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Zsuzsanna H McMahan, Robyn T Domsic, Lei Zhu, Thomas A Medsger, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Ami A Shah
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of anti-RNPC3 antibodies in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma or SSc) patients with selected gastrointestinal (GI) tract complications. METHODS: Sera from SSc patients with or without severe GI dysfunction (total parenteral nutrition-dependence) from the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center were screened for anti-RNPC3 antibodies. We then examined anti-RNPC3-positive cases and negative SSc controls from the University of Pittsburgh and UMPC Scleroderma cohort to confirm our findings and to examine whether specific GI features were associated with anti-RNPC3 antibodies...
September 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Syuan-Hao Syu, Yung-Wei Lin, Ke-Hsun Lin, Liang-Ming Lee, Chi-Hao Hsiao, Yu-Ching Wen
Immunosuppressive therapies decreased the incidence of acute kidney rejection after kidney transplantation, but also increased the risk of infections and sepsis. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with complications and/or graft failure in kidney transplant patients with sepsis. A total of 14,658 kidney transplant patients with sepsis, identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (data from 2005-2014), were included in the study and classified into three groups: patients without complications or graft failure/dialysis (Group 1), patients with complications only (Group 2), and patients with complications and graft failure/dialysis (Group 3)...
September 16, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Vincent A Fusaro, Helen G Levy, H Luke Shaefer
Homelessness in the United States is often examined using cross-sectional, point-in-time samples. Any experience of homelessness is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, so it is also useful to understand the incidence of homelessness over longer periods. We estimate the lifetime prevalence of homelessness among members of the Baby Boom cohort (n = 6,545) using the 2012 and 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative survey of older Americans. Our analysis indicates that 6...
September 21, 2018: Demography
Michelle Birkett, Balint Neray, Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Brian Mustanski
Large disparities exist in HIV across racial and ethnic populations-with Black and Latino populations disproportionately affected. This study utilizes a large cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to examine how race and ethnicity drive sexual partner selection, and how those with intersecting identities (Latinos who identify as White or Black) differ from Latinos without a specific racial identification (Latinos who identify as "Other"). Data come from YMSM (N = 895) who reported on sexual partners (N = 3244)...
September 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Bernd Kirchhof
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Melissa T Merrick, Derek C Ford, Katie A Ports, Angie S Guinn
Importance: Early adversity is associated with leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality and effects on life opportunities. Objective: To provide an updated prevalence estimate of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the United States using a large, diverse, and representative sample of adults in 23 states. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annual, nationally representative telephone survey on health-related behaviors, health conditions, and use of preventive services, from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014...
September 17, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Beth S Slomine, Faye S Silverstein, James R Christensen, Kent Page, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
Importance: Little is known about neuropsychological outcomes of children who survived pediatric cardiac arrest (CA). Objective: To describe the neuropsychological outcomes of CA survivors enrolled in the Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest In-Hospital (THAPCA-IH) and Out-of-Hospital (THAPCA-OH) trials and compare the results with the primary outcome measure for these trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of 222 CA survivors aged 1 to 18 years who received chest compressions for 2 minutes or more, remained comatose and required mechanical ventilation after return of circulation, and were enrolled in targeted temperature-management trials from 41 pediatric intensive care units...
September 17, 2018: JAMA Neurology
J Geoffrey Stevenson
Conception, development, innovation, introduction, and validation are some of the steps in the introduction of new technologies and their clinical applications. More than 50 years ago, Doppler techniques and applications were introduced into echocardiography. An important further addition was the introduction of color as a medium for the display of Doppler information. The amplitude of the returning ultrasound signal has been used to generate a black and white image of structure. The phase shift between the transmitted and returning Doppler signal has been used to display Doppler shift information in color...
September 18, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Carrie Hanley, Kelly J Shields, Karen A Matthews, Maria M Brooks, Imke Janssen, Matthew J Budoff, Akira Sekikawa, Suresh Mulukutla, Samar R El Khoudary
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fat radiodensity, measured via CT Hounsfield units (HU), is a potential marker of fat quality. We sought to determine the cross-sectional associations of total heart fat (TAT) and aortic perivascular fat (PVAT) radiodensity with cardiovascular risk factors, coronary artery calcification (CAC), and aortic calcification (AC) in midlife women. METHODS: Fat radiodensity, CAC, and AC were quantified using CT scans. A total of 528 women (mean age: 50...
September 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Symielle A Gaston, W Braxton Jackson, David R Williams, Chandra L Jackson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate Black-White disparities in suboptimal sleep and cardiometabolic health by government-assisted rental housing status. DESIGN: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) pooled cross-sectional data (2004-2016). SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: Black and White adult participants (n = 80,880). MEASUREMENTS: Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals for self-reported unrecommended (<6 hours), short (≤6-<7 hours), and long (>9 hours) sleep duration (each separately vs recommended (≤7-9 hours)) and sleep difficulties (eg, trouble falling/staying asleep ≥3 days/week) (yes vs no) among Blacks compared to Whites within rental housing categories (government-assisted vs unassisted), separately, for men and women...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Lauren E Philbrook, Mina Shimizu, Joseph A Buckhalt, Mona El-Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: This study examined self-reported sleepiness as a pathway of effects underlying racial and socioeconomic disparities in children's academic and cognitive performance. DESIGN: The study design was longitudinal, and path modeling was used to test study hypotheses. SETTING: Data were collected from participants residing in semirural communities and small towns surrounding Auburn, AL. PARTICIPANTS: Children (N = 282; 52% boys) participated in the study when they were 9 (M = 9...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Nicola Postol, Jodie Marquez, Stephanie Spartalis, Andrew Bivard, Neil James Spratt
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of lower limb robotic exoskeletons on outcomes in the rehabilitation of people with acquired brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of seven electronic databases was conducted. The primary outcome of interest was neuromuscular function. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, mood, acceptability and safety. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and recommendations were made using the GRADE system. RESULTS: Of 2469 identified studies, 13 (n = 322) were included in the review...
September 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Vincent DeGennaro, Faiz Jiwani, Elizabeth Patberg, Martin Gibbs, Rachel Libby, Dieudina Gabriel, Coy D Heldermon, Karen Daily, Joseph Bernard
PURPOSE: Little is known about the epidemiology of breast cancer in developing countries, and Haiti has perhaps the least data of any country in the Western Hemisphere. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients enrolled in an ongoing breast cancer treatment program in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2017. Data were drawn from each patient's electronic medical record, paper chart, and biopsy results. RESULTS: The records of 525 women with breast cancer were reviewed for this study...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Ashtami Banavali, Elvira Neculiseanu, Padma L Draksharam, Sireesha Datla, Maushmi Savjani, Jennifer Park, Gurinder Sidhu, Evelyn O Taiwo
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common malignancy in the United States and has a higher incidence in the black and Afro-Caribbean population. There remain limited data on disease presentation and clinical characteristics in this patient group in the United States. The clinical profile of MM in this underrepresented patient group is described here. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Kings County Hospital, an urban New York City hospital in a majority Afro-Caribbean neighborhood...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Yuqi Sun, Chunmei Dai, Shudan Shi, Yan Zheng, Wei Wei, Dong Cai
The phenotypes of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) relate to their difference of chemical compositions and biological activities. Essential oils, lipids and polysaccharides are the main active components in Maca, all of which showed potential antioxidant effect. The essential oil, lipid and polysaccharide compositions were analyzed by GC-MS after the samples were properly pre-treated from yellow, red and black Maca. The antioxidant properties of the three types of components were examined using the DPPH scavenging assay...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jing An, Qian Zhou, Meiying Wu, Lu Wang, Yufang Zhong, Jialiang Feng, Yu Shang, Yingjun Chen
After emitted from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, ambient black carbon (BC) was then undergone photochemical oxidization processes in the air to form aged BC particles, also called oxidized BC (OBC). This study aimed to investigate the interactions between oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis induced by OBC in A549 cells and to explore associated molecular mechanisms. First, OBC could stimulate oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis dose-dependently, as evidenced by increased intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, up-regulated autophagosome markers (light chain 3, LC3), and elevated apoptosis rate...
September 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Jacek Plewka, Gonçalo L Silva, Rupert Tscheließnig, Harald Rennhofer, Cristina Dias-Cabral, Alois Jungbauer, Helga C Lichtenegger
Protein-A chromatography is the most widely used chromatography step in downstream processing of antibodies. A deeper understanding of the influence of the surface topology on a molecular/nanoscale level on adsorption is essential for further improvement. It is not clear if the binding is homogenous throughout the entire bead network. We followed the protein absorption process and observed the formation of a protein layer on fibers of chromatography resin in a time-resolved manner in nanoscale. To characterize the changes in the antibody-protein-A ligand complex, small angle X-ray scattering was employed using a miniaturized, X-ray-transparent chromatography column packed with a MabSelect SuRe resin...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Colin Marshall, Bhakti Chavan, Zelalem T Haile
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between insurance status and HPV vaccination. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study analyzed data from women aged 18-26 years who participated in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys 2009-2012 in the USA for associations between insurance status and HPV vaccination. RESULTS: The study included 621 women; 424 (68.3%) had some type of insurance and 198 (30.6%) had received the HPV vaccine...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Hafizi Rosli, Jean C Batzer, Thomas C Harrington, Mark L Gleason
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi infect the cuticle of fruit, including apple fruit, and produce pigmented colonies. A new member of this fungal complex in the genus Peltaster is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The SBFS complex is a diverse group of ectophytic fungi that reside primarily within the order Capnodiales. Sooty blotch and flyspeck isolates from apple orchards in the central United States were subjected to parsimony and Bayesian analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuc rDNA, the partial translation elongation factor 1-α gene, and the partial mitochondrial small subunit rRNA gene...
September 21, 2018: Mycologia
Carlos A R Herdeiro, Eugen Radu, Nicolas Sanchis-Gual, José A Font
Extended scalar-tensor Gauss-Bonnet (ESTGB) gravity has been recently argued to exhibit spontaneous scalarization of vacuum black holes (BHs). A similar phenomenon can be expected in a larger class of models, which includes, e.g., Einstein-Maxwell scalar (EMS) models, where spontaneous scalarization of electrovacuum BHs should occur. EMS models have no higher curvature corrections, a technical simplification over ESTGB models that allows us to investigate, fully nonlinearly, BH scalarization in two novel directions...
September 7, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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