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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031094/risk-assessment-of-dietary-lead-exposure-among-first-nations-people-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada-using-a-total-diet-study-and-a-probabilistic-approach
#1
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan, Laurie Chan
Indigenous peoples have elevated risk of lead (Pb) exposure as hunted traditional food can be contaminated with lead-containing ammunition. Recent scientific consensus states that there is no threshold level for Pb exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to Pb among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall and Pb concentrations for traditional foods from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) and Pb concentrations in market foods from Health Canada...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029344/the-clinical-and-economic-impact-of-attaining-national-hiv-aids-strategy-treatment-targets-in-the-united-states
#2
Ethan D Borre, Emily P Hyle, A David Paltiel, Anne M Neilan, Paul E Sax, Kenneth A Freedberg, Milton C Weinstein, Rochelle P Walensky
Background: The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) aims for 72% (90% diagnosed times 80% of those virally suppressed) viral suppression among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by 2020. We examined the clinical and economic impact of reaching this target, in the general US population and among black men who have sex with men (MSM), the group with the highest HIV prevalence. Methods: Using a mathematical simulation, we project the 5- and 20-year clinical outcomes, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for (1) Current Pace of detection, linkage, retention, and virologic suppression and (2) NHAS investments in expanded testing ($24-$74 per test) and adherence ($400 per person-year), calibrated to achieve 72% suppression by 2020...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029329/a-new-anthropophilic-species-of-simulium-trichodagmia-diptera-simuliidae-from-amazonia-morphology-chromosomes-and-dna-sequences
#3
Jeane Marcelle Cavalcante Do Nascimento, Neusa Hamada, Vanderly Andrade-Souza, Peter H Adler
The black fly Simulium (Trichodagmia) hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae) is widely distributed in southern Brazil, with one report from Amapá state in the northern region of Brazilian Amazonia. Morphological comparison of northern and southern populations revealed differences in all life stages, corroborated by chromosomal and molecular analyses, and indicated that the population previously identified as S. hirtipupa from Amapá state represents an undescribed species. This new species is described based on all life stages above the egg, and its chromosomal and molecular divergence from S...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029220/effect-of-host-traits-and-land-use-changes-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-namibian-black-backed-jackal-canis-mesomelas
#4
Sebastian Menke, Matthias Meier, John K E Mfune, Joerg Melzheimer, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Host traits and environmental factors drive the natural variation in gut microbiota and disruption in homeostasis can cause infections and chronic diseases. African wildlife is increasingly facing human-induced agricultural habitats, which also amplifies the contact probability with livestock with unknown consequences for wildlife gut microbiotas and the risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. We applied high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and microsatellite genotyping to investigate the impact of host traits and habitat use on the gut microbiotas of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)...
September 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029209/genetic-evidence-for-the-introduction-of-rhagoletis-pomonella-diptera-tephritidae-into-the-northwestern-united-states
#5
Sheina B Sim, Meredith M Doellman, Glen R Hood, Wee L Yee, Thomas H Q Powell, Dietmar Schwarz, Robert B Goughnour, Scott P Egan, Gilbert St Jean, James J Smith, Tracy E Arcella, Jason D K Dzurisin, Jeffrey L Feder
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. The fly is believed to have been introduced into the Pacific Northwest via the transport of larval-infested apples near Portland, Oregon, within the last 40 yr. However, R. pomonella also attacks native black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii Lindley (Rosales: Rosaceae), and introduced ornamental hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna Jacquin, in the region. It is, therefore, possible that R...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029097/impact-of-three-doses-of-vitamin-d3-on-serum-25-oh-d-deficiency-and-insufficiency-in-at-risk-schoolchildren
#6
Jennifer M Sacheck, Maria I Van Rompay, Virginia R Chomitz, Christina D Economos, Misha Eliasziw, Elizabeth Goodman, Catherine M Gordon, Michael F Holick
Objective: We investigated the daily dose of vitamin D needed to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] sufficiency among schoolchildren at-risk for deficiency. Study Design: The Daily D Health Study was a randomized double-blind vitamin D supplementation trial among racially/ethnically diverse schoolchildren (n=685) in the northeastern U.S. Children were supplemented with vitamin D3 at 600, 1000, or 2000 IU/day for six months. Measurements included serum 25(OH)D at baseline (Oct-Dec), 3 months (Jan-March), 6 months (April-June), and 12 months (6 months post-supplementation)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028854/clinical-insights-and-emerging-strategies-in-managing-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#7
Christina C Patrone, Larisa J Geskin
<p>Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome, the two most common types of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL), present many management challenges for dermatologists. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of up-to-date literature, guidelines, and expert clinical insights. We highlight the updates in the World Health Organization Classification of Cutaneous Lymphomas; we summarize the epidemiology, including a recently observed stabilization of increasing incidence of CTCL in the past decade and increased incidence in males, blacks, and veterans; we also provide the most recent updates on prognostic factors for CTCL...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028754/can-economic-model-transparency-improve-provider-interpretation-of-cost-effectiveness-analysis-a-response
#8
Joshua T Cohen, John B Wong
To enhance the credibility and the value of health economic analyses, we argue that the computer model source code underlying these analyses should be made publicly available. Only with open publication is it possible for others to assess whether alternative assumptions, beyond those examined by the model authors, alter the model's findings. Because reproducibility is critical for scientific acceptance and because computation increasingly permeates scientific inquiry, other fields have moved toward open publication of computer models, and health economics should avoid falling behind...
November 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028693/the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-results-in-decreased-post-transplant-survival
#9
Erin M Schumer, Michele Gallo, Michael P Rogers, Jaimin R Trivedi, Matthew C Black, H Todd Massey, Mark S Slaughter
The effects of pulmonary hypertension (PAH) on survival after heart transplantation are debated, especially for patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). The United Network of Organ Sharing database was retrospectively queried from January 2005 to June 2015 to identify adult patients who underwent heart transplantation. Four groups were defined: patients without PAH, persistent PAH, resolved PAH, and developed PAH between listing and transplant. A total of 15,914 patients underwent heart transplant of which 4,662 (29%) were implanted with an LVAD...
October 10, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028665/gynecologic-cancer-in-hiv-infected-women-treatment-and-outcomes-in-a-multi-institutional-cohort
#10
Kimberly L Levinson, David J Riedel, Laureen S Ojalvo, Wesley Chan, Ana M Azngarita, Amanda N Fader, Anne F Rositch
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gynecologic cancer treatments in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected women for adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and to describe survival by adherence to guidelines. DESIGN: Beyond cervical cancer, there is little data on treatment and outcomes for these women. This is a retrospective cohort study of HIV infected women with gynecologic cancers. METHODS: HIV infected women with gynecologic cancers from 2000-2015 were identified at two urban, comprehensive cancer centers...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028555/shifting-characteristics-of-ecstasy-users-ages-12-34-in-the-united-states-2007-2014
#11
Joseph J Palamar, Pia M Mauro, Benjamin H Han, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy/MDMA has been one of the most prevalent party drugs for decades, and powder ecstasy recently increased in popularity. We examined trends in use to determine who to best target for prevention and harm reduction. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the 2007-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample, was conducted. Linear trends in past-year ecstasy use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among ecstasy users were examined among participants ages 12-34 (N=332,560)...
October 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028333/profiling-and-quantification-of-regioisomeric-caffeoyl-glucoses-in-berry-fruits
#12
Maria Alexandra Patras, Nikolai Kuhnert, Rakesh Jaiswal, Gordon J McDougall
Based on a recently developed tandem MS based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled included strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red and black currants, lingonberries, gooseberries, cranberries, juice of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranate were investigated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027997/microdiversification-in-genome-streamlined-ubiquitous-freshwater-actinobacteria
#13
Stefan M Neuenschwander, Rohit Ghai, Jakob Pernthaler, Michaela M Salcher
Actinobacteria of the acI lineage are the most abundant microbes in freshwater systems, but there are so far no pure living cultures of these organisms, possibly because of metabolic dependencies on other microbes. This, in turn, has hampered an in-depth assessment of the genomic basis for their success in the environment. Here we present genomes from 16 axenic cultures of acI Actinobacteria. The isolates were not only of minute cell size, but also among the most streamlined free-living microbes, with extremely small genome sizes (1...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027705/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-spices-on-forage-degradability-ruminal-fermentation-in-vivo-digestibility-growth-performance-and-nitrogen-balance-in-black-bengal-goat
#14
M R Chowdhury, M M H Khan, S U Mahfuz, M A Baset
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of spices on forage utilization and nitrogen (N) emission using in vitro and in vivo approach. A 6 × 5 factorial triplicate arrangement was used to assess the in vitro degradability of rice straw with control (without spices) and individual (40 mg/g rice straw) spices (cumin, coriander, clove, black cumin, turmeric) at five different incubation times. In vitro dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability of rice straw were highest in presence of spices except for clove...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027276/natural-medicines-for-acute-renal-failure-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Motahareh Boozari, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a life-threating disease with high mortality percentage. Two important mechanisms of ARF are inflammation and oxidative stress. Plants are rich source of antioxidant compounds and have a strong anti-inflammatory activity, so they may be useful for the treatment of ARF. Some herbal medicines are effective against different models of experimentally induced ARF such as cisplatin, gentamicin, glycerol, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Some of these plants such as ginseng, black seed, ginger, garlic, grape, pomegranate, saffron, and green tea are so famous and are effective against various models of ARF...
October 13, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027270/the-yerba-mate-intake-has-a-neutral-effect-on-bone-a-case-control-study-in-postmenopausal-women
#16
Denise T A da Veiga, Raísa Bringhenti, Aline A Bolignon, Etiane Tatsh, Rafael N Moresco, Fabio V Comim, Melissa O Premaor
Nutritional factors have been associated with osteoporosis and fractures. The intake of coffee may increase the risk of fracture whereas the intake of black and green tea is associated with its reduction. Recently, consumption of yerba mate was associated with increased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, its influence on fracture is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yerba mate tea intake on fractures, bone markers, calcium homeostasis, and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women...
October 13, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026756/gynecological-complaints-and-their-associated-factors-among-women-in-a-family-health-care-clinic
#17
Mateus de Paula von Glehn, Linconl Uchôa Sidon, Eleuza Rodrigues Machado
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the most common gynecological complaints and possible associated factors among women of reproductive age attended at a family health-care clinic. METHODOLOGY: A transversal study conducted with a sample of an outpatient population consisting of women of reproductive age. Pregnant women and minors were excluded. The final sample consisted of women between 18 and 49 years of age. The participants answered a questionnaire in which the complaints of the last 4 weeks were registered...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026634/hiv-positive-patient-with-gbs-like-syndrome
#18
Samantha J Shepherd, Heather Black, Emma C Thomson, Rory N Gunson
Introduction. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy which can occur post-infection. Criteria of diagnosis of GBS include areflexia with progressive bilateral weakness in arms and legs. GBS can lead to severe respiratory and cardiac complications. The fatality rate can be up to 5 % in patients, depending on the severity of the symptoms. HIV can cause a range of neurological disorders including, on rare occasions, GBS. GBS can occur at any stage of HIV infection, highlighting the complexity of diagnosis of GBS within HIV patients...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026629/a-case-of-exophiala-dermatitidis-infection-in-a-child-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review-of-paediatric-cases
#19
Dominika Tanuskova, Julia Horakova, Darina Buzassyova, Miroslava Poczova, Ivana Bodova, Peter Svec, Alica Chocholova, Jaroslava Adamcakova, Tomas Sykora, Miroslava Pozdechova, Lucia Geczova, Alexandra Kolenova
Introduction.Exophiala dermatitidisis a relatively common environmental black yeast with worldwide distribution and is a rare cause of fungal infection, mostly in patients with certain predisposing factors. Due to the rarity of the infection, little is known about the specific predisposing factors, way of infection or treatment. Case presentation. Here, we report what is to our knowledge the first case of E. dermatitidis infection in a child after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also review all paediatric cases reported in the literature since 1993...
June 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026613/a-case-of-generalized-argyria-presenting-with-muscle-weakness
#20
Inha Jung, Eun-Jeong Joo, Byung Seong Suh, Cheol-Bae Ham, Ji-Min Han, You-Gyung Kim, Joon-Sup Yeom, Ju-Yeon Choi, Ji-Hye Park
BACKGROUND: Argyria is a rare irreversible cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by prolonged exposure to silver. Herein, we report a case of generalized argyria that developed after chronic ingestion of soluble silver-nano particles and presented with muscle weakness. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old woman visited our emergency room, complaining of fever and mental deterioration. She was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis and recovered after antibiotic therapy...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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