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Vestibular System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202828/-diagnosis-of-cochleovestibular-neurovascular-compression-syndrome-a-scoring-system-based-on-five-clinical-characteristics
#1
Tomomi Okamura, Takafumi Nishizaki, Norio Ikeda, Shigeki Nakano, Takanori Sakakura, Natsumi Fujii, Takeshi Okuda
: The optimal method for diagnosing cochleovestibular neurovascular compression syndrome(CNVC)remains controversial, and the aim of this study is to develop a standard diagnostic instrument for the condition. The clinical features of 53 sides of 50 patients with a combination of vertigo, tinnitus, and/or hearing loss were retrospectively evaluated. The following five clinical features were evaluated and given a score of 1 or 0:1)a long history of recurrent vertigo, tinnitus, or hearing loss;2)neurological findings related to positional vertigo, nystagmus, tinnitus, or hearing loss;3)neuro-otological findings involving tinnitus, audiometry, or vestibular testing;4)auditory brainstem response(ABR)evaluation with the detection of a low 25-75% II wave amplitude on the contralateral side and delayed interpeak latency in the I-III or I-V waves(usually low II wave amplitude combined with double peaks and a wide-based form)during ABR evaluation using 80 and 90dB clicks;and 5)the detection of vascular contact with the eighth cranial nerve on magnetic resonance imaging-constructive interference in steady state or air computed tomography imaging...
February 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194135/inaccurate-saccades-and-enhanced-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-suppression-during-combined-eye-head-movements-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-possible-implications-for-cervical-vertigo
#2
Janine L Johnston, Pierre M Daye, Glen T D Thomson
BACKGROUND: The primate ocular motor system is designed to acquire peripheral targets of interest by coordinating visual, vestibular, and neck muscle activation signals. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye-head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition. Previous studies have relied on manipulating head movements in normal individuals to study VOR suppression and gaze kinematics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188418/interobserver-variability-of-the-house-brackmann-facial-nerve-grading-system-for-the-analysis-of-a-randomized-multi-center-phase-iii-trial
#3
Christian Scheller, Andreas Wienke, Marcos Tatagiba, Alireza Gharabaghi, Kristofer F Ramina, Konstanze Scheller, Julian Prell, Johannes Zenk, Oliver Ganslandt, Barbara Bischoff, Cordula Matthies, Thomas Westermaier, Gregor Antoniadis, Maria Teresa Pedro, Veit Rohde, Kajetan von Eckardstein, Thomas Kretschmer, Malte Kornhuber, Fred G Barker, Christian Strauss
BACKGROUND: Evidence of a high interobserver variability of the subjective House-Brackmann facial nerve grading system (HBGS) would justify cost- and time-consuming technological enhancements of objective classifications for facial nerve paresis. METHOD: A total of 112 patients were recruited for a randomized multi-center trial to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic nimodipine treatment in vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. For the present investigation both treatment groups were pooled for the assessment of facial nerve function preoperatively, in the early postoperative course and 1 year after the surgery...
February 10, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188328/neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-receive-converging-inputs-from-the-hindlimb-and-labyrinth
#4
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184173/reliability-of-inertial-sensors-in-the-assessment-of-patients-with-vestibular-disorders-a-feasibility-study
#5
Sathish K Sankarpandi, Alice J Baldwin, Jaydip Ray, Claudia Mazzà
BACKGROUND: Vestibular disorders affect an individual's stability, balance, and gait and predispose them to falls. Traditional laboratory-based semi-objective vestibular assessments are intrusive and cumbersome provide little information about their functional ability. Commercially available wearable inertial sensors allow us to make this real life assessments objective, with a detailed view of their functional abilities. Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Postural Sway tests are commonly used tests for gait and balance assessments...
2017: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168899/correlation-of-objective-audiometric-and-caloric-function-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#6
Kyle P McMullen, Chen Lin, Michael S Harris, Oliver F Adunka
Objective Ménière's disease affects the vestibular and audiologic systems; however, little is known about the relationship between audiometric and caloric function with increasing duration of disease. We employed a novel methodology to understand the longitudinal correlation between audiometric and caloric function in Ménière's patients. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Neuro-otologic tertiary care practice. Subjects and Methods Charts of 19 patients with unilateral Ménière's disease, as classified by the 1995 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Foundation criteria, were examined...
February 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167905/a-possible-role-of-prolonged-whirling-episodes-on-structural-plasticity-of-the-cortical-networks-and-altered-vertigo-perception-the-cortex-of-sufi-whirling-dervishes
#7
Yusuf O Cakmak, Gazanfer Ekinci, Armin Heinecke, Safiye Çavdar
Although minutes of a spinning episode may induce vertigo in the healthy human, as a result of a possible perceptional plasticity, Sufi Whirling Dervishes (SWDs) can spin continuously for an hour without a vertigo perception.This unique long term vestibular system stimulation presents a potential human model to clarify the cortical networks underlying the resistance against vertigo. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the potential structural cortical plasticity in SWDs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 10 SWDs and 10 controls were obtained, using a 3T scanner...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166997/the-effects-of-cochlear-implantation-on-vestibular-function-in-1-4-years-old-children
#8
Mohammad Ajalloueyan, Masoumeh Saeedi, Mohammad Sadeghi, Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi
OBJECTIVES: Although cochlear implants offer an effective hearing restoration option in children with severe to profound hearing loss, concern continues to exist regarding the possible effects of cochlear implantation on the vestibular system and balance. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 27 children with bilateral profound hearing loss (all candidates for cochlear implantation) were evaluated for their vestibular function before and after cochlear implantation...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165476/gene-therapy-restores-auditory-and-vestibular-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-usher-syndrome-type-1c
#9
Bifeng Pan, Charles Askew, Alice Galvin, Selena Heman-Ackah, Yukako Asai, Artur A Indzhykulian, Francine M Jodelka, Michelle L Hastings, Jennifer J Lentz, Luk H Vandenberghe, Jeffrey R Holt, Gwenaëlle S Géléoc
Because there are currently no biological treatments for hearing loss, we sought to advance gene therapy approaches to treat genetic deafness. We focused on Usher syndrome, a devastating genetic disorder that causes blindness, balance disorders and profound deafness, and studied a knock-in mouse model, Ush1c c.216G>A, for Usher syndrome type IC (USH1C). As restoration of complex auditory and balance function is likely to require gene delivery systems that target auditory and vestibular sensory cells with high efficiency, we delivered wild-type Ush1c into the inner ear of Ush1c c...
February 6, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#10
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157577/sensory-reweighting-after-loss-of-auditory-cues-in-healthy-adults
#11
Maxime Maheu, Andréanne Sharp, Simon P Landry, François Champoux
We maintain our balance using information provided by the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems on the position of our body in space. Recent evidence has suggested that auditory input also plays a significant role for postural control, yet further investigations are required to better understand the contributions of audition to this process in healthy adults. To date, the process of sensory reweighting when auditory cues are disturbed during postural control has been overlooked. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of hearing protection on sensory reweighting for postural control in healthy adults...
January 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143497/gait-disorders-in-the-elderly-and-dual-task-gait-analysis-a-new-approach-for-identifying-motor-phenotypes
#12
Bernard Auvinet, Claude Touzard, François Montestruc, Arnaud Delafond, Vincent Goeb
BACKGROUND: Gait disorders and gait analysis under single and dual-task conditions are topics of great interest, but very few studies have looked for the relevance of gait analysis under dual-task conditions in elderly people on the basis of a clinical approach. METHODS: An observational study including 103 patients (mean age 76.3 ± 7.2, women 56%) suffering from gait disorders or memory impairment was conducted. Gait analysis under dual-task conditions was carried out for all patients...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140624/normative-data-for-the-neurocom-sensory-organization-test-in-us-military-special-operations-forces
#13
Erin R Pletcher, Valerie J Williams, John P Abt, Paul M Morgan, Jeffrey J Parr, Meleesa F Wohleber, Mita Lovalekar, Timothy C Sell
CONTEXT:  Postural stability is the ability to control the center of mass in relation to a person's base of support and can be affected by both musculoskeletal injury and traumatic brain injury. The NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) can be used to objectively quantify impairments to postural stability. The ability of postural stability to predict injury and be used as an acute injury-evaluation tool makes it essential to the screening and rehabilitation process. To our knowledge, no published normative data of the SOT from a healthy, highly active population are available for use as a reference for clinical decision making...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128341/mastoid-vibration-affects-dynamic-postural-control-during-gait-in-healthy-older-adults
#14
Jung Hung Chien, Mukul Mukherjee, Jenny Kent, Nicholas Stergiou
Vestibular disorders are difficult to diagnose early due to the lack of a systematic assessment. Our previous work has developed a reliable experimental design and the result shows promising results that vestibular sensory input while walking could be affected through mastoid vibration (MV) and changes are in the direction of motion. In the present paper, we wanted to extend this work to older adults and investigate how manipulating sensory input through mastoid vibration (MV) could affect dynamic postural control during walking...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125514/age-related-change-in-vestibular-ganglion-cell-populations-in-individuals-with-presbycusis-and-normal-hearing
#15
Michael B Gluth, Erik G Nelson
HYPOTHESIS: We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. BACKGROUND: The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood...
January 25, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110290/guided-and-unguided-internet-based-vestibular-rehabilitation-versus-usual-care-for-dizzy-adults-of-50%C3%A2-years-and-older-a-protocol-for-a-three-armed-randomised-trial
#16
Vincent A van Vugt, Johannes C van der Wouden, Judith E Bosmans, Martin Smalbrugge, Willianne van Diest, Rosie Essery, Lucy Yardley, Henriëtte E van der Horst, Otto R Maarsingh
INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is a common symptom in general practice with a high prevalence among older adults. The most common cause of dizziness in general practice is peripheral vestibular disease. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a safe and effective treatment for peripheral vestibular disease that entails specific exercises to maximise the central nervous system compensation for the effects of vestibular pathology. An internet-based VR intervention has recently been shown to be safe and effective...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109990/ictal-eeg-fmri-study-of-vertiginous-seizures
#17
Alessandra Morano, Marco Carnì, Sara Casciato, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Jinane Fattouch, Martina Fanella, Mariarita Albini, Luca Manfredi Basili, Giulia Lucignani, Marco Scapeccia, Regina Tomassi, Elisabetta Di Castro, Claudio Colonnese, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura
Vertigo and dizziness are extremely common complaints, related to either peripheral or central nervous system disorders. Among the latter, epilepsy has to be taken into consideration: indeed, vertigo may be part of the initial aura of a focal epileptic seizure in association with other signs/symptoms, or represent the only ictal manifestation, a rare phenomenon known as "vertiginous" or "vestibular" seizure. These ictal symptoms are usually related to a discharge arising from/involving temporal or parietal areas, which are supposed to be a crucial component of the so-called "vestibular cortex"...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109485/ampleness-of-head-movements-of-children-and-adolescents-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#18
Renato de Souza Melo
INTRODUCTION: Head movements are controlled by the vestibular system. Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present restrictions in ampleness of head movements due to damage in the vestibule-cochlear systems, resulting from injury in the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ampleness of head movements of children with normal hearing and children with sensorineural hearing loss and compare data between groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that evaluated the ampleness of head movements of 96 students, being 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, of both sexes, with aged between 7 and 18 years old...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108496/connectivity-of-the-cingulate-sulcus-visual-area-csv-in-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#19
Andrew T Smith, Anton L Beer, Michele Furlan, Rogier B Mars
The human cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) responds selectively to visual and vestibular cues to self-motion. Although it is more selective for visual self-motion cues than any other brain region studied, it is not known whether CSv mediates perception of self-motion. An alternative hypothesis, based on its location, is that it provides sensory information to the motor system for use in guiding locomotion. To evaluate this hypothesis we studied the connectivity pattern of CSv, which is completely unknown, with a combination of diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093476/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-m-currents-underlie-efferent-mediated-slow-excitation-in-calyx-bearing-vestibular-afferents
#20
J Chris Holt, Paivi M Jordan, Anna Lysakowski, Amit Shah, Kathy Barsz, Donatella Contini
: Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ over 100-fold in activation kinetics and response duration. In turtle, efferent-mediated fast excitation arises in CD afferents when the predominant efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) activates calyceal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs); however, it is unclear whether the accompanying efferent-mediated slow excitation is also attributed to cholinergic mechanisms...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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