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Sujeet Kumar, Mohmad Mashooq, Ravi Kumar Gandham, S V Alavandi, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar
Clostridium chauvoei causes fatal black quarter infection in cattle and buffaloes. The quorum sensing (QS) system, a bacterial cell to cell communication process, of the pathogen was characterized in the current study. The results indicated that C. chauvoei lacked luxS (autoinducer-2) based quorum sensing as detected by the sensor strain Vibrio harveyi BB170. This was supported by absence of luxS gene in C. chauvoei genome. However, the genomic analysis indicated the presence of agrBD system in all three genomes of C...
June 18, 2018: Anaerobe
E Moran, J Baharani, M Dedicoat, E Robinson, G Smith, P Bhomra, O S Thien, R Ryan
OBJECTIVES: The risk of developing active TB is greater in those receiving haemodialysis. This study aimed to describe the incidence of active tuberculosis among patients referred for management of kidney disease and dialysis in a high incidence UK city, with the purpose of informing latent TB testing and treatment practice. METHODS: Information from the tuberculosis register was cross-referenced with the Department of Renal Medicine patient information system. All patients seen between 1st January 2005 and 1st October 2016 were included in the analyses with the exception of those with prior TB...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Infection
Carolyn W Swenson, Neil S Kamdar, Kristian Seiler, Daniel M Morgan, Paul Lin, Sawsan As-Sanie
BACKGROUND: Opioids used for postoperative pain control after surgery have been associated with an increased risk of chronic opioid use. Hysterectomy is the most common major gynecologic procedure in the United States; however, we lack a data-driven definition of new persistent opioid use specific to hysterectomy. OBJECTIVE: 1) Determine a data-driven definition of new persistent opioid use among opioid naïve women undergoing hysterectomy; 2) Determine the prevalence of and risk factors for new persistent opioid use...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Abhishek Goyal, Howard A Cooper, Wilbert S Aronow, Prashant Nagpal, Sriktanth Yandrapalli, Christopher C Nabors, William F Frishman
BACKGROUND: The 2016 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for primary prevention statin therapy are more restrictive than the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. There are important differences in how application of the risk thresholds from these guidelines would impact particular segments of the US population. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES - 2005-14) were used to determine statin eligibility across age, gender and racial/ethnic groups using criteria from the 2013 ACC/AHA and 2016 USPSTF guidelines...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Xiangwei Kong, Jing Zhang, Qi Xuan, Junjie Lu, Jie Feng
In past 10 years, many studies on superhydrophobic (SH) papers have been reported. However, these works rarely carried out on Chinese Paintings. Compared with pure paper, the complexity of Chinese black ink and pigment caused by including animal glue, an emulsion agents and fixatives allowing for the nanoparticles to disperse in water, negatively affects the formation of SH coatings. In this work, we report the fabrication of SH coatings using fluorine silicon sol containing epoxy group on Chinese Paintings...
June 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Adorján Cristea, Andreea Baricz, Nicolae Leopold, Călin Gabriel Floare, Gheorghe Borodi, Irina Kacso, Septimiu Tripon, Paul Adrian Bulzu, Ștefan Andrei Adrian, Oana Cadar, Erika Andrea Levei, Horia Leonard Banciu
AIM: This study aimed at unprecedented physical and chemical evaluation of the 'green plastics' polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), in an extremely halotolerant Halomonas elongata strain 2FF under high salt concentration. METHODS AND RESULTS: The investigated bacterial strain was isolated from the surface water of the hypersaline Fără Fund Lake. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny and phenotypic analysis indicated that the isolate belonged to Halomonas elongata. PHA inclusions were observed by Sudan Black B, Nile Red staining and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) during growth at high salinity (10%, w/v, NaCl) on 1% (w/v) D-glucose...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Maithili Deshpande, S K Sathe
Surface hydrophobicity (SH) properties of the trimeric storage protein phaseolin (black gram phaseolin [BGP]) of black gram (Vigna mungo) were investigated using 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS) as an extrinsic fluorescent probe. The emission maxima of fluorescence spectra of BGP:ANS complex were blue-shifted to 455 nm as compared to 515 nm for the free ANS. Saturation binding occurred at a dye-to-protein ratio of about 30:1. The quantum yield of the complex increased with increasing ionic strength. The Kd values were 1...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Olav H Haugen, Sten Andréasson, Lars Ersland, Alexander R Craven, Kenneth Hugdahl
We present a case of a young female with a slowly progressing visual impairment who was examined with multifocal visual evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for underlying neuronal abnormality. The fMRI examination consisted of presenting black-and-white checkerboard stimuli, and her activation patterns were compared to the patterns from 4 normal-sighted subjects. The results showed clear differences in neuronal activation between the patient and the controls in the occipital and parietal lobes...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Guanglei Fu, Hua Wang, Youli Cai, Hui Zhao, Wenjun Fu
Objective: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most common acute cerebrovascular diseases with high mortality. Numerous studies have shown that inflammatory response played an important role in ICH-induced brain injury. Theaflavin (TF) extracted from black tea has various biological functions including anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated whether TF could inhibit ICH-induced inflammatory response in rats and explored its mechanism. Materials and methods: ICH rat models were induced with type VII collagenase and pretreated with TF by gavage in different doses (25 mg/kg-100 mg/kg)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Gilles D Joanisse, Robert L Bradley, Caroline M Preston
Kalmia angustifolia is a boreal ericaceous shrub that can rapidly spread on black spruce forest cutovers in eastern Canada, where CPRS (i.e. Cutting with Protection of Regeneration and Soils") is practiced. The proliferation of Kalmia often coincides with a reduction in the growth rate of regenerating black spruce seedlings. We report on a study where we compared the local effects of Kalmia and black spruce seedling patches (i.e. two types of "Vegetation") on chemical and biochemical soil properties in CPRS cutovers within mesic spruce-moss and xeric spruce-lichen ecosystems, as well as in four mature spruce-moss forests (i...
2018: PloS One
Andrew Bohn, Alexander Braley, Pura Rodriguez de la Vega, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Noël C Barengo
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain cancer in adults with an incidence of 3.4 per 100,000, making up about 15% of all brain tumors. Inconsistent results have been published in regard differences in survival between white and black glioblastoma patients. The objective of this to study the association between race and in Glioblastoma patients in the USA during 2010-2014. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were used to evaluate race/ethnicity (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders non-Hispanic (API)) and Hispanic) adults patients with first-time diagnosis of glioblastoma (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition [ICD-O-3], codes C711-C714, and histology type 9440/3) from 2010-2014...
2018: PloS One
Steve D Mobley, Jennifer M Johnson
Within higher education literature, historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have been lauded for their exceptional ability to provide African American students with culturally engaging academic and social environments. While the aforementioned may be true, much of this literature presents HBCU students and these institutions as monolithic entities, with little regard to the ways social identities (e.g. gender, gender identity, and sexual identities) shape students' undergraduate experiences. This investigation uses Critical Discourse Analysis to explore the media's coverage and reactions to the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy in order to examine how their campus stakeholders problematized gender expression within this HBCU context...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Claire E Margerison, Janet Catov, Claudia Holzman
BACKGROUND: The black-white disparity in hypertension (HTN) among U.S. women persists after accounting for known risk factors. Pregnancy complications may reveal increased risks for later HTN. We examined the contribution of HTN risk factors measured at both midlife and pregnancy to black-white disparities in midlife HTN. METHODS: Data came from a Michigan-based longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy. At 7-15 years postpregnancy (n = 615, mean age = 37), women were assessed for cardiovascular health, including blood pressure, and categorized as hypertensive (n = 126), prehypertensive (n = 149), and normotensive (n = 340)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Alyssa C Mooney, Eric Giannella, M Maria Glymour, Torsten B Neilands, Meghan D Morris, Jacqueline Tulsky, May Sudhinaraset
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of California Proposition 47, which reclassified felony drug offenses to misdemeanors in 2014, on racial/ethnic disparities in drug arrests. METHODS: Using data on all drug arrests made in California from 2011 to 2016, we compared racial/ethnic disparities in drug arrests between Whites, Blacks, and Latinos, immediately and 1 year after policy changes, controlling for secular and seasonal trends. RESULTS: In the month following passage, absolute Black-White disparities in monthly felony drug arrests decreased from 81 to 44 per 100 000 and continued to decrease over time...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Kirsten Black
Concern over teenage conceptions arises from the adverse health and social sequelae that are associated. These include greater risks of pregnancy complications such as preterm birth and low birthweight and the increased likelihood of social exclusion, poverty and low educational attainment. Another consequence is that daughters of teen mothers are at higher risk themselves of teen pregnancy which perpetrates the cycle of disadvantage. Previous research has reported that children of teenage mothers have one and half to two times increased risk of teenage childbearing compared to children of older mothers (Kahn et al Demography 1992;29(1):39-57)...
June 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Dan A Klaerke, Maria de Los Angeles Tejada, Vibeke Grøsfjeld Christensen, Mette Lassen, Per Amstrup Pedersen, Kirstine Calloe
Detergent-solubilized purified ion channels can be reconstituted into lipid bilayers for electrophysiological analysis. Traditionally, ion channels were inserted into vesicles and subsequently fused with planar "black lipid membranes" formed from lipids dissolved in a hydrophobic solvent such as decane. Provided in this article is a step-by-step guide to reconstitute purified ion channel proteins into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). This procedure results in the formation of proteoliposomes that can be used for planar bilayer formation and electrophysiological characterization of single-channel currents...
May 4, 2018: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Alexandra Pârvan
The paper proposes that frameworks typical to metaphysics and art could be used in clinical treatment in somatic and psychiatric contexts to ensure improved care. The concept of the "body electric" of somatic patients which I introduced in previous work is developed further and paired with the "mind electric" of psychiatric patients. Both are defined as a patient's personally generated metaphysical possibility of being healthy-within-illness which is experientially actualized. Both concepts are used here to explore the alternative and the serious challenges to treatment approaches focused on clinical categories, disease, provision, and promotion of standardized or "black-box" therapies...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Sidneia S Costa, Thamy C Souza Silva, Akemi Kuroda Chiba, Bruno R Cruz, Dante Mário Langhi Junior, José O Bordin
BACKGROUND: The Cw (RH:8), Cx (RH:9), and MAR (RH:51) antigens are encoded by alleles at the Cc locus of the Rh system, where Cw and Cx are considered low-frequency antigens and antithetical to the high-frequency antigen MAR. The frequency of Cw (RH:8) is approximately 2% in Caucasians, 1% in Black people, 4% in Finns, and 9% in Latvians. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of RhD+ phenotypes in a population of southeast Brazilian blood donors and to perform a molecular study to distinguish the RHCE*Ce...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Sabrina L Dickey, Motolani E Ogunsanya
The purpose of this integrative review was to explore the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on the quality of life (QoL) and factors that contribute to the QoL for Black men with PCa. Prostate is recognized as the prevalent cancer among men in the United States. Compared to other men, Black men are diagnosed more frequently and with more advanced stages of PCa. Black men also experience disproportionately higher morbidity and mortality rates of PCa, among all racial and ethnic groups. The initial diagnosis of PCa is often associated with a barrage of concerns for one's well-being including one's QoL...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
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