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Population management

E Levy, M Byrne, D J Coates, B M Macdonald, S McArthur, S van Leeuwen
The influence of geographic range on species persistence has long been of interest and there is a need for a better understanding of the genetic consequences for species with restricted distributions, particularly with the increasing rate of global species extinctions. However, the genetic effects of restricted range are often confounded by the impacts of population distribution. We compared chloroplast and nuclear genetic diversity and differentiation in two acacias, the restricted, patchily distributed Acacia atkinsiana and the widespread, semi-continuously distributed A...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth A Evans, Elizabeth Perkins, Pam Clarke, Alina Haines, Ashley Baldwin, Richard Whittington
OBJECTIVE: To determine how care home managers negotiate the conflict between maintaining a safe environment while enabling the autonomy of residents with dementia. This is important because there is limited research with care home managers; yet, they are key agents in the implementation of national policies. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 managers from care homes offering dementia care in the Northwest of England. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach...
October 21, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Stacy Loeb, Yasin Folkvaljon, Caitlin Curnyn, David Robinson, Ola Bratt, Pär Stattin
Importance: Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective. Objectives: To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Oncology
David E Rosow, Jamal Ahmed
Importance: Adult laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is typically managed surgically, but some patients fail treatment because of rapid restenosis or granulation tissue formation. The need for frequent surgery or tracheostomy reduces the quality of life in these patients and poses a significant challenge for the treating physician. New adjuvant treatments are required to reduce the surgical burden of this condition. Objective: To examine whether patients with rapidly recurrent nonvasculitic LTS who fail surgical management of their stenosis (ie, requiring dilation more frequently than every 6 months) experience longer intervals between surgical procedures when receiving adjuvant treatment with low-dose methotrexate...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Christina Mitropoulou, Vasilios Fragoulakis, Ljiljana B Rakicevic, Mirjana M Novkovic, Athanassios Vozikis, Dragan M Matic, Nebojsa M Antonijevic, Dragica P Radojkovic, Ron H van Schaik, George P Patrinos
INTRODUCTION: Clopidogrel, which is activated by the CYP2C19 enzyme, is among the drugs for which all major regulatory agencies recommend genetic testing to be performed to identify a patient's CYP2C19 genotype in order to determine the optimal antiplatelet therapeutic scheme. The CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 variants are loss-of-function alleles, leading to abolished CYP2C19 function and thus have the risk of thrombotic events for carriers of these alleles on standard dosages, while the CYP2C19*17 allele results in CYP2C19 hyperactivity...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Francesco Giganti, Alessandro Ambrosi, Maria Chiara Petrone, Carla Canevari, Damiano Chiari, Annalaura Salerno, Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono, Roberto Nicoletti, Luca Albarello, Elena Mazza, Francesca Gallivanone, Luigi Gianolli, Elena Orsenigo, Antonio Esposito, Carlo Staudacher, Alessandro Del Maschio, Francesco De Cobelli
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT), Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) and (18)F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET-CT) in the preoperative loco-regional staging of oesophageal cancer. METHODS: Eighteen patients with oesophageal or Siewert I tumour (9 directly treated with surgery and 9 addressed to chemo/radiotherapy before) underwent 1...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Yong-Cheng Dong, Zhi-Jian Wang, Zhen-Zhong Chen, Anthony R Clarke, Chang-Ying Niu
RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama, Elaine Fernandes Viellas, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Maria Helena Bastos, Odaléa Maria Brüggemann, Mariza Miranda Theme Filha, Arthur Orlando Correa Schilithz, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: The participation of nurses and midwives in vaginal birth care is limited in Brazil, and there are no national data regarding their involvement. The goal was to describe the participation of nurses and nurse-midwives in childbirth care in Brazil in the years 2011 and 2012, and to analyze the association between hospitals with nurses and nurse-midwives in labor and birth care and the use of good practices, and their influence in the reduction of unnecessary interventions, including cesarean sections...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Sanket Newale, Deepak S Bachani
AIM: The study was conducted to understand the demographics, prevalence of co-morbid conditions and treatment modalities of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide observational study was conducted to understand the management pattern of depression in India. Depression was majorly diagnosed with DSM-IV TR criteria. RESULTS: The data of 2276 Indian patients across 18 states were collected through 135 mental health professionals. The study population was predominantly from urban (81...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jung Min Kim, Jae Won Hong, Jung Hyun Noh, Dong Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: A recent study revealed that the participation rate in diabetes education among diabetic patients was only about 50% in Korea. We investigated the factors associated with participation in diabetes education. METHODS: The study included 1,255 patients (≥19 years old) diagnosed with diabetes drawn from the total Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2009 population comprising 30,705 individuals. We compared age, sex, and age- and sex-adjusted clinical characteristics in patients who had received diabetes education versus those who had not...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Jina Choo, Hye-Jin Kim, Melanie T Turk, Eun-Kyung Kim, Kyung-Sook Yang
AIM: Based on McLeroy's ecological perspective, this study aimed to identify the factors that are associated with behavioral problems among children who were enrolled in community child centers that provide public welfare services for vulnerable children. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 175 children aged 6-12 years and their parents who were recruited from 16 community child centers in a municipal county of Seoul, South Korea. The children's behavioral problems were reported by their parents and measured by the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18...
October 21, 2016: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
October 20, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Xue Li, Jianfeng Feng, Christopher Wellen, Yuqiu Wang
In this study, a modeling framework based on the theory of SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was developed to identify impaired river reaches with respect to total nitrogen (TN) and estimate the TN sources in the Xin'anjiang River basin, which had limited monitoring sites. A Bayesian approach was applied to estimate the mean values and uncertainties of parameters, including land use export coefficients and in-stream attention rates. Based on the parameters, the midranges (25-75 %) of annual TN concentrations were assessed by the model and 4...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Bryant Howren, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Julia Granerod, Nicholas W S Davies, Parashar P Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W G Brown, Sara L Thomas
The true extent of sequelae in encephalitis survivors relative to rates within the general population is not known. This study aimed to quantify increased risks of epilepsy, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, cognitive problems, dementia, headache, and alcohol abuse among encephalitis cases. 2460 exposed individuals diagnosed with incident encephalitis in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and 47,914 unexposed individuals without a history of encephalitis were included...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Jihad Slim, Christopher F Saling
Advancements in antiretroviral therapy have drastically increased the life expectancy for those infected with HIV. Today, a new subgroup of older patients with long-term controlled HIV exists, and its populace is continuously mounting. Therefore, it is essential to understand the enduring effects of chronic suppressed HIV infection in order to further improve HIV management in these patients. This paper will examine the role of HIV in chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction, the dynamic interaction that exists between comorbidity and HIV, and the potential consequences of long-term antiretroviral therapy in an effort to provide the best management options for the virally suppressed HIV patient...
2016: BioMed Research International
Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Saeed Talebian, Akbar Biglarian, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad
Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this analytic cross-sectional study...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Paola Katrina Ching, Ma Justina Zapanta, Vikki Carr de Los Reyes, Enrique Tayag, Rio Magpantay
INTRODUCTION: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. METHODS: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site...
July 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Ahmed Abdelfattah, Michael Wisniewski, Samir Droby, Leonardo Schena
The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0...
2016: Horticulture Research
David J McKenzie, Michael Axelsson, Denis Chabot, Guy Claireaux, Steven J Cooke, Richard A Corner, Gudrun De Boeck, Paolo Domenici, Pedro M Guerreiro, Bojan Hamer, Christian Jørgensen, Shaun S Killen, Sjannie Lefevre, Stefano Marras, Basile Michaelidis, Göran E Nilsson, Myron A Peck, Angel Perez-Ruzafa, Adriaan D Rijnsdorp, Holly A Shiels, John F Steffensen, Jon C Svendsen, Morten B S Svendsen, Lorna R Teal, Jaap van der Meer, Tobias Wang, Jonathan M Wilson, Rod W Wilson, Julian D Metcalfe
The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status...
2016: Conservation Physiology
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