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Vestibular System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918236/meniere-s-migraine-and-motion-sickness
#1
John F Golding, Mitesh Patel
CONCLUSION: Elevated Motion Sickness Susceptibility (MSS) in Meniere?s disease (MD) is likely to be a consequence of the onset of MD and not migraine per se. OBJECTIVES: Pathologies of the vestibular system influence MSS. Bilateral vestibular deficits lower MSS, vestibular neuritis or benign paroxysmal positional vertigo have little overall effect, whereas vestibular migraine elevates MSS. However, less is known about MSS in MD, a condition in which many patients experience vestibular loss and migraine symptoms...
December 5, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#2
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911236/patient-versus-physician-reported-facial-disability-in-vestibular-schwannoma-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#3
Øystein Vesterli Tveiten, Matthew L Carlson, Frederik Goplen, Erling Myrseth, Colin L W Driscoll, Rupavathana Mahesparan, Michael J Link, Morten Lund-Johansen
OBJECTIVE Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used in studies of vestibular schwannoma (VS); however, few studies have examined self-evaluated facial nerve function and its relation to physician-reported outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to compare patient self-evaluations of facial disability with physician-evaluated facial nerve status and with self-evaluations of a healthy control group. The second objective was to provide insight into the controversial subject of the optimal initial management of small- and medium-sized VSs; consequently, the authors compared patient-reported facial nerve disability following treatment via observation (OBS), Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), or microsurgery (MS)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889628/effect-of-betel-nut-chewing-on-the-otolithic-reflex-system
#4
Chuan-Yi Lin, Yi-Ho Young
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. METHODS: Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877114/ontogenetic-development-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflexes-in-amphibians
#5
REVIEW
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869308/signaling-in-the-auditory-system-implications-in-hair-cell-regeneration-and-hearing-function
#7
REVIEW
Rahul Mittal, Luca H Debs, Desiree Nguyen, Amit P Patel, M'hamed Grati, Jeenu Mittal, Denise Yan, Adrien A Eshraghi, Xue Zhong Liu
Ear is a sensitive organ involved in hearing and balance function. The complex signaling network in the auditory system plays a crucial role in maintaining normal physiological function of the ear. The inner ear is comprised of a variety of host signaling pathways working in synergy to deliver clear sensory messages. Any disruption, as minor as it can be, has the potential to affect this finely tuned system with temporary or permanent sequelae including vestibular deficits and hearing loss. Mutations linked to auditory symptoms, whether inherited or acquired, are being actively researched for ways to reverse, silence, or suppress them...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864031/fractional-co2-laser-treatment-of-the-vestibule-for-patients-with-vestibulodynia-and-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause-a-pilot-study
#8
Filippo Murina, Mickey Karram, Stefano Salvatore, Raffaele Felice
INTRODUCTION: Chronic vulvar pain and burning remains one of the most perplexing problems faced by practicing gynecologists. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the application of micro-ablative fractional CO2 laser to the vulvar vestibule in the management of patients with vulvar pain from vestibulodynia or genitourinary syndrome of menopause. METHODS: Patients (N = 70) underwent fractional micro-ablative CO2 laser treatment for vestibular pain plus vestibulodynia (n = 37) or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (n = 33)...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856360/sensitivity-to-isoflurane-anesthesia-increases-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-shank3-%C3%A2-c-mutant-mouse-model
#9
Changsheng Li, Michele Schaefer, Christy Gray, Ya Yang, Orion Furmanski, Sufang Liu, Paul Worley, C David Mintz, Feng Tao, Roger A Johns
Autism is a heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills, and restricted and repetitive behavior. The abnormal behaviors of these patients can make their anesthetic and perioperative management difficult. Evidence in the literature suggests that some patients with autism or specific autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit altered responses to pain and to anesthesia or sedation. A genetic mouse model of one particular ASD, Phelan McDermid Syndrome, has been developed that has a Shank3 haplotype truncation (Shank3(+/Δc))...
November 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855460/-diagnosis-and-current-therapy-of-vestibular-syndromes
#10
Michael Strupp, Thomas Brandt
Vertigo and dizziness are with an annual incidence of more than 10% and a lifetime prevalence of more than 30% among the most frequent symptoms. The keys to the diagnosis are the patient history and the bedside examination: a) for the patient history the time course, type and triggers of symptoms and accompanying symptoms, b) for the clinical examination of the vestibular system the head-impulse test (HIT), the examination for a spontaneous nystagmus, a displacement of subjective visual vertical, a positional nystagmus and the Romberg test, and c) for the differentiation between an acute peripheral and central vestibular lesion the skew deviation, central fixation nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccadic smooth pursuit and a normal HIT...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845944/the-vestibular-system-and-cognition
#11
Paul F Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The last year has seen a great deal of new information published relating vestibular dysfunction to cognitive impairment in humans, especially in the elderly. The objective of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate this new evidence in the context of the previous literature. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will address the recent epidemiological/survey studies that link vestibular dysfunction with cognitive impairment in the elderly; recent clinical investigations into cognitive impairment in the context of vestibular dysfunction, both in the elderly and in the cases of otic capsule dehiscence and partial bilateral vestibulopathy; recent evidence that vestibular impairment is associated with hippocampal atrophy; and finally recent evidence relating to the hypothesis that vestibular dysfunction could be a risk factor for dementia...
November 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844055/a-bayesian-account-of-visual-vestibular-interactions-in-the-rod-and-frame-task
#12
Bart B G T Alberts, Anouk J de Brouwer, Luc P J Selen, W Pieter Medendorp
Panoramic visual cues, as generated by the objects in the environment, provide the brain with important information about gravity direction. To derive an optimal, i.e., Bayesian, estimate of gravity direction, the brain must combine panoramic information with gravity information detected by the vestibular system. Here, we examined the individual sensory contributions to this estimate psychometrically. We asked human subjects to judge the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise relative to gravity) of a briefly flashed luminous rod, presented within an oriented square frame (rod-in-frame)...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834667/validity-and-reliability-of-the-vestibular-ocular-motor-screening-and-associations-with-common-concussion-screening-tools
#13
Amy M Yorke, Laura Smith, Mitch Babcock, Bara Alsalaheen
BACKGROUND: Sustaining a concussion commonly results in vestibular impairments that may be associated with balance deficits. To screen for vestibular impairments after a concussion, the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) tool was developed. The relationship between the VOMS and other concussion screening tools, such as the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) and King-Devick (K-D), have not been explored. HYPOTHESES: (1) VOMS would provide reliable results and not provoke symptoms in healthy adolescents and (2) VOMS test items would measure related aspects of vestibular function that are not measured through the BESS or K-D...
November 10, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832609/postural-threat-influences-vestibular-evoked-muscular-responses
#14
Shannon B Lim, Taylor W Cleworth, Brian C Horslen, Jean-Sebastien Blouin, J Timothy Inglis, Mark Gregory Carpenter
Standing balance is significantly influenced by postural threat. While this effect has been well-established, the underlying mechanisms of the effect are less understood. The involvement of the vestibular system is under current debate and recent studies that investigate the effects of height-induced postural threat on vestibular-evoked responses provide conflicting results based on kinetic (Horlsen et al. 2014) and kinematic (Osler et al. 2013) data. We examined the effect of threat of perturbation, a different form of postural threat, on coupling (cross-correlation, coherence and gain) of the vestibulo-muscular relationship in 25 participants who maintained standing balance...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826999/the-new-classification-system-for-inner-ear-malformations-the-incav-system
#15
Zehra Hilal Adibelli, Leyla Isayeva, Ali Murat Koc, Tolgahan Catli, Hamit Adibelli, Levent Olgun
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed INCAV system standardizes reporting of inner ear malformations; gives adequate information about the structures of inner ear; defines the ears which could not be classified before; and helps in the selection of the ear as the cochlear implant candidate. Also it is easy-to-use for radiologists, and useful to the referring otolaryngologists. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to explore a more specific, definitive classification system which was based on radiological criteria for inner ear malformations...
November 9, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821976/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-of-vestibular-migraine
#16
REVIEW
Jong-Hee Sohn
Approximately 1% of the general population and 10% of patients with migraine suffer from vestibular migraine (VM). However, this condition remains relatively unknown; therefore, it is often underdiagnosed despite the recent adoption of international diagnostic criteria for VM. The diagnosis of VM is based on the symptoms, degree, frequency, and duration of the vestibular episodes, a history of migraine, the temporal association of migraine symptoms with vestibular episodes in at least 50% of cases, and the exclusion of other causes...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821579/cross-modal-attention-effects-in-vestibular-cortex-during-attentive-tracking-of-moving-objects
#17
Sebastian M Frank, Liwei Sun, Lisa Forster, Peter U Tse, Mark W Greenlee
: The mid-posterior fundus of the Sylvian fissure in the human brain is central to the cortical processing of vestibular cues. At least two vestibular areas are located at this site: parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) and posterior insular cortex (PIC). It is now well established that activity in sensory systems is subject to cross-modal attention effects. Attending to a stimulus in one sensory modality enhances activity in the corresponding cortical sensory system, but simultaneously suppresses activity in other sensory systems...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812748/relationship-between-changes-in-vestibular-sensory-reweighting-and-postural-control-complexity
#18
Brian L Cone, Daniel J Goble, Christopher K Rhea
Complexity measures have become increasingly prominent in the postural control literature. Several studies have found associations between clinical balance improvements and complexity, but the relationship between sensory reweighting and complexity changes has remained unobserved. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between sensory reweighting via Wii Fit balance training and complexity. Twenty healthy adults completed 6 weeks of training. Participants completed the sensory organization test (SOT) before and after the sessions...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811303/developmental-changes-in-head-movement-kinematics-during-swimming-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#19
Sara Hänzi, Hans Straka
During the post-embryonic developmental growth of animals, a number of physiological parameters such as locomotor performance, dynamics and behavioural repertoire are adjusted to match the requirements determined by changes in body size, proportions and shape. Moreover, changes in movement parameters also cause changes in the dynamics of self-generated sensory stimuli, to which motion-detecting sensory systems have to adapt. Here, we examined head movements and swimming kinematics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles with a body length of 10 to 45 mm (developmental stage 46 to 54) and compared these parameters to fictive swimming, recorded as ventral root activity in semi-intact in-vitro preparations...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809640/loss-of-functional-osteoprotegerin-more-than-a-skeletal-problem
#20
Corinna Grasemannn, Nicole Unger, Matthias Hövel, Diana Arweiler-Harbeck, Ralf Herrmann, Michael M Schündeln, Oliver Müller, Bernd Schweiger, Ekkehart Lausch, Thomas Meissner, Cordula Kiewert, Berthold P Hauffa, Nick J Shaw
INTRODUCTION: Juvenile Pagets disease (JPD), an ultra-rare, debilitating bone disease stemming from unopposed RANKL action due to loss of functional osteoprotegerin (OPG) is caused by recessive mutations in TNFRSF11B. A genotype-phenotype correlation spanning from mild to very severe forms is described. AIM: To describe the complexity of the human phenotype of OPG deficiency in more detail and to investigate heterozygous mutation carriers for clinical signs of JPD...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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