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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212389/application-of-calibrated-forceps-for-assessing-mechanical-nociception-with-high-time-resolution-in-mice
#1
Hideki Kashiwadani, Yuichi Kanmura, Tomoyuki Kuwaki
In order to investigate the basic physiological mechanisms of pain and the anti-nociceptive effects of analgesics, development of pain assays in mice is critical due to the advances of genetic manipulation techniques. The von Frey hairs/Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments test (von Frey test) has long been applied to examine mechanical nociception in mice. Though the von Frey test is a well-established and standardized method, it is inappropriate to assess a rapid change in the nociceptive threshold because voluntary resting/sleeping states are necessary to examine the response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210904/acute-and-neuropathic-orofacial-antinociceptive-effect-of-eucalyptol
#2
José de Maria de Albuquerque de Melo Júnior, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal Damasceno, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues Santos, Talita Matias Barbosa, João Ronielly Campêlo Araújo, Antonio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa Wong, Roberto César Pereira Lima-Júnior, Adriana Rolim Campos
Terpenes have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antinociceptive action. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of eucalyptol are well established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol on acute and neuropathic orofacial pain in rodent models. Acute orofacial and corneal nociception was induced with formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and hypertonic saline in mice. In another series, animals were pretreated with capsazepine or ruthenium red to evaluate the involvement of TRPV1 receptors in the effect of eucalyptol...
February 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207185/age-related-changes-in-laser-evoked-potentials-following-trigeminal-and-hand-stimulation-in-healthy-subjects
#3
M de Tommaso, K Ricci, A Montemurno, E Vecchio
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate age-related changes in laser-evoked potential (LEP) features, including habituation, via trigeminal and hand stimulation in a large group of healthy volunteers. METHODS: We recorded the LEPs by right-hand stimulation in 237 healthy subjects and by stimulation of the right supraorbital zone in 170 cases. The subjects ranged in age from 7 to 72 years and were divided into six groups by age. RESULTS: At the trigeminal level, the N2 and P2 latencies were significantly shorter and the N2-P2 amplitude was significantly larger in the 7-17 age group than in the other groups...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205252/sensory-deficits-after-a-radial-nerve-injury
#4
Jayme Augusto Bertelli, Erica Cavalli, Vera Lúcia Mendes Lehn, Marcos Flávio Ghizoni
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to objectively test sensibility on the dorsal side of the hand in patients with radial nerve injury, to document deficits and to detect if surgery for sensory reconstruction is needed. METHODS: Nineteen patients of mean age 31 ± 10 years were examined at a mean of 26.4 ± 27.8 months post radial nerve injury. Sensory mechanical thresholds on the dorsal surface of the hand were evaluated using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments...
February 16, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205139/the-potentiating-effect-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-on-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-activity-and-the-electrophysiological-responses-of-rat-trigeminal-neurons-to-nociceptive-stimuli
#5
Duangthip Chatchaisak, Mark Connor, Anan Srikiatkhachorn, Banthit Chetsawang
Growing evidence suggests that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) participates in trigeminal nociceptive responses. However, the role of CGRP in sensitization or desensitization of nociceptive transduction remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to further investigate the CGRP-induced up-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and the responses of trigeminal neurons to nociceptive stimuli. Rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) organ cultures and isolated trigeminal neurons were incubated with CGRP...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203248/structural-determinants-of-the-hyperalgesic-activity-of-myotoxic-lys49-phospholipase%C3%A2-a2
#6
Vanessa Olzon Zambelli, Lucimara Chioato, Vanessa Pacciari Gutierrez, Richard John Ward, Yara Cury
BACKGROUND: Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu, which despite of the lack of catalytic activity induces myotoxicity, inflammation and pain. The C-terminal region of the Lys49-PLA2s is important for these effects; however, the amino acid residues that determine hyperalgesia and edema are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural determinants for the Lys49-PLA2-induced nociception and inflammation...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202578/p38%C3%AE-mapk-signaling-mediates-exenatide-stimulated-microglial-%C3%AE-endorphin-expression
#7
Hai-Yun Wu, Xiao-Fang Mao, Hui Fan, Yong-Xiang Wang
Upon recent discovery, it has been established that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) exhibits neuroprotection and antinociception through microglial β-endorphin expression. This study aims to explore its underlying signaling mechanisms. GLP-1Rs and β-endorphin were co-expressed in primary cultures of microglia. Treatment with the GLP-1R agonist exenatide concentration-dependently stimulated microglial expression of the β-endorphin precursor gene POMC and peptide, with EC50 values of 4...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196712/ipomoea-pes-caprae-l-r-br-convolvulaceae-as-a-topical-herbal-medicine-to-relieve-pain-and-inflammation-promising-tool-against-effects-due-to-toxin-skin-contact
#8
Cristiane da Silva Barth, Hugo Guilherme Tolentino de Souza, Lilian W Rocha, Gislaine Francieli da Silva, Mariana Ferreira Dos Anjos, Veronica D'Avila Pastor, Tania Mari Belle Bresolin, Angelica Garcia Couto, José Roberto Santin, Nara Lins Meira Quintão
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ipomoea pes-caprae is known as bayhops, beach morning glory or goat's foot, and in Brazil as salsa-de-praia. Its leaves are used in worldwide folk medicine for the relief of jellyfish-stings symptoms. The literature only reports the anti-inflammatory and neutralizing effects of a nonpolar plant derived, without validating the popular use or exploring the mechanism of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate and validate the topical effects of a semisolid containing hydroethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of I...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195854/lateral-inhibition-during-nociceptive-processing
#9
Alexandre S Quevedo, Carsten Dahl Mørch, Ole K Andersen, Robert C Coghill
Spatial summation of pain is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is sub-additive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for sub-additive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit spatial summation of pain, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2-laser...
February 11, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195191/polymodal-responses-in-c-elegans-phasmid-neurons-rely-on-multiple-intracellular-and-intercellular-signaling-pathways
#10
Wenjuan Zou, Hankui Cheng, Shitian Li, Xiaomin Yue, Yadan Xue, Sixi Chen, Lijun Kang
Animals utilize specialized sensory neurons enabling the detection of a wide range of environmental stimuli from the presence of toxic chemicals to that of touch. However, how these neurons discriminate between different kinds of stimuli remains poorly understood. By combining in vivo calcium imaging and molecular genetic manipulation, here we investigate the response patterns and the underlying mechanisms of the C. elegans phasmid neurons PHA/PHB to a variety of sensory stimuli. Our observations demonstrate that PHA/PHB neurons are polymodal sensory neurons which sense harmful chemicals, hyperosmotic solutions and mechanical stimulation...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195170/quantifying-cerebral-contributions-to-pain-beyond-nociception
#11
Choong-Wan Woo, Liane Schmidt, Anjali Krishnan, Marieke Jepma, Mathieu Roy, Martin A Lindquist, Lauren Y Atlas, Tor D Wager
Cerebral processes contribute to pain beyond the level of nociceptive input and mediate psychological and behavioural influences. However, cerebral contributions beyond nociception are not yet well characterized, leading to a predominant focus on nociception when studying pain and developing interventions. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with machine learning to develop a multivariate pattern signature-termed the stimulus intensity independent pain signature-1 (SIIPS1)-that predicts pain above and beyond nociceptive input in four training data sets (Studies 1-4, N=137)...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195060/pathophysiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-pain-in-most-common-locations-in-cancer-patients
#12
W Leppert, R Zajaczkowska, J Wordliczek, J Dobrogowski, J Woron, M Krzakowski
Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients, especially in advanced disease. However, pain also accompanies a significant percentage of patients during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In some patients pain may be the first symptom of the disease. The causes of pain in cancer patients are often multifactorial including direct and indirect cancer effects, anticancer therapy and co-morbidities. Moreover, pain in cancer patients often has mixed pathophysiology including both nociceptive and neuropathic components, especially in patients with bone metastases...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194098/spatiotemporal-profiles-of-proprioception-processed-by-the-masseter-muscle-spindles-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-an-optical-imaging-study
#13
Satoshi Fujita, Mari Kaneko, Hiroko Nakamura, Masayuki Kobayashi
Muscle spindles in the jaw-closing muscles, which are innervated by trigeminal mesencephalic neurons (MesV neurons), control the strength of occlusion and the position of the mandible. The mechanisms underlying cortical processing of proprioceptive information are critical to understanding how sensory information from the masticatory muscles regulates orofacial motor function. However, these mechanisms are mostly unknown. The present study aimed to identify the regions that process proprioception of the jaw-closing muscles using in vivo optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye in rats under urethane anesthesia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193100/corneal-antinociceptive-effect-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol
#14
Gisele Façanha Diógenes Teixeira, Flávio Nogueira da Costa, Adriana Rolim Campos
CONTEXT: (-)-α-Bisabolol (BISA) is a sesquiterpene alcohol widely used as scent in cosmetic preparations, perfumes, shampoos, toilet soaps and other toiletries with potential for use in the pharmaceutical area. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the corneal antinociceptive efficacy of BISA and to analyze the best solubilizing agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute corneal nociception was induced by the local application of hypertonic saline (5 M NaCl; 20 μL) to the corneal surface of Swiss mice (n = 8/group) 60 min after topical treatment with solutions or ointment containing BISA (50-200 mg/mL)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192274/activity-and-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-trigeminal-nociception
#15
Jan Mehnert, Laura Schulte, Dagmar Timmann, Arne May
The role of the cerebellum in pathologies of the trigeminal nervous system is still unknown although recently gathered evidence point to a modulatory rather than a passive role. Here we provide evidence for the activation of specific cerebellar areas during nociceptive trigeminal input in the left nostril in a large number of volunteers (54 subjects) and an additional independent group (18 subjects) as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Peak voxel activity ipsilateral to the stimulated side can be seen in cerebellar lobules VI, VIIIa and Crus I, and vermal lobule VIIIa, although some activations are also seen in the contralateral side...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192150/effect-of-artemisinin-on-neuropathic-pain-mediated-by-p2x4-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia
#16
Mofeng Ying, Hui Liu, Tengling Zhang, Chenxu Jiang, Yingxin Gong, Bing Wu, Lifang Zou, Zhihua Yi, Shenqiang Rao, Guilin Li, Chunping Zhang, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Huilong Yua, Liran Shi, Lin Li, Shangdong Liang, Shuangmei Liu
Neuropathic pain is a type of chronic pain caused by nervous system damage and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic pain is complicated, and there are no effective therapies for neuropathic pain. Studies show that the P2X4 receptor expressed in the satellite glial cells (SGCs) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is related to neuropathic pain. Artemisinin is a monomeric component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine and has a variety of important pharmacological effects and potential applications. This study observed the effect of artemisinin on neuropathic pain and delineated its possible mechanism...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192100/disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-activity-of-the-alkaloid-montanine-on-experimental-arthritis-and-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes
#17
Mirian Farinon, Vanessa S Clarimundo, Graziele P R Pedrazza, Pércio S Gulko, José A S Zuanazzi, Ricardo M Xavier, Patricia G de Oliveira
Montanine is an alkaloid isolated from Rhodophiala bifida bulb with potential anti-arthritic activity. In this context, we evaluated wether montanine has a disease modifying anti-rheumatic activity in two arthritis models and its effect in vitro on lymphocyte proliferation and on invasiveness of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was performed in Balb/C mice with methylated bovine serum albumin, and nociception and leukocytes migration into the knee joint were evaluated. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was performed in DBA/1J mice, and arthritis development and severity were assessed by clinical and histological scoring and articular nociception...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190392/pi3k-akt-pathway-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-chronic-pain
#18
Shu-Ping Chen, Ya-Qun Zhou, Dai-Qiang Liu, Wen Zhang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Hai Guan, Yu-Ke Tian, Da-Wei Ye, Deeq Mohamed Omar
Chronic pain is among the most disabling and costly disorders, with prevalence ranging from 10% to 55%. However, current therapeutic strategies for chronic pain are unsatisfactory due to our poor understanding of its mechanisms. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be found in order to improve these patients' quality of life. PI3K and its downstream Akt are widely expressed in the spinal cord, particularly in the laminae I-IV of the dorsal horn, where nociceptive C and Aδ fibers of primary afferents principally terminate...
February 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188663/histamine-facilitates-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-rat-entorhinal-cortex-roles-of-h1-and-h2-receptors-na-permeable-cation-channels-and-inward-rectifier-k-channels
#19
Nicholas I Cilz, Saobo Lei
In the brain, histamine (HA) serves as a neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter released from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). HA is involved in wakefulness, thermoregulation, energy homeostasis, nociception and learning and memory. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) receives inputs from the TMN and expresses HA receptors (H1 , H2 , and H3 ). We investigated the effects of HA on GABAergic transmission in the MEC and found that HA significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) with an EC50 of 1...
February 11, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188220/cannabinoids-activate-monoaminergic-signaling-to-modulate-key-c-elegans-behaviors
#20
Mitchell Oakes, Wen Jing Law, Tobias Clark, Bruce Bamber, Richard Komuniecki
Cannabis or marijuana, a popular recreational drug, alters sensory perception and exerts a range of potential medicinal benefits. The present study demonstrates that the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) activate a canonical cannabinoid receptor in C. elegans and also modulate monoaminergic signaling at multiple levels. 2-AG or AEA inhibit nociception and feeding through a pathway requiring the cannabinoid-like receptor, NPR-19. 2-AG or AEA activate NPR-19 directly and cannabinoid-dependent inhibition can be rescued in npr-19 null animals by the expression of a human cannabinoid receptor, CB1, highlighting the orthology of the receptors...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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