branski, K Buschmann, N Stumpf, A Beiras-Fernandez, C F Vahl
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to evaluate changes in the contractile behavior of human myocardium after exposure to caffeine and taurine, the main active ingredients of energy drinks (EDs), and to evaluate whether taurine exhibits any inotropic effect at all in the dosages commonly used in EDs. METHODS: Myocardial tissue was removed from the right atrial appendages of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and prepared to obtain specimens measuring 4 mm in length. A total of 92 specimens were exposed to electrical impulses at a frequency of 75 bpm for at least 40 min to elicit their maximum contractile force before measuring the isometric contractile force (ICF) and duration of contraction (CD)...
August 10, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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