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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549220/physiological-responses-during-intermittent-running-exercise-differ-between-outdoor-and-treadmill-running
#1
Marco Panascì, Romuald Lepers, Antonio La Torre, Matteo Bonato, Hervè Assadi
The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses during 15 min of intermittent running consisting of 30 s high intensity running exercise at maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) interspersed with 30 s passive recovery (30-30) performed outdoor versus on a motorized treadmill. Fifteen collegiate physically active males (age: 22±1 years-old; body mass: 66±7 kg; stature: 176±06 cm, weekly training volume: 5±2 h·week<sup>-1</sup>), performed Fitness Intermittent test 45-15 in order to determine VO<sub>2max</sub> and Maximal Aerobic Velocity (MAV) and then completed in random order three different training sessions consisting of 30s run -30s rest outdoor on athletic track (30-30 Track) at MAV; 30s run -30s rest on treadmill (30-30 Treadmill) at MAV; 30s run -30s rest at MAV+15% (30-30+15% MAV Treadmill)...
May 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543790/are-heart-rate-monitors-valuable-tools-for-diagnosing-arrhythmias-in-endurance-athletes
#2
Robert Gajda, Elżbieta Katarzyna Biernacka, Wojciech Drygas
Millions of physically active individuals worldwide use heart rate monitors (HRMs) to control their exercise intensity. In many cases, the HRM indicates an unusually high heart rate (HR) or even arrhythmias during training. Unfortunately, studies assessing the reliability of these devices to help control HR disturbances during exercise do not exist. We examined 142 regularly training endurance runners and cyclists, aged 18-51, with unexplained HR abnormalities indicated by various HRMs to assess the utility of HRMs in diagnosing exertion-induced arrhythmias...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542873/a-map-of-the-phosphoproteomic-alterations-that-occur-after-a-bout-of-maximal-intensity-contractions
#3
Gregory K Potts, Rachel M McNally, Rocky Blanco, Jae-Sung You, Alexander S Hebert, Michael S Westphall, Joshua J Coon, Troy A Hornberger
The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is essential for health and quality of life. It is well recognized that maximal-intensity contractions, such as those which occur during resistance exercise, promote an increase in muscle mass. Yet, the molecules that sense the mechanical information and convert it into the signalling events (e.g. phosphorylation) that drive the increase in muscle mass remain undefined. Here we describe a phosphoproteomics workflow to examine the effects of electrically evoked maximal-intensity contractions (MIC) on protein phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542091/normative-data-for-critical-speed-and-d-for-high-level-male-rugby-players
#4
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538603/a-systematic-review-of-the-exercise-effect-on-bone-health-the-importance-of-assessing-mechanical-loading-in-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#5
Borja Sañudo, Moisés de Hoyo, Jesús Del Pozo-Cruz, Luis Carrasco, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Sergio Tejero, Elwyn Firth
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic review were to determine the general effects of exercise on areal bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to provide information on the most suitable bone-loading exercise regimens that may improve bone health in this population group. METHODS: A computerized, systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and The Cochrane Library, from January 2005 to November 2015, to identify all randomized controlled trials related to exercise in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women...
May 22, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538378/effects-of-intensive-training-on-menstrual-function-and-certain-serum-hormones-and-peptides-related-to-the-female-reproductive-system
#6
Geum Joon Cho, Sung Won Han, Jung-Ho Shin, Tak Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538317/effects-of-inertial-setting-on-power-force-work-and-eccentric-overload-during-flywheel-resistance-exercise-in-women-and-men
#7
Luis M Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Martinez-Aranda, LM and Fernandez-Gonzalo, R. Effects of inertial setting on power, force, work and eccentric overload during flywheel resistance exercise in women and men. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1653-1661, 2017-Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538297/effect-of-game-design-goal-type-and-player-numbers-on-the-physiological-and-physical-demands-of-hurling-specific-small-sided-games
#8
Shane Malone, Kieran D Collins
Malone, S and Collins, K. Effect of game design, goal type, and player numbers on the physiological and physical demands of hurling-specific small-sided games. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1493-1499, 2017-The current study examined the effect that game design modification, goal type, and player numbers on the running performance and physiological demands of small-sided hurling games (SSG). Forty-eight hurling players (age, 25.5 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 3.2 cm; body mass, 78.5 ± 4.5 kg) performed 4 types of SSG (possession [P], normal play [NP], regular goals [RG] and small goals [SG]) in 4-a-side, 5-a-side, and 6-a-side formats...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536531/caffeine-and-bicarbonate-for-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-legal-supplements-potential-for-improving-intense-endurance-exercise-performance
#9
REVIEW
Peter M Christensen, Yusuke Shirai, Christian Ritz, Nikolai B Nordsborg
A 1% change in average speed is enough to affect medal rankings in intense Olympic endurance events lasting ~45 s to 8 min which for example includes 100 m swimming and 400 m running (~1 min), 1,500 m running and 4000 m track cycling (~4 min) and 2,000 m rowing (~6-8 min). To maximize the likelihood of winning, athletes utilizes legal supplements with or without scientifically documented beneficial effects on performance. Therefore, a continued systematic evidence based evaluation of the possible ergogenic effects is of high importance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534495/exercise-induces-cerebral-vegf-and-angiogenesis-via-the-lactate-receptor-hcar1
#10
Cecilie Morland, Krister A Andersson, Øyvind P Haugen, Alena Hadzic, Liv Kleppa, Andreas Gille, Johanne E Rinholm, Vuk Palibrk, Elisabeth H Diget, Lauritz H Kennedy, Tomas Stølen, Eivind Hennestad, Olve Moldestad, Yiqing Cai, Maja Puchades, Stefan Offermanns, Koen Vervaeke, Magnar Bjørås, Ulrik Wisløff, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen
Physical exercise can improve brain function and delay neurodegeneration; however, the initial signal from muscle to brain is unknown. Here we show that the lactate receptor (HCAR1) is highly enriched in pial fibroblast-like cells that line the vessels supplying blood to the brain, and in pericyte-like cells along intracerebral microvessels. Activation of HCAR1 enhances cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and cerebral angiogenesis. High-intensity interval exercise (5 days weekly for 7 weeks), as well as L-lactate subcutaneous injection that leads to an increase in blood lactate levels similar to exercise, increases brain VEGFA protein and capillary density in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking HCAR1...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530505/ingestion-of-sodium-bicarbonate-nahco3-following-a-fatiguing-bout-of-exercise-accelerates-post-exercise-acid-base-balance-recovery-and-improves-subsequent-high-intensity-cycling-time-to-exhaustion
#11
Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins
This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527012/effect-of-voluntary-hypocapnic-hyperventilation-or-moderate-hypoxia-on-metabolic-and-heart-rate-responses-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise
#12
Kohei Dobashi, Naoto Fujii, Kazuhito Watanabe, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Tomomi Fujimoto, Satoru Tanigawa, Takeshi Nishiyasu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation or moderate hypoxia on metabolic and heart rate responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten males performed three 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling [Ex1 and Ex2: constant-workload at 80% of the power output in the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), Ex3: WAnT] interspaced with 4-min recovery periods under normoxic (Control), hypocapnic or hypoxic (2500 m) conditions...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526225/the-acute-response-to-interval-and-continuous-exercise-in-adults-with-confirmed-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#13
Carley O'Neill, Kirsten Burgomaster, Otto Sanchez, Shilpa Dogra
OBJECTIVES: To determine changes in lung function following an acute bout of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate intensity interval exercise (MIIE), and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in adults with airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). DESIGN: A randomized cross-over design was used. METHODS: Participants completed five laboratory sessions: (1) eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge (2) maximal exercise test to determine peak power output (PPO) and, (3-5) HIIE (90% PPO for 1min followed by 10% PPO for 1min, repeated 10 times), MIIE (65% PPO for 1min followed by 10% PPO for 1min, repeated 10 times) and MICE (65% PPO for 20min)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525338/different-training-schedules-influence-platelet-aggregation-in-show-jumping-horses
#14
C Giannetto, F Arfuso, F Fazio, E Giudice, S Di Pietro, D Bruschetta, G Piccione
Depending on the intensity, duration and type of physical exercise, equine metabolism has to adapt to nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system requirements. In horses, exercise and training are known to have considerable effects on the mechanisms of hemostatic system involving platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training schedules on platelet aggregation in 15 Italian Saddle jumping horses. Animals were divided into three equal groups: Group A was subjected to a high intensity-training program; group B to a light training program, group C included sedentary horses...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524103/potential-impact-of-nutrition-on-immune-system-recovery-from-heavy-exertion-a-metabolomics-perspective
#15
REVIEW
David C Nieman, Susan Hazels Mitmesser
This review describes effective and ineffective immunonutrition support strategies for the athlete, with a focus on the benefits of carbohydrates and polyphenols as determined from metabolomics-based procedures. Athletes experience regular cycles of physiological stress accompanied by transient inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations, and there are increasing data indicating that these are sensitive to nutritional influences. The most effective nutritional countermeasures, especially when considered from a metabolomics perspective, include acute and chronic increases in dietary carbohydrate and polyphenols...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522976/trunk-muscle-activity-during-drop-jump-performance-in-adolescent-athletes-with-back-pain
#16
Steffen Mueller, Josefine Stoll, Juliane Mueller, Michael Cassel, Frank Mayer
In the context of back pain, great emphasis has been placed on the importance of trunk stability, especially in situations requiring compensation of repetitive, intense loading induced during high-performance activities, e.g., jumping or landing. This study aims to evaluate trunk muscle activity during drop jump in adolescent athletes with back pain (BP) compared to athletes without back pain (NBP). Eleven adolescent athletes suffering back pain (BP: m/f: n = 4/7; 15.9 ± 1.3 y; 176 ± 11 cm; 68 ± 11 kg; 12...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522765/exercise-training-in-tg%C3%AE-q-44-mice-during-the-progression-of-chronic-heart-failure-cardiac-vs-peripheral-soleus-muscle-impairments-to-oxidative-metabolism
#17
Bruno Grassi, Joanna Majerczak, Eleonora Bardi, Alessia Buso, Marina Comelli, Stefan Chlopicki, Magdalena Guzik, Irene Mavelli, Zenon Nieckarz, Desy Salvadego, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Tomasz Skorka, Roberto Bottinelli, Jerzy A Zoladz, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Cardiac function, skeletal (soleus) muscle oxidative metabolism and the effects of exercise training were evaluated in a transgenic murine model (Tgαq*44) of chronic heart failure (CHF) during the critical period between the occurrence of an impairment of cardiac function and the stage at which overt cardiac failure ensues (i.e. from 10 to 12 months of age). Forty-eight Tgαq*44 mice and 43 wild-type (WT) FVB controls were randomly assigned to control groups and to groups undergoing 2 months of intense exercise training (spontaneous running on a instrumented wheel)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521867/effect-of-a-single-bout-of-aerobic-exercise-on-high-fat-meal-induced-inflammation
#18
Kelly N Z Fuller, Corey M Summers, Rudy J Valentine
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of metabolic disorders including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome. Aerobic exercise has been shown to be anti-inflammatory and attenuate postprandial blood lipids, however, the effect of exercise on postprandial inflammation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of a single bout of aerobic exercise against postprandial lipemia and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) inflammation and to evaluate associations with changes in the energy-sensing enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520962/systematic-short-term-pulmonary-rehabilitation-before-lung-cancer-lobectomy-a-randomized-trial
#19
Yutian Lai, Jianhua Su, Peiyuan Qiu, Mingming Wang, Kun Zhou, Yuxin Tang, Guowei Che
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the impact of a preoperative 1-week, systematic, high-intensity inpatient exercise regimen on patients with lung cancer who had risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 101 subjects of a preoperative, 7-day systematic, integrated, high-intensity pulmonary exercise regimen. The control group received standard preoperative care. We analysed the occurrence of PPCs in both groups as the primary outcome; other outcomes included changes in blood gas, quality of life, peak expiratory flow rate, the 6-min walk distance and others...
May 17, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515052/exercise-training-improves-free-testosterone-in-lifelong-sedentary-aging-men
#20
Lawrence Hayes, Peter Herbert, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Fergal Grace
As the impact of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T), and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six weeks' training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C)...
May 17, 2017: Endocrine Connections
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