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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145612/developmental-and-gut-related-changes-to-microbiomes-of-the-cultured-juvenile-spiny-lobster-panulirus-ornatus
#1
Mei C Ooi, Evan F Goulden, Gregory G Smith, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
With recent technologies making it possible for commercial scale closed life-cycle aquaculture production of spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus) comes a strong impetus to further understand aspects of lobster health. The gut microbiome plays a crucial role in host health, affecting growth, digestion, immune responses and pathogen resistance. Herein we characterise and compare gut microbiomes across different developmental stages (6-7 d post-emergence [dpe], 52 dpe and 13 months post-emergence [mpe]) and gut regions (foregut, midgut and hindgut) of cultured P...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145392/conservation-of-a-microrna-cluster-in-parasitic-nematodes-and-profiling-of-mirnas-in-excretory-secretory-products-and-microvesicles-of-haemonchus-contortus
#2
Henry Y Gu, Neil D Marks, Alan D Winter, William Weir, Thomas Tzelos, Tom N McNeilly, Collette Britton, Eileen Devaney
microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145143/biodegradation-of-polystyrene-wastes-in-yellow-mealworms-larvae-of-tenebrio-molitor-linnaeus-factors-affecting-biodegradation-rates-and-the-ability-of-polystyrene-fed-larvae-to-complete-their-life-cycle
#3
Shan-Shan Yang, Anja Malawi Brandon, James Christopher Andrew Flanagan, Jun Yang, Daliang Ning, Shen-Yang Cai, Han-Qing Fan, Zhi-Yue Wang, Jie Ren, Eric Benbow, Nan-Qi Ren, Robert M Waymouth, Jizhong Zhou, Craig S Criddle, Wei-Min Wu
Commercial production of polystyrene (PS) -a persistent plastic that is not biodegradable at appreciable rates in most environments-has led to its accumulation as a major contaminant of land, rivers, lakes, and oceans. Recently, however, an environment was identified in which PS is susceptible to rapid biodegradation: the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworms). In this study, we evaluate PS degradation capabilities of a previously untested strain of T. molitor and assess its survival and PS biodegradation rates for a range of conditions (two simulated food wastes, three temperatures, seven PS waste types)...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145026/lc-ms-ms-quantification-of-felinine-metabolites-in-tissues-fluids-and-excretions-from-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#4
Ayami Futsuta, Wataru Hojo, Tamako Miyazaki, Tetsuro Yamashita, Masao Miyazaki
Domestic cat urine contains large concentrations of the unusual amino acid, felinine (2-amino-7-hydroxy-5,5-dimethyl-4-thiaheptanoic acid). A felinine derivative, 3-mercapt-3-methylbutanol is a potential scent signal for letting other animals know that the scent owners are cats. 3-Methylbutanol-glutathione (MBG) is an upstream precursor of the biosynthetic pathway of felinine that may be produced in hepatocytes by conjugation of glutathione with isopentenyl pyrophosphate, an intermediate for cholesterol biosynthesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145012/the-gut-brain-interaction-in-opioid-tolerance
#5
REVIEW
Hamid I Akbarali, William L Dewey
The prevailing opioid crisis has necessitated the need to understand mechanisms leading to addiction and tolerance, the major contributors to overdose and death and to develop strategies for developing drugs for pain treatment that lack abuse liability and side-effects. Opioids are commonly used for treatment of pain and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The significant effect of opioids in the gut, both acute and chronic, includes persistent constipation and paradoxically may also worsen pain symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144889/effect-of-dietary-fermented-mushroom-bed-on-egg-production-in-laying-hens
#6
Shu Yoshida, Hiroaki Mitani, Masato Kamata, Akira Ohtsuka, Konosuke Otomaru, Takeshi Obi, Hiroaki Kanouchi
Egg productivity is declined by stress. It has been reported that some food supplements can improve the egg productivity due to a reduction of environmental stress. We evaluated the effect of fermented waste mushroom bed (FWMB) as a dietary additive on egg productivity. Hens were fed control food (control group, n = 100) or 3% FWMB-added food (FWMB group, n = 100) for 16 months. The number of eggs, soft-shelled eggs, and broken eggs were recorded for 15 months. We also evaluated stress-related markers (ovotransferrin, lipid peroxide, and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio)...
November 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#7
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144497/gut-clues-to-ms
#8
Zoltan Fehervari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#9
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143827/digestion-under-saliva-simulated-gastric-and-small-intestinal-conditions-and-fermentation-in-vitro-of-polysaccharides-from-the-flowers-of-camellia-sinensis-induced-by-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Dan Chen, Guijie Chen, Peng Wan, Bing Hu, Ligen Chen, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Hong Ye
In the present study, digestion under saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from the flowers of Camellia sinensis (TFPS) by human gut microbiota were investigated. The results indicated that human saliva and simulated gastric and intestinal juices had no effect on TFPS, while TFPS could be utilized by human fecal microbiota, which was proved from the decreased molecular weight and lower content of total or reducing sugars after fermentation under anaerobic conditions...
November 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#11
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143816/quantitative-microbiome-profiling-links-gut-community-variation-to-microbial-load
#12
Doris Vandeputte, Gunter Kathagen, Kevin D'hoe, Sara Vieira-Silva, Mireia Valles-Colomer, João Sabino, Jun Wang, Raul Y Tito, Lindsey De Commer, Youssef Darzi, Séverine Vermeire, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes
Current sequencing-based analyses of faecal microbiota quantify microbial taxa and metabolic pathways as fractions of the sample sequence library generated by each analysis. Although these relative approaches permit detection of disease-associated microbiome variation, they are limited in their ability to reveal the interplay between microbiota and host health. Comparative analyses of relative microbiome data cannot provide information about the extent or directionality of changes in taxa abundance or metabolic potential...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143791/dietary-and-endogenous-sphingolipid-metabolism-in-chronic-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso
Chronic inflammation is a common underlying factor in many major metabolic diseases afflicting Western societies. Sphingolipid metabolism is pivotal in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. The regulation of sphingolipid metabolism is in turn influenced by inflammatory pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of sphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells, including a description of sphingolipid structure, biosynthesis, turnover, and role in inflammatory signaling. Sphingolipid metabolites play distinct and complex roles in inflammatory signaling and will be discussed...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143555/qualitative-and-quantitative-prediction-of-human-in-vivo-metabolic-pathways-in-a-human-hepatocyte-murine-stromal-cell-co-culture-model
#14
Kenneth C Cassidy, Ping Yi
1. This study assessed the value of a static in vitro human hepatocyte-murine stromal cell co-culture model to qualitatively and quantitatively predict human in vivo metabolic clearance pathways using (14)C-labeled test compounds and compared these results to an in vitro suspended human hepatocyte model and the in vivo human (14)C ADME studies. 2. Test compounds represented a diverse set of clearance pathways (Phase I and Phase II). Compounds were incubated for 4 h in suspended human hepatocytes and for 24 and 168 h in the human co-culture model...
November 16, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143256/toxic-effects-of-solanum-xanthocarpum-sch-wendle-against-helicoverpa-armigera-hub-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-and-eisenia-fetida-savigny-1826
#15
Kathirvelu Baskar, Jeevanantham Ananthi, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
Many commercially available agro and household chemicals are used as pesticides, repellents, and growth inhibitors against insect pests. The repeated uses of these chemicals against insect pests have caused the development of resistance in them; they also cause ill effects on nontarget organisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal, pupicidal, and biochemical effects of the solvent extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#16
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142271/structural-and-functional-differences-in-gut-microbiome-composition-in-patients-undergoing-haemodialysis-or-peritoneal-dialysis
#17
Vanessa Stadlbauer, Angela Horvath, Werner Ribitsch, Bianca Schmerböck, Gernot Schilcher, Sandra Lemesch, Philipp Stiegler, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Peter Fickert, Bettina Leber
Complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are critically related to inflammation. The gut microbiome is a key driver of inflammation. Since dialysis modalities may differently influence the gut microbiome, we aimed to compare the effects of haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) on patients' gut microbiome composition and function. We therefore studied faecal microbiome composition and function as well as inflammation and gut permeability in 30 patients with ESRD (15 HD, 15 PD) and compared to 21 healthy controls...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142244/body-size-phenotypes-comprehensively-assess-cardiometabolic-risk-and-refine-the-association-between-obesity-and-gut-microbiota
#18
J de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, V Corrales-Agudelo, J A Carmona, J M Abad, J S Escobar
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota associates with obesity and related disorders, but recent meta-analyses have found that this association is, at best, of small effect. We argue that such analyses are flawed by the use of BMI as sole proxy for disease, and explore a classification method that distinguishes the cardiometabolic health status of individuals to look for more comprehensive associations between gut microbes and health. METHODS: We analyzed a 441 community-dwelling cohort on which we obtained demographic and health information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry data that served to categorize participants according to BMI, cardiometabolic health status and body size phenotypes...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142203/mode-of-delivery-and-child-and-adolescent-psychological-well-being-evidence-from-hong-kong-s-children-of-1997-birth-cohort
#19
Cherry Y Leung, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean section) is thought to affect gut microbiota, which in turn may affect psychological well-being. As such, mode of delivery is potentially a modifiable factor for psychological well-being. Here we examined the association of mode of delivery with child and adolescent psychological well-being. We used multivariable linear regression in a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997," to examine the adjusted associations of mode of delivery with behavioral problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter score at ~7 (n = 6294) and ~11 years (n = 5598), self-esteem assessed from self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory score at ~11 years (n = 6937) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score at ~13 years (n = 5797)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#20
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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