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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444759/dysregulated-cd46-shedding-interferes-with-th1-contraction-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#1
Ursula Ellinghaus, Andrea Cortini, Christopher L Pinder, Gaelle Le Friec, Claudia Kemper, Timothy J Vyse
IFN-γ-producing T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses mediate protection against infections but uncontrolled Th1 activity also contributes to a broad range of autoimmune diseases. Autocrine complement activation has recently emerged as key in the induction and contraction of human Th1 immunity: Activation of the complement regulator CD46 and the C3aR expressed by CD4(+) T cells via autocrine generated ligands C3b and C3a, respectively, are critical to IFN-γ production. Further, CD46-mediated signals also induce co-expression of immunosuppressive IL-10 in Th1 cells and transition into a (self)-regulating and contracting phase...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443636/rich-complex-behaviour-of-self-assembled-nanoparticles-far-from-equilibrium
#2
Serim Ilday, Ghaith Makey, Gursoy B Akguc, Özgün Yavuz, Onur Tokel, Ihor Pavlov, Oguz Gülseren, F Ömer Ilday
A profoundly fundamental question at the interface between physics and biology remains open: what are the minimum requirements for emergence of complex behaviour from nonliving systems? Here, we address this question and report complex behaviour of tens to thousands of colloidal nanoparticles in a system designed to be as plain as possible: the system is driven far from equilibrium by ultrafast laser pulses that create spatiotemporal temperature gradients, inducing Marangoni flow that drags particles towards aggregation; strong Brownian motion, used as source of fluctuations, opposes aggregation...
April 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439211/examining-the-relations-between-self-regulation-and-achievement-in-third-grade-students
#3
Stephanie L Day, Carol M Connor
Children with stronger self-regulation skills generally demonstrate greater overall success in school both academically and socially. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of self-regulation in middle elementary school. Such a measure could help identify whether a child is truly having difficulties. Thus, the Remembering Rules and Regulation Picture Task (RRRP) was developed. The aim of this study was to develop scoring systems for the RRRP and then to examine the associations between RRRP and independent measures of self-regulation and academic achievement in mathematics and reading...
March 2017: Assessment for Effective Intervention: Official Journal of the Council for Educational Diagnostic Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437126/how-winning-changes-motivation-in-multiphase-competitions
#4
Szu-Chi Huang, Jordan Etkin, Liyin Jin
What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436236/put-two-and-two-together-to-make-the-most-of-physical-activity-and-healthy-nutrition-a-longitudinal-online-study-examining-cross-behavioural-mechanisms-in-multiple-health-behaviour-change
#5
Juliane Paech, Sonia Lippke
Recommendations for physical activity and for fruit and vegetable intake are often not translated into action due to deficits in self-regulatory strategies. The present study examines the interplay of intention, intergoal facilitation, action and coping planning and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity and healthy nutrition. In an online study, intentions and behaviours were assessed at baseline, intergoal facilitation and planning at 4-week follow-up, self-regulation, physical activity and nutrition at 6-month follow-up in a non-clinical sample...
April 23, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435162/self-regulation-and-household-routines-at-age-three-and-obesity-at-age-eleven-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-uk-millennium-cohort-study
#6
S E Anderson, A Sacker, R C Whitaker, Y Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To examine, in a population-based cohort of three-year-old children, the association between self-regulation and exposure to the household routines of regular bedtime, regular mealtime, and limits on watching television/video; and to determine whether self-regulation and these routines predict the risk of obesity at age 11. METHODS: Analyses included 10 955 children in the nationally-representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. When children were age 3, parents reported whether children had a regular bedtime and mealtime and the amount of television/video watched...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434131/knowing-how-and-knowing-why-testing-the-effect-of-instruction-designed-for-cognitive-integration-on-procedural-skills-transfer
#7
Jeffrey J H Cheung, Kulamakan M Kulasegaram, Nicole N Woods, Carol-Anne Moulton, Charlotte V Ringsted, Ryan Brydges
Transfer is a desired outcome of simulation-based training, yet evidence for how instructional design features promote transfer is lacking. In clinical reasoning, transfer is improved when trainees experience instruction integrating basic science explanations with clinical signs and symptoms. To test whether integrated instruction has similar effects in procedural skills (i.e., psychomotor skills) training, we studied the impact of instruction that integrates conceptual (why) and procedural (how) knowledge on the retention and transfer of simulation-based lumbar puncture (LP) skill...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434108/emotional-eating-binge-eating-and-animal-models-of-binge-type-eating-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Robert Turton, Rayane Chami, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders...
April 22, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431547/the-effectiveness-of-asking-behaviors-among-9-11-year-old-children-in-increasing-home-availability-and-children-s-intake-of-fruit-and-vegetables-results-from-the-squire-s-quest-ii-self-regulation-game-intervention
#9
Ann DeSmet, Yan Liu, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Tom Baranowski, Debbe Thompson
BACKGROUND: Home environment has an important influence on children's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption, but children may in turn also impact their home FV environment, e.g. by asking for FV. The Squire's Quest II serious game intervention aimed to increase asking behaviors to improve home FV availability and children's FV intake. This study's aims were to assess: 1) did asking behaviors at baseline predict home FV availability at baseline (T0) (RQ1); 2) were asking behaviors and home FV availability influenced by the intervention (RQ2); 3) did increases in asking behaviors predict increased home FV availability (RQ3); and 4) did increases in asking behaviors and increases in home FV availability mediate increases in FV intake among children (RQ4)? METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a study using a randomized controlled trial, with 4 groups (each n = 100 child-parent dyads)...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#10
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428392/ecosystem-management-as-a-wicked-problem
#11
REVIEW
Ruth DeFries, Harini Nagendra
Ecosystems are self-regulating systems that provide societies with food, water, timber, and other resources. As demands for resources increase, management decisions are replacing self-regulating properties. Counter to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate sustainable yields of single species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all consequences of interventions across different spatial, temporal, and administrative scales...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428251/loopomics-a-new-functional-approach-to-life
#12
Bruno Burlando
Living beings maintain steady state despite a complex of processes occurring at various scales, from molecules to organisms. Such a property, called homeostasis, has been known since long, but a full explanation of it is still missing. I propose to view biological systems as a complex of Functional Agents (FA), such as biomolecules, cells or organs, where each FA is controlled upstream by at least one FA, and controls downstream at least one FA. By applying this scheme to each FA, and given a finite number of them, a closed network is obtained, where every FA is involved in at least one loop...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428078/kinetic-reconstruction-reveals-time-dependent-effects-of-romosozumab-on-bone-formation-and-osteoblast-function-in-vertebral-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#13
Rogely Waite Boyce, Qing-Tian Niu, Michael S Ominsky
Romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal sclerostin antibody under development for the treatment of osteoporosis, has a unique mechanism of action on bone-increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. The effects on bone formation are transient, eliciting a rapid increase in bone formation that attenuates with continued treatment. Although bone formation attenuates, bone mineral density (BMD) continues to increase. To explore potential tissue-level mechanisms that could contribute to a progressive increase in spine BMD, we used kinetic reconstruction techniques to examine the effects of romosozumab on modeling and remodeling units in vertebral cancellous bone from adult cynomolgus monkeys administered romosozumab for 10 and 28weeks...
April 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426365/moderators-of-the-effects-of-alcohol-protective-behavioral-strategies-three-attempts-of-replication-and-extension
#14
Matthew R Pearson, Mark A Prince, Adrian J Bravo
BACKGROUND: Protective behavioral strategies (PBS) can be used to reduce alcohol-related harm when drinking. Despite much research demonstrating that use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) is associated with decreased alcohol use/problems, few studies have examined moderators of these associations. Moderation tests are important as they define the boundary conditions of the protective effects of PBS use (i.e., identify for whom and in what context PBS use reduces harm). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to replicate and extend the findings from three published studies that have examined putative moderators of PBS-alcohol associations: self-regulation, negative urgency, and drinking refusal self-efficacy...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426360/pharmaceutical-cognitive-enhancement-in-greek-university-students-differences-between-users-and-non-users-in-social-cognitive-variables-burnout-and-engagement
#15
Lambros Lazuras, Antonia Ypsilanti, Efthymios Lamprou, Christos Kontogiorgis
Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425883/transition-from-secondary-school-to-medical-school-the-role-of-self-study-and-self-regulated-learning-skills-in-freshman-burnout
#16
Joselina Barbosa, Álvaro Silva, Maria Amélia Ferreira, Milton Severo
INTRODUCTION: The transition from secondary to higher education is a challenging and demanding period for medical students. The ability to manage study time effectively and to be a self-regulated learner is essential to cope with the exponential growth of knowledge in medical education. Thus, the purpose of our study was to measure self-regulated learning skills and self-study across secondary higher education transition and to explore its effect on academic burnout in the first year of medical school...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422053/erratum-wong-l-p-et-al-the-self-regulation-model-of-illness-comparison-between-zika-and-dengue-and-its-application-to-predict-mosquito-prevention-behaviours-in-malaysia-a-dengue-endemic-country-int-j-environ-res-public-health-2016-13-1210
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421894/how-learning-analytics-can-early-predict-under-achieving-students-in-a-blended-medical-education-course
#18
Mohammed Saqr, Uno Fors, Matti Tedre
AIM: Learning analytics (LA) is an emerging discipline that aims at analyzing students' online data in order to improve the learning process and optimize learning environments. It has yet un-explored potential in the field of medical education, which can be particularly helpful in the early prediction and identification of under-achieving students. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative markers collected from students' online activities that may correlate with students' final performance and to investigate the possibility of predicting the potential risk of a student failing or dropping out of a course...
April 19, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417643/feeling-bad-about-progress-does-not-lead-people-want-to-change-their-health-behaviour
#19
James P Reynolds, Thomas L Webb, Yael Benn, Betty P I Chang, Paschal Sheeran
OBJECTIVE: When do people decide to do something about problematic health behaviours? Theoretical models and pragmatic considerations suggest that people should take action when they feel bad about their progress - in other words, when they experience negative progress-related affect. However, the impact of progress-related affect on goal striving has rarely been investigated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Study 1 (N = 744) adopted a cross-sectional design and examined the extent to which measures of progress-related affect were correlated with intentions to take action...
April 18, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415176/multifractal-surrogate-data-generation-algorithm-that-preserves-pointwise-h%C3%A3-lder-regularity-structure-with-initial-applications-to-turbulence
#20
C J Keylock
An algorithm is described that can generate random variants of a time series while preserving the probability distribution of original values and the pointwise Hölder regularity. Thus, it preserves the multifractal properties of the data. Our algorithm is similar in principle to well-known algorithms based on the preservation of the Fourier amplitude spectrum and original values of a time series. However, it is underpinned by a dual-tree complex wavelet transform rather than a Fourier transform. Our method, which we term the iterated amplitude adjusted wavelet transform can be used to generate bootstrapped versions of multifractal data, and because it preserves the pointwise Hölder regularity but not the local Hölder regularity, it can be used to test hypotheses concerning the presence of oscillating singularities in a time series, an important feature of turbulence and econophysics data...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
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