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Óscar M Lozano, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Antonio J Rojas, Angelina Pilatti, Fermín Fernández-Calderón
The UPPS Impulsive Behaviour Scale (with five dimensions of impulsive behaviour) is being widely used. One of the handicaps of this instrument is its relatively long administration time. This has led to the development of a short version: SUPPS-P. There are no studies comparing the relationship between the SUPPS-P scores and the original UPPS-P scores. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to analyse the psychometric properties, concordance of person measures, and efficiency of the SUPPS-P compared to those on UPPS-P, applying an Item Response Theory Model...
2018: PloS One
Brandon P Vasquez, Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Bhanu Sharma, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: Executive control deficits are deleterious and enduring consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that disrupt everyday functioning. Clinically, such impairments can manifest as behavioural inconsistency, measurable experimentally by the degree of variability across trials of a reaction time (RT) task (also known as intraindividual variability [IIV]). Growing research on cognition after TBI points to cognitive deterioration in the chronic stages postinjury...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Inti A Brazil, Christoph D Mathys, Arne Popma, Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers, Moran D Cohn
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy has repeatedly been linked to disturbed associative learning from aversive events (i.e., threat conditioning). Optimal threat conditioning requires the generation of internal representations of stimulus-outcome contingencies and the rate with which these may change. Because mental representations are imperfect, there will always be uncertainty about the accuracy of representations in the brain (i.e., representational uncertainty). However, it remains unclear 1) to what extent threat conditioning is susceptible to different types of uncertainty in representations about contingencies during the acquisition phase and 2) how representational uncertainty relates to psychopathic features...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Beatrice Heim, Marie-Theres Pertl, Ambra Stefani, Anna Heidbreder, Laura Zamarian, Elisabeth Brandauer, Bruno Averbeck, Margarete Delazer, Klaus Seppi, Birgit Högl, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian
Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate perceptual decision-making and reflection impulsivity in drug naïve patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and patients with dopaminergic therapy. Methods: A total of 35 RLS patients (20 who were drug naïve regarding dopaminergic medication and 15 patients treated with dopaminergic therapy without augmentation or impulse control disorders) were included in this study. We used the Beads task and the Pixel task which assess reflection impulsivity and perceptual decision-making, respectively...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Daniele Di Lernia, Silvia Serino, Giovanni Pezzulo, Elisa Pedroli, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva
The nature of time is rooted in our body. Constellations of impulses arising from the flesh constantly create our interoceptive perception and, in turn, the unfolding of these perceptions defines human awareness of time. This study explored the connection between time perception and interoception and proposes the Interoceptive Buffer saturation (IBs) index. IBs evaluates subjects' ability to process salient stimuli from the body by measuring subjective distortions of interoceptive time perception, i.e., the estimated duration of tactile interoceptive stimulations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Harleen K Sandhu, Kristofer M Charlton-Ouw, Katherine Jeffress, Samuel Leake, Alexa Perlick, Charles C Miller, Ali Azizzadeh, Hazim J Safi, Anthony L Estrera
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with acute aortic dissection may develop spinal cord ischemia (SCI). We sought to determine how SCI and its recovery affects outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed patients with SCI in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) and acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) from September 1999-May 2014. SCI was defined as paraplegia or paraparesis present on admission. Monoparesis/plegia, paraesthesia, or numbness was defined as ischemic neuropathy (IN)...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Kevin M Carroll, John P Wagle, Kimitake Sato, Christopher B Taber, Nobuhisa Yoshida, Garett E Bingham, Michael H Stone
The purposes of this investigation were to: (1) assess kinetic characteristics of overload, (2) examine eccentric and concentric muscle activations and (3) explore velocity measurement as a method of intensity prescription in inertial flywheel squat training. A series of two experiments were performed: one assessing kinetic and muscle activation characteristics of flywheel squat training using three progressive inertial loads. The second experiment assessed inertial load-velocity relationships using six progressive inertial loads...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Scott R Ellis, David P Hoffman, Myeongkee Park, Richard A Mathies
The time resolved femtosecond stimulated Raman spectra (FSRS) of a charge transfer (CT) excited non-covalent dimer 1-choronapthalene:tetracyanoethylene (ClN:TCNE) in dichloromethane (DCM) is reported with 40 fs time resolution. In the frequency domain, five FSRS peaks are observed with frequencies of 534, 858, 1064, 1392 and 1926 cm-1. The most intense peaks at 534 and 1392 cm-1 correspond to fundamentals while the features at 858, 1069 and 1926 cm-1 are attributed to a difference frequency, an overtone and a combination frequency of the fundamentals, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Maria Jose Catalan, Jose Antonio Molina-Arjona, Pablo Mir, Esther Cubo, Jose Matias Arbelo, Pablo Martinez-Martin
Impulse control behaviors are a frequent comorbidity for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) therapy on impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with advanced PD. We conducted a multicenter, observational, and prospective (6 months follow-up) study that included consecutive PD patients assigned to LCIG through routine medical practice. Patients completed visits at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy procedure...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Tora Bonnevie, Kareem A Zaghloul
How do we decide what we do? This is the essence of action control, the process of selecting the most appropriate response among multiple possible choices. Suboptimal action control can involve a failure to initiate or adapt actions, or conversely it can involve making actions impulsively. There has been an increasing focus on the specific role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in action control. This has been fueled by the clinical relevance of this basal ganglia nucleus as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS), primarily in Parkinson's disease but also in obsessive-compulsive disorder...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Alex M T Russell, Nerilee Hing, En Li, Peter Vitartas
Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Tanja Čugura, Jakob Boh, Tomaž Zupanc, Peter Pregelj, Alja Videtič Paska
Dysregulations in serotonin neurotransmission can be a strong contributing factor in suicide and impulsive-aggressive personality traits. Victims of suicide form a heterogeneous group in terms of planning, lethality and number of used methods. In this study, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B genes on the Slovenian population, which has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Genotyping was performed on 77 victims of complex suicide, 406 victims of simple suicide and 289 controls...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Chun Wai Yip, Michael Strupp
The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is believed to quantitate the handicap related to the presence or severity of underlying vestibular dysfunction. However, patients with chronic vestibular diseases may manifest various degrees of behavioural and physiological adaptation resulting in variances of the DHI. Our primary study objective is to evaluate the correlation between the DHI and measurable vestibular parameters. Secondarily, we compared DHI among different vestibular disorders (central, peripheral and functional), and different types of anatomic deficits (semicircular canal vs otolithic)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Yin Yuan, Xiu-Yue Xu, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
Nerve transfer is the most common treatment for total brachial plexus avulsion injury. After nerve transfer, the movement of the injured limb may be activated by certain movements of the healthy limb at the early stage of recovery, i.e., trans-hemispheric reorganization. Previous studies have focused on functional magnetic resonance imaging and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and growth associated protein 43, but there have been no proteomics studies. In this study, we designed a rat model of total brachial plexus avulsion injury involving contralateral C7 nerve transfer...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Angela K Stevens, Brittany E Blanchard, Andrew K Littlefield
Background: Relations between impulsigenic traits and alcohol-related outcomes have been the focus of much research, yet precise relations remain elusive. Historically, research used broadband conceptualizations of impulsivity, which yielded inconclusive findings. Attempts to ameliorate this problem led to more work on narrowband assessments of impulsivity. Despite that several narrowband self-report measures exist, few demonstrate adequate psychometric properties. Given the limits of self-report, researchers have also utilized laboratory-based measures of impulsive dispositions; however, this seems to have contributed more uncertainty to the literature...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Stephen P Becker, Matthew A Jarrett, Aaron M Luebbe, Annie A Garner, G Leonard Burns, Michael J Kofler
OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. METHODS: 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Yu-Ichi Noto, Neil G Simon, Alexis Selby, Nidhi Garg, Kazumoto Shibuya, Nortina Shahrizaila, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate differences in the distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations between peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to explore the generator site of fasciculations. METHODS: Ultrasound of 14 preselected muscles was performed in patients with peripheral hyperexcitability and ALS. The distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations were calculated. Cortical excitability assessment was also done by threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Akira Yoshida, Jong-Kook Lee, Satoki Tomoyama, Keiko Miwa, Keiichi Shirakawa, Sanae Hamanaka, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Issei Komuro, Yasushi Sakata
Aims: The aim of the present study is to develop in vitro experimental analytical method for the electrophysiological properties of allogeneic induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) in cardiac conduction defect model. Methods and results: Cardiomyocytes were derived from rat induced pluripotent stem cells CMs (riPSC-CMs) using an embryoid body-based differentiation method with the serial application of growth factors including activin-A, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), and inhibitor of wnt production 2 (IWP-2)...
March 15, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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