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Pediatric osteosarcoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887617/fdg-pet-ct-appearance-of-local-osteosarcoma-recurrences-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Susan E Sharp, Barry L Shulkin, Michael J Gelfand, M Beth McCarville
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric malignant bone tumor, frequently surgically managed with limb salvage rather than amputation. Local recurrences are seen in up to 9% of osteosarcoma patients, with CT and MRI imaging often limited by metal artifacts. OBJECTIVE: To describe the [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT appearance of local osteosarcoma recurrences with correlation to findings on other imaging modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric osteosarcoma patients imaged with FDG PET/CT was performed in patients with pathologically proven local recurrences...
September 8, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841702/prognostic-value-of-fdg-pet-indices-for-the-assessment-of-histological-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-outcome-in-pediatric-patients-with-ewing-sarcoma-and-osteosarcoma
#2
Clement Bailly, Rodolphe Leforestier, Loic Campion, Estelle Thebaud, Anne Moreau, Francoise Kraeber-Bodere, Thomas Carlier, Caroline Bodet-Milin
PURPOSE: The objective of this retrospective work was to evaluate the prognostic value on histological response and survival of quantitative indices derived from FDG-PET performed before and after chemotherapy (CHT), in a homogeneous pediatric Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and Osteosarcoma (OST) population. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with EWS and 31 with OST were included. All patients were treated with neoadjuvant CHT, and underwent surgery for local control. All patients had FDG-PET at diagnosis and after CHT, prior to surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806574/quantitative-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-chemotherapy-treatment-response-of-pediatric-osteosarcoma-and-ewing-sarcoma-malignant-bone-tumors
#3
Andrew J Degnan, Chul Y Chung, Amisha J Shah
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy is essential in managing malignant pediatric bone tumors prior to resection. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Pre-chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma cases (n=18) were analyzed with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values measured by two readers. RESULTS: Treated tumors demonstrated significantly greater ADC values compared to untreated tumors (p<0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0...
August 5, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802390/pediatric-head-and-neck-bone-sarcomas-an-analysis-of-204-cases
#4
Jacob S Brady, Sei Y Chung, Emily Marchiano, Jean Anderson Eloy, Soly Baredes, Richard Chan Woo Park
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the demographics, survival, and treatment efficacy of pediatric sarcomas of the facial skeleton and skull. METHODS: Retrospective study of cases from the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Pediatric patients between the ages of 0 and 18 diagnosed with a malignant sarcoma of either the mandible or the bones of skull, face, and associated joints from 1973 to 2013 were studied. RESULTS: In total, 204 patients were included in the analysis...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781793/activation-of-the-arachidonic-acid-metabolic-pathway-and-induction-of-sleep-disturbance-by-sacral-osteoblastoma-a-case-report
#5
Mitsunori Ozaki, Kazuya Nishioka, Akihiko Kimura, Toshikazu Kondo, Naoyuki Nakao
Osteoblastomas are benign bone tumors that produce prostaglandin and promote inflammation. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of a pediatric osteoblastoma case over an 8-month postoperative follow-up. The case involved an 11-year-old female patient with normal somatic development, presenting with a chief complaint of sleep disturbance. The patient had no spontaneous pain or other readily evident possible causes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a neoplastic lesion in the sacrum, with peritumoral edema...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765882/microrna-300-decreases-cell-viability-inhibits-migration-and-promotes-apoptosis-of-osteosarcoma-cells-via-downregulation-of-twist1
#6
Jinpeng Jia, Pei Yin, Gang Han, Meng Xu, Wei Wang, Wenzhi Bi
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequently occurring pediatric bone malignancy in the world. Numerous miRNAs have previously been demonstrated to participate in the initiation and development of OS. The present study aimed to reveal the role of microRNA‑300 (miR‑300) in OS cells and elucidate the underlying mechanism involved. The expression of miR‑300 in the MG63 human OS cell line was monitored via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Following transfection with miR‑300 mimic, miR‑300 inhibitor or scramble control, MG63 cell viability, migration and apoptosis were respectively measured by 3‑(4,5‑dimethyl‑2‑thiazolyl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), modified two‑chamber migration assay and flow cytometry...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708590/whole-exome-analysis-in-osteosarcoma-to-identify-a-personalized-therapy
#7
Caterina Chiappetta, Massimiliano Mancini, Francesca Lessi, Paolo Aretini, Veronica De Gregorio, Chiara Puggioni, Raffaella Carletti, Vincenzo Petrozza, Prospero Civita, Sara Franceschi, Antonio G Naccarato, Carlo Della Rocca, Chiara M Mazzanti, Claudio Di Cristofano
Osteosarcoma is the most common pediatric primary non-hematopoietic bone tumor. Survival of these young patients is related to the response to chemotherapy and development of metastases. Despite many advances in cancer research, chemotherapy regimens for osteosarcoma are still based on non-selective cytotoxic drugs. It is essential to investigate new specific molecular therapies for osteosarcoma to increase the survival rate of these patients. We performed exomic sequence analyses of 8 diagnostic biopsies of patients with conventional high grade osteosarcoma to advance our understanding of their genetic underpinnings and to correlate the genetic alteration with the clinical and pathological features of each patient to identify a personalized therapy...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697168/pretreatment-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-lymphocyte-recovery-independent-prognostic-factors-for-survival-in-pediatric-sarcomas
#8
Liliana Vasquez, Esmeralda León, Brady Beltran, Ivan Maza, Monica Oscanoa, Jenny Geronimo
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery have been shown to be associated with prognosis in several types of cancer in adults. However, evidence in pediatric cancer is scarce. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether pretreatment NLR and lymphocyte recovery are prognostic factors in pediatric sarcomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants were identified from a retrospective cohort of 100 children with osteosarcoma (n=55), rhabdomyosarcoma (n=22), and Ewing sarcoma (n=23)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696044/practice-patterns-of-palliative-radiation-therapy-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-in-an-international-pediatric-research-consortium
#9
Avani Dholakia Rao, Qinyu Chen, Ralph P Ermoian, Sara R Alcorn, Maria Luisa S Figueiredo, Michael J Chen, Karin Dieckmann, Shannon M MacDonald, Matthew M Ladra, Daria Kobyzeva, Alexey V Nechesnyuk, Kristina Nilsson, Eric C Ford, Brian A Winey, Rosangela C Villar, Stephanie A Terezakis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The practice of palliative radiation therapy (RT) is based on extrapolation from adult literature. We evaluated patterns of pediatric palliative RT to describe regimens used to identify opportunity for future pediatric-specific clinical trials. DESIGN/METHODS: Six international institutions with pediatric expertise completed a 122-item survey evaluating patterns of palliative RT for patients ≤21 years old from 2010 to 2015. Two institutions use proton RT...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689886/use-of-radiotracer-labeling-of-pulmonary-nodules-to-facilitate-excisional-biopsy-and-metastasectomy-in-children-with-solid-tumors
#10
Stephanie F Polites, Aodhnait S Fahy, William A Sunnock, Donald D Potter, Denise B Klinkner, Christopher R Moir, K Robert Shen, Michael B Ishitani
PURPOSE: Excision of suspected pulmonary metastases in children is challenging in the setting of multiple nodules or nodules that are small, deep, or soft. This study describes preoperative technetium macro-aggregated albumin (Tc 99m MAA) localization of pulmonary lesions to aid in intraoperative identification and resection. METHODS: Patients with past or present pediatric solid tumors who underwent resection of pulmonary nodules following CT-guided Tc 99m MAA labeling were identified...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685501/pazopanib-for-second-recurrence-of-osteosarcoma-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Katsutsugu Umeda, Itaru Kato, Satoshi Saida, Takeshi Okamoto, Souchi Adachi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617714/perioperative-chemotherapy-with-and-without-high-dose-methotrexate-in-adult-osteosarcoma
#12
Marcelo Vailati Negrão, Lucila S da Silva Rocha, Daniel da Motta Girardi, Olavo Feher
Treatment of adult osteosarcoma (AOS) includes perioperative chemotherapy and surgery. Standard chemotherapy consists of cisplatin (CP) and doxorubicin (DOX). Although considered the standard of care for pediatric patients, high-dose methotrexate (HDM) remains controversial in adults. We aimed to evaluate the role of HDM in AOS treated with curative intent. This study included patients with AOS who received perioperative chemotherapy with DOX and CP (group 1; N=16) and DOX, CP, and HDM (group 2; N=10). The primary endpoint was grade 3 or superior toxicities...
September 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616573/yap-and-the-hippo-pathway-in-pediatric-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Atif A Ahmed, Abdalla D Mohamed, Melissa Gener, Weijie Li, Eugenio Taboada
The Hippo pathway is an important signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is evolutionarily conserved in mammals and is stimulated by cell-cell contact, inhibiting cell proliferation in response to increased cell density. During early embryonic development, the Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ development and size, and its functions result in the coordinated balance between proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Its principal effectors, YAP and TAZ, regulate signaling by the embryonic stem cells and determine cell fate and histogenesis...
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611244/fdg-uptake-during-early-adjuvant-chemotherapy-predicts-histologic-response-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-osteosarcoma
#14
James C Davis, Najat C Daw, Fariba Navid, Catherine A Billups, Jianrong Wu, Armita Bahrami, Jesse J Jenkins, Scott E Snyder, Wilburn E Reddick, Victor M Santana, M Beth McCarville, Junyu Guo, Barry L Shulkin
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in the primary tumor at diagnosis, during therapy, and following therapy with histological response and event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric and young adult patients with osteosarcoma (OS). Methods: Serial (baseline, 5 and 10 weeks after start of therapy) (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging was obtained in patients with newly diagnosed OS treated uniformly on a therapeutic trial at a single institution...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607872/vascularized-fibula-based-physis-transfer-a-follow-up-study-of-longitudinal-bone-growth-and-complications
#15
Ronnie L Shammas, Yash J Avashia, Alfredo E Farjat, Anthony A Catanzano, L Scott Levin, William C Eward, Brian E Brigman, Detlev Erdmann
BACKGROUND: The vascularized free fibula epiphyseal transfer provides an option for the preservation of limb lengthening after resection of the proximal humerus in pediatric sarcoma patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a long-term follow-up of longitudinal growth patterns and outcomes after free fibula epiphyseal transfer in upper extremity reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective review of 4 patients who underwent free fibula epiphyseal transfer after oncologic resection of the proximal humerus for osteosarcoma was performed...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592186/the-role-of-the-mthfr-c677t-polymorphism-in-methotrexate-induced-toxicity-in-pediatric-osteosarcoma-patients
#16
Loes Lambrecht, Charlotte Sleurs, Veerle Labarque, Catharina Dhooge, Annouschka Laenen, Friedl Sinnaeve, Marleen Renard, Anne Uyttebroeck
AIM: Osteosarcoma patients receive high doses of methotrexate (MTX). However, pharmacogenetic information remains limited and has mainly been investigated in leukemia so far. PATIENTS & METHODS: We investigated the link between the MTHFR C677T genotype, toxicity levels (mucositis, MTX plasma level, hematological toxicity and hepatotoxicity) and survival of 48 pediatric osteosarcoma patients. RESULTS: The TT genotype did not show more toxicity compared with the CC/CT genotype...
June 8, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561686/advances-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-bone-sarcomas
#17
Patrick J Grohar, Katherine A Janeway, Luke D Mase, Joshua D Schiffman
Bone tumors make up a significant portion of noncentral nervous system solid tumor diagnoses in pediatric oncology patients. Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma, both with distinct clinical and pathologic features, are the two most commonly encountered bone cancers in pediatrics. Although mutations in the germline have classically been more associated with osteosarcoma, there is recent evidence germline alterations in patients with Ewing sarcoma also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Treatment advances in this patient population have lagged behind that of other pediatric malignancies, particularly targeted interventions directed at the biologic underpinnings of disease...
2017: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544777/the-prognostic-significance-of-circulating-serum-amyloid-a-and-cxc-chemokine-ligand-4-in-osteosarcoma
#18
Ricardo J Flores, Aaron J Kelly, Yiting Li, Xiang Chen, Colin McGee, Mark Krailo, Donald A Barkauskas, John Hicks, Tsz-Kwong Man
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common pediatric bone cancer.  Despite advances in treatment regimens, the survival rate remains 60-70%.  There is an urgent need to identify prognostic biomarkers, so that targeted therapies can be developed to improve the outcome. PROCEDURE: Our laboratory has previously identified that circulating serum amyloid A (SAA) and CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) are upregulated in patients with OS.  In this study, we tested if they could be used as prognostic biomarkers...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521633/cd30-expression-in-pediatric-neoplasms-study-of-585-cases
#19
Jinjun Cheng, Haiqing Zhu, John Kim Choi
CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8 (TNFRSF8), and its normal expression is restricted to activated T and B cells. In tumor cells, CD30 expression is most commonly associated with lymphoid malignancies (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) and is a therapeutic target using anti-CD30 antibody. CD30 expression has been reported also in mostly adult non-lymphoid malignancies, raising the possibility of CD30-targeted therapy for additional tumors. In this study, we examined the incidence of CD30 expression in 251 hematopoietic and 334 non-hematopoietic cases of pediatric tumors...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469335/pediatric-osteosarcoma-an-updated-review
#20
REVIEW
Shachi Jain Taran, Rakesh Taran, Nagraj B Malipatil
Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor, is defined by the presence of malignant mesenchymal cells producing osteoid or immature bone. The peak incidence of the most frequent type of OS, i.e., high-grade central OS, occurs in the second decade of life during the adolescent growth spurt. Most patients suffer from the pain and swelling in the involved region and, usually, seek medical attention. Diagnosis is carried out by conventional radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance image (MRI)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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