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Vestibular System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088226/use-of-an-intraoperative-navigation-system-for-retrieving-a-broken-dental-instrument-in-the-mandible-a-case-report
#1
Shintaro Sukegawa, Takahiro Kanno, Akane Shibata, Kenichi Matsumoto, Yuka Sukegawa-Takahashi, Kyosuke Sakaida, Yoshihiko Furuki
BACKGROUND: A fracture of root canal instruments, with a fractured piece protruding beyond the apex, is a troublesome incident during an endodontic treatment. Locating and retrieving them represents a challenge to maxillofacial surgeons because it is difficult to access due to the proximity between the foreign body and vital structures. Although safe and accurate for surgery, radiographs and electromagnetic devices do not provide a precise three-dimensional position. In contrast, computer-aided navigation provides a correlation between preoperatively collected data and intraoperatively encountered anatomy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#2
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079677/cadaveric-testing-of-robot-assisted-access-to-the-internal-auditory-canal-for-vestibular-schwannoma-removal
#3
Neal P Dillon, Ramya Balachandran, Michael A Siebold, Robert J Webster, George B Wanna, Robert F Labadie
HYPOTHESIS: An image-guided robotic system can safely perform the bulk removal of bone during the translabyrinthine approach to vestibular schwannoma (VS). BACKGROUND: The translabyrinthine approach to VS removal involves extensive manual milling in the temporal bone to gain access to the internal auditory canal (IAC) for tumor resection. This bone removal is time consuming and challenging due to the presence of vital anatomy (e.g., facial nerve) embedded within the temporal bone...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078405/-radiosurgery-and-fractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#4
K Hamm, H-U Herold, G Surber, S Rosahl
Management of vestibular schwannoma (VS) should always be interdisciplinary and results better than the natural course. Particularly in small VS, either microsurgical resection or radiosurgery (RS) can be employed. RS is a special method (initially only possible stereotactically) for delivering high-precision radiation from many directions to the target point (the isocenter) in a single high dose. With the development of three different systems-Gamma Knife (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden), special linear accelerators, and CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA, USA)-the options were extended to 1-5 fractions for RS and multisession RS (msRS), and to up to 6 weeks of conventional fractionation as stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)...
January 11, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077670/the-mammalian-efferent-vestibular-system-plays-a-crucial-role-in-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-compensation-after-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#5
Patrick P Hübner, Serajul I Khan, Americo A Migliaccio
The α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α9-nAChR) subunit is expressed in the vestibular and auditory periphery, and its loss of function could compromise peripheral input from the predominantly-cholinergic efferent vestibular system (EVS). A recent study has shown that α9-nAChRs play an important role in short-term vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation. We hypothesise that α9-nAChRs could also be important for other forms of vestibular plasticity, such as that needed for VOR recovery after vestibular organ injury...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075326/transformation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-macaque-vestibular-system-from-otolith-afferents-to-cortex
#6
Jean Laurens, Sheng Liu, Xiong-Jie Yu, Raymond Chan, David Dickman, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals...
January 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062309/a-local-inflammatory-renin-angiotensin-system-drives-sensory-axon-sprouting-in-provoked-vestibulodynia
#7
Zhaohui Liao, Anuradha Chakrabarty, Ying Mu, Aritra Bhattacherjee, Martha Goestch, Catherine M Leclair, Peter G Smith
: Vestibulodynia is a form of provoked vulvodynia characterized by profound tenderness, hyperinnervation, and frequently inflammation within well-defined areas of the human vestibule. Prior experiments in animal models show that inflammatory hypersensitivity and hyperinnervation occur in concert with establishment of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Moreover, mechanical hypersensitivity and sensory axon sprouting are prevented by blocking effects of angiotensin II on AT2 receptors...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061922/respiratory-and-pulse-changes-due-to-vestibular-stimulations-in-a-motion-based-simulator
#8
Savas Ilbasmis, Safak Yildiz
INTRODUCTION: One of the mechanisms leading to spatial disorientation (SD) is overstimulation of the vestibular system by various aircraft maneuvers. The objective of this study was to observe respiratory rate and pulse changes during vestibular system stimulations with the help of two selected SD training profiles. METHODS: The respiration and pulse rates of 15 subjects were recorded in response to 2 sequential SD training profiles on a motion-based simulator. The session started with a motionless instruction period (IP), continued with a Coriolis profile (CP) which stimulated the semicircular canals, and ended with a Dark Takeoff profile (DP) which stimulated the otolith organs...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060567/correlation-of-head-impacts-to-change-in-balance-error-scoring-system-scores-in-division-i-men-s-lacrosse-players
#9
Theresa L Miyashita, Eleni Diakogeorgiou, Kaitlyn Marrie
BACKGROUND: Investigation into the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts has yielded various results in the literature, with many supporting a link to neurological deficits. Little research has been conducted on men's lacrosse and associated balance deficits from head impacts. HYPOTHESES: (1) Athletes will commit more errors on the postseason Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test. (2) There will be a positive correlation to change in BESS scores and head impact exposure data...
January 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#10
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050212/otoneurological-abnormalities-in-patients-with-friedreich-s-ataxia
#11
Bianca Simone Zeigelboim, Juliana Cristina Mesti, Vinicius Ribas Fonseca, João Henrique Faryniuk, Jair Mendes Marques, Rafaella Cardosa Cardoso, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Introduction Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease and progressive by nature. It has autosomal recessive inheritance and early onset in most cases. Nystagmus and hearing loss (in some cases) make up some of the common symptoms seen in this disorder. Objective The objective of this study is to examine vestibular disorders in patients with Friedreich ataxia. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. We evaluated 30 patients with ages ranging from six to 72 years (mean age of 38...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050208/tonic-investigation-concept-of-cervico-vestibular-muscle-afferents
#12
Linda Josephine Dorn, Annabelle Lappat, Winfried Neuhuber, Hans Scherer, Heidi Olze, Matthias Hölzl
Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043238/recurrent-ataxia-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Michael S Salman, Samantha F Klassen, Janine L Johnston
BACKGROUND: Recurrent ataxia is encountered infrequently in clinical pediatric neurology practise and presents with diagnostic challenges. It is caused by several disorders. Our aims were to describe the epidemiology and clinical features in children with recurrent ataxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken in 185 children with chronic ataxia, who presented during 1991 to 2008. Several databases were searched to ensure optimum ascertainment...
January 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039767/static-otolithic-drive-alters-presynaptic-inhibition-in-soleus-motor-pool
#14
Apollonia Fox, David Koceja
The vestibular system has both direct and indirect connections to the soleus motor pool via the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The exact nature of how this vestibular information is integrated within the spinal cord is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify whether changes in static otolithic drive altered the amount of presynaptic inhibition in the soleus H-reflex pathway. Changes in static otolithic drive were investigated in sixteen healthy participants using a tilt table...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035656/the-internal-representation-of-head-orientation-differs-for-conscious-perception-and-balance-control
#15
Brian H Dalton, Brandon G Rasman, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
We tested perceived head-on-feet orientation and the direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses in passively- and actively-held head-turned postures The direction of vestibular-evoked balance responses was not aligned with perceived head-on-feet orientation while maintaining prolonged passively-held head-turned postures. Furthermore, static visual cues of head-on-feet orientation did not update the estimate of head posture for the balance controller A prolonged actively-held head-turned posture did not elicit a rotation in the direction of the vestibular-evoked balance response despite a significant rotation in perceived angular head posture It is proposed that conscious perception of head posture and the transformation of vestibular signals for standing balance relying on this head posture are not dependent on the same internal representation...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032141/vestibular-control-of-standing-balance-is-enhanced-with-increased-cognitive-load
#16
Michael A McGeehan, Marjorie H Woollacott, Brian H Dalton
When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS)...
December 28, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026001/expression-of-glycine-receptors-and-gephyrin-in-rat-medial-vestibular-nuclei-and-flocculi-following-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#17
Wen Zhou, Liu-Qing Zhou, Hong Shi, Yang-Ming Leng, Bo Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus have been known to be the key areas involved in vestibular compensation (VC) following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In this study, we examined the role of gephyrin and glycine receptor (GlyR) in VC using Sprague-Dawley rats, in an aim to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for VC. The expression of the α1 and β subunits of GlyR and gephyrin was immunohistochemically localized in rat MVN and flocculi. The mRNA and protein expression of GlyR (α1 and β subunits) and gephyrin was quantitatively determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis at 8 h, and at 1, 3 and 7 days following UL...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025116/perceived-timing-of-a-postural-perturbation
#18
Julian Lupo, Michael Barnett-Cowan
Falling down is a common event that threatens the survival of an organism. Simple, yet sophisticated neural mechanisms allow for rapid detection of a fall as well as the generation of compensatory reflexes designed to prevent a fall. Fall awareness and preventative alerting devices could potentially mitigate the likelihood of a fall, however, relatively little is known about the perceived timing of a fall. Common anecdotal reports suggest that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time with very little recollection of what occurred during the fall...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017229/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-mri-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-validation-of-the-vemp-score
#19
Luka Crnošija, Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Tereza Gabelić, Ivan Adamec, Mario Habek
BACKGROUND: To validate the VEMP score as a measure of brainstem dysfunction in patients with the first symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) (clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)) and to investigate the correlation between VEMP and brainstem MRI results. METHODS: 121 consecutive CIS patients were enrolled and brainstem functional system score (BSFS) was determined. Ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) were analyzed for latencies, conduction block and amplitude asymmetry ratio and the VEMP score was calculated...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013217/strain-and-sex-differences-in-the-vestibular-and-systemic-toxicity-of-3-3-iminodipropionitrile-in-mice
#20
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Lara Sedó-Cabezón, Enrique Verdú, Jordi Llorens
The nitrile 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) causes a loss of hair cells in the vestibular epithelium of the inner ear in several species of both mammals and non-mammals. It is of interest as a model compound in ototoxicity and vestibular regeneration research, but its effects on the mouse, including the potential relevance of strain and sex differences for susceptibility, have not yet been thoroughly characterized. In this study, we compared the vestibular toxicity of IDPN in dose-response studies (0, 8, 12, 16 and 24 mmol/kg IDPN p...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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