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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935419/is-there-really-an-eccentric-action-of-the-hamstrings-during-the-swing-phase-of-high-speed-running-part-ii-implications-for-exercise
#1
Bas Van Hooren, Frans Bosch
We have previously argued that there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstring muscle fibres during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this we suggested that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running. In this review we argue that some of the presumed beneficial adaptations following eccentric training may actually not be related to the eccentric muscle fibre action, but to other factors such as exercise intensity...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935085/muscle-activation-during-resistance-exercise-at-70-and-90-1rm-in-resistance-trained-men
#2
Adam M Gonzalez, Jamie J Ghigiarelli, Katie M Sell, Edward W Shone, Christopher F Kelly, Gerald T Mangine
INTRODUCTION: Muscle activation during resistance exercise with 2 relatively high-intensity loads was investigated. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men performed the leg press exercise to repetition failure: a set at 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and a set at 90% of 1RM. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess peak and mean muscle activation of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis. RESULTS: Peak and mean EMG remained greater at 90% than 70% 1RM across all repetitions (P=0...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932676/recovery-of-central-and-peripheral-neuromuscular-fatigue-after-exercise
#3
Timothy John Carroll, Janet L Taylor, Simon C Gandevia
Sustained physical exercise leads to a reduced capacity to produce voluntary force that typically outlasts the exercise bout. This "fatigue" can be due both to impaired muscle function, termed "peripheral fatigue", and a reduction in the capacity of the central nervous system to activate muscles, termed "central fatigue". In this mini-review we consider the factors that determine the recovery of voluntary force generating capacity after various types of exercise. After brief, high-intensity exercise there is typically a rapid restitution of force that is due to recovery of central fatigue (typically within 2min) and aspects of peripheral fatigue associated with excitation-contraction coupling and re-perfusion of muscles (typically within 3-5 min)...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932360/the-effects-of-a-high-intensity-functional-exercise-group-on-clinical-outcomes-in-hospitalised-older-adults-an-assessor-blinded-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Melissa J M Raymond, Kimberley J Jeffs, Adele Winter, Sze-Ee Soh, Peter Hunter, Anne E Holland
OBJECTIVE: to investigate a high-intensity functional exercise (HIFE) group in hospitalised older adults. DESIGN: assessor-blinded, randomised-controlled trial. SETTING: sub-acute wards at a metropolitan rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: older adults ≥65 years (n = 468) able to stand with minimum assistance or less from a chair and follow instructions. INTERVENTION: 'group' participants were offered a standing HIFE group three times a week and individual physiotherapy sessions twice a week...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932265/ottawa-panel-evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-structured-physical-activity-in-the-management-of-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#5
REVIEW
Sabrina Cavallo, Lucie Brosseau, Karine Toupin-April, George A Wells, Christine A M Smith, Arlanna G Pugh, Jennifer Stinson, Roanne Thomas, Sara Ahmed, Ciarán M Duffy, Prinon Rahman, Inmaculada C Àlvarez-Gallardo, Laurianne Loew, Gino De Angelis, Debbie Ehrmann Feldman, Annette Majnemer, Isabelle J Gagnon, Désirée Maltais, Marie-Ève Mathieu, Glen P Kenny, Susan Tupper, Kristi Whitney-Mahoney, Sarah Bigford
OBJECTIVE: To create guidelines focused on the use of structured physical activity (PA) in the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) for all studies related to PA programs for JIA from January 1966 until December 2014, and was updated in May 2015...
December 5, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932242/elevated-salivary-iga-decreased-anxiety-and-an-altered-oral-microbiota-are-associated-with-active-participation-on-an-undergraduate-athletic-team
#6
Ashley L Lamb, Debra E Hess, Sherie Edenborn, Elizabeth Ubinger, Andres E Carrillo, Pierette M Appasamy
BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate that regular, but not excessive, exercise can moderate the response to anxiety and alter the immune response, therefore we hypothesized that college student athletes who were actively participating on an NCAA Division III athletics team ("in-season") would have lower levels of anxiety and higher salivary IgA levels than similar college athletes who were in their "off-season".NCAA Division III athletes participate in athletics at a level of intensity that is more moderate compared to other NCAA divisions...
December 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931053/hemodynamic-responses-to-blood-flow-restriction-and-resistance-exercise-to-muscular-failure
#7
C A Libardi, A M Catai, M Miquelini, A Borghi-Silva, V Minatel, I F Alvarez, J C Milan-Mattos, H Roschel, V Tricoli, C Ugrinowitsch
The aim of the present study was to compare hemodynamic responses between blood flow-restricted resistance exercise (BFR-RE), high-intensity resistance exercise (HI-RE) and low-intensity resistance exercise (LI-RE) performed to muscular failure. 12 men (age: 20±3 years; body mass: 73.5±9 kg; height: 174±6 cm) performed 4 sets of leg press exercises using BFR-RE (30% of 1-RM), HI-RE (80% of 1-RM) and LI-RE (30% of 1-RM) protocols. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) were measured on a beat-to-beat continuous basis by a noninvasive photoplethysmographic arterial pressure device...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930890/within-session-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Todd Anthony Astorino, Jacob S Thum
AIM: Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. METHOD: Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake...
December 8, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930803/pulmonary-rehabilitation-following-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
Milo A Puhan, Elena Gimeno-Santos, Christopher J Cates, Thierry Troosters
BACKGROUND: Guidelines have provided positive recommendations for pulmonary rehabilitation after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but recent studies indicate that postexacerbation rehabilitation may not always be effective in patients with unstable COPD. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of pulmonary rehabilitation after COPD exacerbations on hospital admissions (primary outcome) and other patient-important outcomes (mortality, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and exercise capacity)...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930706/do-reported-effects-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-on-subsequent-higher-cognitive-performances-remain-if-tested-against-an-instructed-self-myofascial-release-training-control-group-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Max Oberste, Wilhelm Bloch, Sven T Hübner, Philipp Zimmer
A substantial body of evidence suggests positive effects of acute aerobic exercise (AAE) on subsequent higher cognitive functions in healthy young adults. These effects are widely understood as a result of the ongoing physiological adaptation processes induced by the preceding AAE. However, designs of published studies do not control for placebo, Hawthorne and subject expectancy effects. Therefore, these studies do not, at a high degree of validity, allow attributing effects of AEE on subsequent cognitive performance to exercise induced physical arousal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928213/proposal-for-a-specific-aerobic-test-for-football-players-the-footeval
#11
Christophe Manouvrier, Johan Cassirame, Saïd Ahmaidi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the "Footeval" test, which evaluates football players' aerobic level in conditions close to those of football practice (intermittent, including technical skills). Twenty-four highly trained subjects from an elite football academy (17.8 ± 1.4 years, 5 training sessions per week) performed two Footeval sessions in a period of 7 days. Physiological variables measured during these sessions (VO2max 58.1 ± 5.6 and 58.7 ± 6.2 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); RER 1...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926448/increasing-self-directed-training-in-neurorehabilitation-patients-through-competition
#12
B Studer, H Van Dijk, R Handermann, S Knecht
This proof-of-concept study aimed to test whether competition could be a useful tool to increase intensity and amount of self-directed training in neurorehabilitation. Stroke patients undergoing inpatient neurorehabilitation (n=93) conducted self-directed endurance training on a (wheelchair-compatible) bicycle trainer under three experimental conditions: a "Competition" condition and two noncompetition control conditions (repeated randomized within-subject design). Training performance and perceived exertion were recorded and statistically analyzed...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#13
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923343/feasibility-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-multidisciplinary-home-telehealth-intervention-programme-to-reduce-falls-among-elderly-discharged-from-hospital-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Alessandro Giordano, Gian Pietro Bonometti, Fabio Vanoglio, Mara Paneroni, Palmira Bernocchi, Laura Comini, Amerigo Giordano
BACKGROUND: Fall incidents are the third cause of chronic disablement in elderly according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Recent meta-analyses shows that a multifactorial falls risk assessment and management programmes are effective in all older population studied. However, the application of these programmes may not be the same in all National health care setting and, consequently, needs to be evaluated by cost-effectiveness studies before to plan this intervention in regular care...
December 7, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923329/identification-of-critical-intensity-from-a-single-lactate-measure-during-a-3-min-submaximal-cycle-ergometer-test
#15
Federico Y Fontana, Alessandro L Colosio, Daniel A Keir, Juan M Murias, Silvia Pogliaghi
We tested the hypothesis that critical intensity in cycling can be determined from a single delta blood lactate in the third minute of a submaximal cycle ergometer trial. Fourteen healthy young men performed four to six constant-power-output trials on a cycle ergometer to the limit of tolerance. Critical intensity was calculated via a linear model and subsequently validated. Lactate was measured at baseline and at 3 min from exercise onset. Delta lactate was the difference between these measures. Based on individual trials, we obtained the delta lactate-% validated critical intensity relationship and thereafter an estimate of critical intensity was computed...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922496/metabolic-myopathies
#16
Mark A Tarnopolsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922332/effect-of-moderate-and-high-intensity-chronic-exercise-on-the-pancreatic-islet-morphometry-in-healthy-rats-bdnf-receptor-participation
#17
Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, Adolfo Virgen-Ortiz, Valery Melnikov, Alejandrina Rodríguez-Hernández, Armando Gamboa-Domínguez, Sergio Montero, Jesús Muñiz-Murguía, Mónica Lemus, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
A B S T R A C T The function and morphology of β-cells is largely dependent on insulin demand. As β-cells cover a bigger cell proportion in pancreas islets, changes of insulin producer cells affect the whole pancreatic islet morphology. Growth factors as the neurotrophins regulate the pancreas physiology, besides; physical exercise increases insulin sensitivity, and further modifies brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration in plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise (running in a treadmill for eight weeks) intensity on pancreatic islet morphometry in healthy state...
December 6, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920508/impact-of-whole-body-electromyostimulation-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-older-women-with-sarcopenic-obesity-the-randomized-controlled-formosa-sarcopenic-obesity-study
#18
Katharina Wittmann, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Franz Jakob, Michael Lell, Klaus Engelke, Wolfgang Kemmler
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterized by a combination of low muscle and high fat mass with an additive negative effect of both conditions on cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. METHODS: The study was conducted in an ambulatory university setting. Seventy-five community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were randomly allocated to either 6 months of WB-EMS application with (WB-EMS&P) or without (WB-EMS) dietary supplementation (150 kcal/day, 56% protein) or a non-training control group (CG)...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920258/the-effects-of-three-different-exercise-modalities-on-markers-of-male-reproduction-in-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Behzad Hajizadeh Maleki, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Mohammad Chehrazi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity continuous training (HICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of male reproduction including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in healthy human subjects. A total of 397 healthy male volunteers were screened and 280 were randomly assigned to one of the MICT (n = 70), HICT (n = 70), HIIT (n = 70) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919063/predictors-of-low-back-pain-in-nursing-home-workers-after-implementation-of-a-safe-resident-handling-programme
#20
Judith E Gold, Laura Punnett, Rebecca J Gore
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers have high rates of low back pain (LBP) related to handling patients. A large chain of nursing homes experienced reduced biomechanical load, compensation claims and costs following implementation of a safe resident handling programme (SRHP). The aim of this study was to examine whether LBP similarly declined and whether it was associated with relevant self-reported occupational exposures or personal health factors. METHODS: Worker surveys were conducted on multiple occasions beginning with the week of first SRHP introduction (baseline)...
November 10, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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