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Renfeng Xu, Daniel Gil, Mohammed Dibas, William Hare, Arthur Bradley
Purpose: To examine the impact of small pupils and light levels on reading performance of distance-corrected presbyopes. To determine whether small pupils would enable presbyopes to read at near even at low light levels. Methods: To establish the lower range of text luminances, we quantified the space-averaged luminance of text in nine different artificially lit interior environments, and examined the impact of the text characters on space-averaged luminance of electronic and printed displays...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Barbara J Daley, Sarah Morgan, Sarah Beman Black
BACKGROUND: Although concept mapping was created in the early 1980s, research in nursing education first appeared in 1992. This literature review analyzes the impact of concept mapping in nursing education. METHOD: A total of 221 articles, books, and book chapters were reviewed on the topic of concept mapping in nursing education. RESULTS: Results indicate that concept-mapping research progressed from the emergence state, to an expansion and adaptation stage, to an established stage...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
James Weger-Lucarelli, Claudia Rückert, Nunya Chotiwan, Chilinh Nguyen, Selene M Garcia Luna, Joseph R Fauver, Brian D Foy, Rushika Perera, William C Black, Rebekah C Kading, Gregory D Ebel
In 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) emerged in the Americas, causing millions of infections in dozens of countries. The rapid spread of the virus and the association with disease outcomes such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly make understanding transmission dynamics essential. Currently, there are no reports of vector competence (VC) of American mosquitoes for ZIKV isolates from the Americas. Further, it is not clear whether ZIKV strains from other genetic lineages can be transmitted by American Aedes aegypti populations, and whether the scope of the current epidemic is in part facilitated by viral factors such as enhanced replicative fitness or increased vector competence...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ljerka Lah, Daronja Trense, Harald Benke, Per Berggren, Þorvaldur Gunnlaugsson, Christina Lockyer, Ayaka Öztürk, Bayram Öztürk, Iwona Pawliczka, Anna Roos, Ursula Siebert, Krzysztof Skóra, Gísli Víkingsson, Ralph Tiedemann
The population structure of the highly mobile marine mammal, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in the Atlantic shelf waters follows a pattern of significant isolation-by-distance. The population structure of harbor porpoises from the Baltic Sea, which is connected with the North Sea through a series of basins separated by shallow underwater ridges, however, is more complex. Here, we investigated the population differentiation of harbor porpoises in European Seas with a special focus on the Baltic Sea and adjacent waters, using a population genomics approach...
2016: PloS One
Christopher S Fowler, Barrett A Lee, Stephen A Matthews
Although the trend toward greater ethnoracial diversity in the United States has been documented at a variety of geographic scales, most research tracks diversity one scale at a time. Our study bridges scales, asking how the diversity and segregation patterns of metropolitan areas are influenced by shifts in the racial/ethnic composition of their constituent places. Drawing on 1980-2010 decennial census data, we use a new visual tool to compare the distributions of place diversity for 50 U.S. metro areas over three decades...
October 25, 2016: Demography
Sana El-Kacemi, Hicham Zazou, Nihal Oturan, Matthias Dietze, Mohamed Hamdani, Mohammed Es-Souni, Mehmet A Oturan
Electrochemical oxidative degradation of diazo dye Amido black 10B (AB10B) as model pollutant in water has been studied using nanostructured ZnO-TiO2 thin films deposited on graphite felt (GrF) substrate as anode. The influence of various operating parameters, namely the current intensity, the nature and concentration of catalyst, the nature of electrode materials (anode/cathode), and the adsorption of dye and ambient light were investigated. It was found that the oxidative degradation of AB10B followed pseudo first-order kinetics...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S E Abd Elhafez, H A Hamad, A A Zaatout, G F Malash
In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Robert Weech-Maldonado, Janice L Dreachslin, Josué Patien Epané, Judith Gail, Shivani Gupta, Joyce Anne Wainio
BACKGROUND: Cultural competency or the ongoing capacity of health care systems to provide for high-quality care to diverse patient populations (National Quality Forum, 2008) has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address disparities in quality of care, patient experience, and workforce representation. But far too many health care organizations still do not treat cultural competency as a business imperative and driver of strategy. PURPOSES: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a systematic, multifaceted, and organizational level cultural competency initiative on hospital performance metrics at the organizational and individual levels...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Kathrine Lynn Barnes, Casper G Bendixsen
Farmers are growing older, and fewer new agriculturists are rising to take their place. Concurrently, women and minorities are entering agriculture at an increasing rate. These rates are particularly curious viewed in light of the racialized and gendered nature of agriculture. Slavery and agriculture share strong historical roots with many male slaves performing agricultural labor. So then, why would African American women choose to engage in agriculture in any form? Participant-observation and in-depth interviews with a group of African American women urban farmers in the southeastern United States were asked this question...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Kyle G Reeves, Yi Yao, Yosuke Kanai
Recent technical advances in dealing with finite-size errors make quantum Monte Carlo methods quite appealing for treating extended systems in electronic structure calculations, especially when commonly used density functional theory (DFT) methods might not be satisfactory. We present a theoretical study of martensitic phase transition energetics of a two-dimensional phosphorene by employing diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) approach. The DMC calculation supports DFT prediction of having a rather diffusive barrier that is characterized by having two transition states, in addition to confirming that the so-called black and blue phases of phosphorene are essentially degenerate...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Martin Gustavsson, David Hörnström, Susanna Lundh, Jaroslav Belotserkovsky, Gen Larsson
Today, it is considered state-of-the-art to engineer living organisms for various biotechnology applications. Even though this has led to numerous scientific breakthroughs, the enclosed interior of bacterial cells still restricts interactions with enzymes, pathways and products due to the mass-transfer barrier formed by the cell envelope. To promote accessibility, we propose engineering of biocatalytic reactions and subsequent product deposition directly on the bacterial surface. As a proof-of-concept, we used the AIDA autotransporter vehicle for Escherichia coli surface expression of tyrosinase and fully oxidized externally added tyrosine to the biopolymer melanin...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sujith Ravi, Brenton S Sharratt, Junran Li, Stuart Olshevski, Zhongju Meng, Jianguo Zhang
Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Max S Chiu, Vivek Verma, Nathan R Bennion, Abhijeet R Bhirud, Jinluan Li, Mary E Charlton, Chandrakanth Are, Chi Lin
Large, population-based analyses of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have not been previously conducted. We assessed patterns of care, prognostic factors, and outcomes of rectal SCC and adenocarcinoma (AC) in population-based cohorts. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry searches were performed (1998-2011), producing 42,308 nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients (999 SCC and 41,309 AC). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared. Based on risk factors, SCC/AC groups were subdivided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, A E Heazell, I Jeffrey, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Of 780 000 births annually in the UK, around 3300 are stillborn, a rate of approximately 4 per 1000 births. Traditional epidemiological associations are based on historic data. The aim of this study was to document contemporary demographic findings in a large series of > 1000 deaths in utero in London and compare these with national datasets. METHODS: From a dedicated database, including > 400 data fields per case, of fetal, infant and pediatric autopsies performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital and St George's Hospital, London, we extracted information on all intrauterine deaths, excluding terminations of pregnancy, from 2005 to 2013, inclusive...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
J Man, J C Hutchinson, A E Heazell, M Ashworth, I Jeffrey, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Placental abnormalities are a common cause of death in stillbirth, ranking second only to unexplained deaths, though there is wide variation in the proportion attributed to placental disease. In clinical practice, interpretation of the significance of placental findings is difficult, since many placental features in stillbirths overlap with those in live births. Our aim was to examine objectively classified placental findings from a series of > 1000 autopsies following intrauterine death in order to evaluate the role of placental histological examination in determining the cause of death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
J Man, J C Hutchinson, A E Heazell, M Ashworth, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: There have been several attempts to classify cause of death (CoD) in stillbirth; however, all such systems are subjective, allowing for observer bias and making comparisons between systems challenging. This study aimed to examine factors relating to determination of CoD using a large dataset from two specialist centers in which observer bias had been reduced by classifying findings objectively and assigning CoD based on predetermined criteria. METHODS: Detailed autopsy reports from intrauterine deaths in the second and third trimesters during 2005-2013 were reviewed and findings entered into a specially designed database, in which CoD was assigned using predefined objective criteria...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Narjis Naz, Aiza Kashif, Kinza Kanwal, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Mateen Abbas
The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27...
2016: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Taylor Jamerson, Rachel Sylvester, Qingmei Jiang, Nicole Corriveau, Jean DuRussel-Weston, Eva Kline-Rogers, Elizabeth A Jackson, Kim A Eagle
PURPOSE: To compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of black and non-black children participating in Project Healthy Schools (PHS), a school-based wellness program. DESIGN: Participants were surveyed and participated in physiological screenings pre- and post-PHS intervention. SETTING: Middle schools in 4 Michigan communities of varying socioeconomic status. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3813 sixth-grade students comprised the survey sample, and 2297 sixth-grade students comprised the screening sample...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Dhavalkumar B Patel, Rachit M Shah, Deepak L Bhatt, Li Liang, Phillip J Schulte, Adam D DeVore, Adrian F Hernandez, Paul A Heidenreich, Clyde W Yancy, Gregg C Fonarow
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing awareness regarding evidence-based guidelines, considerable gaps exist for heart failure (HF) quality of care at teaching hospitals (TH) and nonteaching hospitals (NTH). We analyzed data from Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF to compare the rates and trends of guideline-recommended care at TH and NTH for patients with HF. METHOD AND RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics, performance measures, and in-hospital outcomes were compared between 197 187 HF patients admitted to TH and 106 924 patients admitted to NTH between 2005 and 2014...
October 25, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Jing Li, Alistair Woodward, Xiang-Yu Hou, Tong Zhu, Jinliang Zhang, Helen Brown, Jun Yang, Rennie Qin, Jinghong Gao, Shaohua Gu, Jing Li, Lei Xu, Xiaobo Liu, Qiyong Liu
Temperature extremes and air pollution both pose significant threats to human health, but it remains uncertain whether pollutants' effects on mortality are modified by temperature levels. In this review, we summarized epidemiologic evidence on the modification by temperature of the acute effects of air pollutants on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. The EMBASE, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Elsevier Science Direct databases were used to identify papers published up to 2nd December 2014...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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