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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913886/what-s-parenting-got-to-do-with-it-emotional-autonomy-and-brain-and-behavioral-responses-to-emotional-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Hilary A Marusak, Moriah E Thomason, Kelsey Sala-Hamrick, Laura Crespo, Christine A Rabinak
Healthy parenting may be protective against the development of emotional psychopathology, particularly for children reared in stressful environments. Little is known, however, about the brain and behavioral mechanisms underlying this association, particularly during childhood and adolescence, when emotional disorders frequently emerge. Here, we demonstrate that psychological control, a parenting strategy known to limit socioemotional development in children, is associated with altered brain and behavioral responses to emotional conflict in 27 at-risk (urban, lower income) youth, ages 9-16...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913595/health-professionals-make-their-choice-pharmaceutical-industry-leaders-understandings-of-conflict-of-interest
#2
Quinn Grundy, Lisa Tierney, Christopher Mayes, Wendy Lipworth
Conflicts of interest, stemming from relationships between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry, remain a highly divisive and inflammatory issue in healthcare. Given that most jurisdictions rely on industry to self-regulate with respect to its interactions with health professionals, it is surprising that little research has explored industry leaders' understandings of conflicts of interest. Drawing from in-depth interviews with ten pharmaceutical industry leaders based in Australia, we explore the normalized and structural management of conflicts of interest within pharmaceutical companies...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905154/affordable-self-regulating-irrigation-device-for-microsurgery-using-readily-available-malleable-wire-and-a-silastic-tube-a-technical-note
#3
Yeongu Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Jiwook Ryu, Jun Ho Lee, Seok Keun Choi
BACKGROUND: A relevant irrigating and flushing maneuver during cerebral microsurgical procedures allows for a neat and optimal operative field. However, when operating on the deep region of the brain, a delicately created slim surgical corridor could unintentionally hinder the assisting surgeon from properly performing this routine maneuver. METHOD: To address this problem, the authors devised a useful and convenient irrigation system that can be used during cerebral microsurgery...
September 13, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904648/metacognition-modules-a-scaffolded-series-of-online-assignments-designed-to-improve-students-study-skills
#4
Jean A Cardinale, Bethany C Johnson
Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students' lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students' inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903694/attachment-and-self-regulation
#5
Edward Orehek, Anna Vazeou-Nieuwenhuis, Ellen Quick, G Casey Weaverling
Close relationships and self-regulation are inextricably intertwined, yet many of the details regarding how interpersonal processes influence self-regulation are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of this link, we investigated the association between attachment styles and self-regulatory mode orientations. According to regulatory mode theory, locomotors are concerned with initiating goal-directed movement, whereas assessors are concerned with appraising potential means and goals. We predicted that the presence of an attachment figure with whom one has an anxious attachment would be associated with higher assessment tendencies...
March 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902526/driving-performance-after-self-regulated-control-transitions-in-highly-automated-vehicles
#6
Alexander Eriksson, Neville A Stanton
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore whether driver-paced, noncritical transitions of control may counteract some of the aftereffects observed in the contemporary literature, resulting in higher levels of vehicle control. BACKGROUND: Research into control transitions in highly automated driving has focused on urgent scenarios where drivers are given a relatively short time span to respond to a request to resume manual control, resulting in seemingly scrambled control when manual control is resumed...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901918/enhancing-the-relationship-between-regulators-and-their-profession
#7
Zubin Austin
Regulators face unique pressures to balance competing priorities related to patient safety, public accountability, and practitioners' expectations. Historically, the collegial model of self-regulation has been used as a tool for risk management, to recognize the importance of profession- and context-specific judgment in complex, ambiguous clinical situations. Increasingly, as public accountability concerns have grown dominant within regulatory bodies, this collegial model has shifted toward a more antagonistic relationship between the regulators and the regulated...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900546/short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-an-exercise-based-patient-education-programme-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-pilot-study
#8
Christina Lutz, Stephanie Kersten, Christian T Haas
Background. Although people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) benefit from physical exercise, they still show reduced physical activity and exercise behaviour. This study aimed to investigate short- and long-term effects of an exercise-based patient education programme (ePEP) that focuses on empowering pwMS to a sustainable and self-regulated exercise training management. Methods. Fourteen pwMS were randomly assigned to immediate experimental group (EG-I: n = 8) and waitlist-control group (EG-W: n = 6) and attended biweekly in a six-week ePEP...
2017: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895129/the-role-of-sustained-attention-maternal-sensitivity-and-infant-temperament-in-the-development-of-early-self-regulation
#9
Matilda A Frick, Tommie Forslund, Mari Fransson, Maria Johansson, Gunilla Bohlin, Karin C Brocki
This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10 months (n = 124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18 months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895016/the-association-between-previous-success-with-weight-loss-through-dietary-change-and-success-in-a-lifestyle-modification-program
#10
Stephanie G Kerrigan, Margaret Clark, Alexandra Convertino, Evan M Forman, Meghan L Butryn
Prior work has yielded mixed results regarding the association between previous weight loss and success in a current weight loss attempt. The present study evaluated differences in baseline psychosocial processes, changes in these over time, and weight loss during a yearlong behavioral weight loss program between individuals who have and have not previously been successful losing weight through self-regulating dietary intake. Individuals with prior success had greater weight losses over time than those without...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894023/cytokinin-auxin-crosstalk-in-the-gynoecial-primordium-ensures-correct-domain-patterning
#11
Christina Joy Müller, Emma Larsson, Lukáš Spíchal, Eva Sundberg
The Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium consists of two congenitally fused carpels made up of two lateral valve domains and two medial domains, which retain meristematic properties and later fuse to produce the female reproductive structures vital for fertilization. Polar auxin transport (PAT) is important for setting up distinct apical auxin signaling domains in the early floral meristem remnants allowing for lateral domain identity and outgrowth. Crosstalk between auxin and cytokinin plays important roles in the development of other meristematic tissues, however hormone interaction studies to date have focused on more accessible later-stage gynoecia and the spatiotemporal interactions pivotal for patterning of early gynoecium primordia remain unknown...
September 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893283/perceived-fussy-eating-in-australian-children-at-14%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-subsequent-use-of-maternal-feeding-practices-at-2%C3%A2-years
#12
Rebecca Byrne, Elena Jansen, Lynne Daniels
BACKGROUND: Concerns about fussy eating are common amongst parents of young children. However, studies of the long-term impact of fussy eating show mixed results with regard to adequacy of dietary intake and child growth. This may be in part because there is no accepted definition of fussy eating and studies measure the construct in different ways, commonly relying on parent perception. This longitudinal analysis explores maternal and child characteristics associated with maternal perception of her toddler as a fussy eater in early toddlerhood and subsequent use of feeding practices at 2 years...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891391/characteristics-of-female-solo-and-female-co-offenders-and-male-solo-sexual-offenders-against-children
#13
Rebecca Williams, Steven M Gillespie, Ian A Elliott, Hilary J Eldridge
Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886697/correlates-of-alcohol-consumption-among-germans-in-the-second-half-of-life-results-of-a-population-based-observational-study
#14
André Hajek, Jens-Oliver Bock, Siegfried Weyerer, Hans-Helmut König
BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the predictors of alcohol consumption behavior among adolescents and young adults. However, the body of evidence about the relationship between in particular psychological factors and alcohol consumption among individuals in the second half of life is still limited. Hence, we aimed at identifying factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals aged 40 and above, especially focusing on psychological correlates. METHODS: Data were derived from a population-based sample of community-dwelling individuals aged 40 to 95 years (n = 7820) in Germany...
September 8, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886563/prenatal-anxiety-effects-a-review
#15
Tiffany Field
This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension...
September 5, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884968/boys-have-not-caught-up-family-influences-still-continue-influences-on-executive-functioning-and-behavioral-self-regulation-in-elementary-students-in-germany
#16
Catherine Gunzenhauser, Henrik Saalbach, Antje von Suchodoletz
The development of self-regulation is influenced by various child-level and family-level characteristics. Previous research focusing on the preschool period reported a female advantage in self-regulation and negative effects of various adverse features of the family environment on self-regulation. The present study aimed to investigate growth in self-regulation (i.e., executive functioning and behavioral self-regulation) over 1 school year during early elementary school and to explore the influences of child sex, the level of home chaos, and family educational resources on self-regulation...
September 8, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884450/illness-representations-of-pertussis-and-predictors-of-child-vaccination-among-mothers-in-a-strict-vaccination-exemption-state
#17
Rahul Garg, Abdulkarim Meraya, Pamela J Murray, Kimberly Kelly
Background Vaccine preventable diseases are making a comeback in the US. However, research is lacking on illness representations of vaccine preventable diseases and their application in improving childhood immunization. Objective We utilized the common sense model of self-regulation to examine illness representations of pertussis and their associations with child's receipt of any vaccine, up-to-date vaccination status, and mothers' intentions to follow the recommended vaccination schedule in the future. Methods We developed vaccine worry and vaccine hassles scales to assess mothers' worries and hassles for child vaccination, and used an open ended question to assess mother's illness representations of pertussis...
September 7, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883497/spatiotemporal-brain-dynamics-supporting-the-immediate-automatization-of-inhibitory-control-by-implementation-intentions
#18
Michael De Pretto, Lucien Rochat, Lucas Spierer
While cognitive interventions aiming at reinforcing intentional executive control of unwanted response showed only modest effects on impulse control disorders, the establishment of fast automatic, stimulus-driven inhibition of responses to specific events with implementation intention self-regulation strategies has proven to be an effective remediation approach. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying implementation intentions remain largely unresolved. We addressed this question by comparing electrical neuroimaging analyses of event-related potentials recorded during a Go/NoGo task between groups of healthy participants receiving either standard or implementation intentions instructions on the inhibition stimuli...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882487/modeling-drug-release-through-stimuli-responsive-polymer-hydrogels
#19
Aditya Pareek, Shantanu Maheshwari, Sivakumar Cherlo, Rama Subba Reddy Thavva, Venkataramana Runakana
There is a rising interest in stimuli-responsive hydrogels to achieve controlled and self-regulated drug delivery. Stimuli responsive polymer hydrogels with their ability to swell/de-swell under varying pH conditions present themselves as a potential candidate for controlled drug delivery. It is important to develop a mechanistic understanding of the underlying phenomena that will help suggest ways to control the drug release from a polymer hydrogel. We present a mathematical model that couples Nernst-Planck, Poisson and force balance equations to incorporate diffusion of ionic species and drug along with deformation of hydrogel under osmotic pressure...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882275/using-shrp-2-naturalistic-driving-data-to-assess-drivers-speed-choice-while-being-engaged-in-different-secondary-tasks
#20
Tina Schneidereit, Tibor Petzoldt, Andreas Keinath, Josef F Krems
INTRODUCTION: The engagement in secondary tasks while driving has been found to result in considerable impairments of driving performance. Texting has especially been suspected to be associated with an increased crash risk. At the same time, there is evidence that drivers use various self-regulating strategies to compensate for the increased demands caused by secondary task engagement. One of the findings reported from multiple studies is a reduction in driving speed. However, most of these studies are of experimental nature and do not let the drivers decide for themselves to (not) engage in the secondary task, and therefore, eliminate other strategies of self-regulation (e...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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