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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723951/cd8-t-cells-provide-immune-protection-against-murine-disseminated-endotheliotropic-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#1
Guang Xu, Nicole L Mendell, Yuejin Liang, Thomas R Shelite, Yenny Goez-Rivillas, Lynn Soong, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
Scrub typhus, caused by a Gram-negative obligately intracellular coccobacillus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a long neglected but important tropical disease. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes illness in one million people each year, and 1 billion people are at risk. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the disease can cause severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate of 7-15%. The current gaps in knowledge of immunity include the unknown mechanisms of host immunity to O. tsutsugamushi. Using an intravenous (i...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722576/malaria-associated-mortality-in-the-australian-defence-force-during-the-twentieth-century
#2
G Dennis Shanks
Malaria has been a military problem throughout history capable of causing epidemics that stop military operations. Individual mortality was examined from records of the three major wars of the 20th century that involved Australia in which 133 (1914-1919), 92 (1943-1945), and two (1965-1967) soldiers are known to have died with malaria. Those dying were predominately enlisted soldiers with a mean age of 29 years often complicated by other infections such as influenza pneumonia or scrub typhus. Lethal epidemics of falciparum malaria occurred in Palestine/Syria in October 1918 and New Guinea in September 1943 to March 1944...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721083/effect-of-a-lotion-containing-the-heat-treated-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-johnsonii-ncc-533-on-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-atopic-dermatitis
#3
Sandrine Blanchet-Réthoré, Valérie Bourdès, Annick Mercenier, Cyrille H Haddar, Paul O Verhoeven, Philippe Andres
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus dominates the skin microbiota in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), with bacterial loads correlating with disease severity. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of a cosmetic lotion containing heat-treated Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (HT La1) on S. aureus colonization in AD patients. METHODS: This open-label, multicenter study was performed in AD patients in Germany. First, detection of S. aureus was performed in all patients using the swab or scrub-wash method of sampling, followed by quantitative culture or quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719308/a-recombinant-47-kda-outer-membrane-protein-induces-an-immune-response-against-orientia-tsutsugamushi-strain-boryong
#4
Sangho Choi, Hang Jin Jeong, Kyu-Jam Hwang, Byoungchul Gill, Young Ran Ju, Yeong Seon Lee, Jeongmin Lee
We investigated the 47-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP), which is a periplasmic serine protease and an antigenic major surface protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi, as a vaccine candidate. We developed a conventional subunit vaccine expressing recombinant 47-kDa OMP (rec47) and a DNA vaccine (p47). In mouse immunization experiments, intranasal immunization with rec47 alone or with rec47 plus heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit from Escherichia coli or plus cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvants induced a higher amount of rec47-specific antibodies than intramuscular immunization with p47 alone or with p47 plus pBOOST2-samIRF7/3 (pB) as adjuvant...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711647/surgical-training-improves-performance-in-minimally-invasive-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-without-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#5
Lu-Feng Zhang, Hai-Bo Feng, Zhi-Guo Yu, Shi Jing, Feng Wan
OBJECTIVE: We introduced a live animal model for training of minimally invasive implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) without cardiopulmonary bypass for operator's performance improvement. DESIGN: After watching a videotape of LVAD implantation on the beating heart through the cardiac apex, the surgical team performed implantation of LVADs into 5 pigs during 3 training sessions in a time series. The procedure success rate, operating time, and technical and global performances by self-evaluation and senior evaluation were compared among the sessions...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709838/characteristics-of-scrub-typhus-murine-typhus-and-q-fever-among-elderly-patients-prolonged-prothrombin-time-as-a-predictor-for-severity
#6
Ko Chang, Nan-Yao Lee, Wen-Chien Ko, Wei-Ru Lin, Yen-Hsu Chen, Jih-Jin Tsai, Tun-Chieh Chen, Chun-Yu Lin, Ya-Ting Chang, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The clinical manifestations of scrub typhus, murine typhus and acute Q fever in the elderly are not clear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to identify the characteristics of the elderly aged ≥65 years with a comparison group aged 18-64 years among patients with scrub typhus, murine typhus, or acute Q fever who were serologically confirmed at three hospitals in Taiwan during 2002-2011. RESULTS: Among 441 cases, including 187 cases of scrub typhus, 166 acute Q fever, and 88 murine typhus, 68 (15...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709485/biofilm-colonization-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-new-threat-in-hospital-acquired-surgical-site-infection
#7
Roumi Ghosh, Soumen Das, Harish Kela, Asmita De, Jayeeta Haldar, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
INTRODUCTION: Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are hazardous cause of post-operative soft tissue infection leading to nosocomial outbreaks following various surgical procedures, especially laparoscopic surgeries using heat sensitive, non-autoclavable surgical instruments. METHODOLOGY: Surgery department of our hospital noticed increase in rate of post-laparoscopic abdominal port site infection (PSI) and informed the Microbiology Department. A prospective investigational study of defined cases with the aim of source tracing and formulation of infection control measures was initiated...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707782/exchanging-implements-the-micro-materialities-of-multidisciplinary-work-in-the-operating-theatre
#8
Christian Heath, Paul Luff, Marcus Sanchez-Svensson, Maxim Nicholls
Surgical procedures rely upon an array of commonplace tools, implements and materials that mediate practice and disciplinary collaboration within the operating theatre. Substantial time is dedicated to the issue and provision of these artefacts and their timely exchange is critical to the successful accomplishment of surgical procedures. In this article, we consider the practice, knowledge and agency that informs how particular implements and materials are passed by the scrub nurse to the surgeon that in turn enables their deployment with regard to the particular procedure and the contingencies 'at hand'...
July 14, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703892/disinfection-of-the-peritoneal-dialysis-bag-medication-port-comparison-of-disinfectant-agent-and-disinfection-time
#9
Adriana Conti, Roberta Monteiro Katzap, Carlos Eduardo Poli-de-Figueiredo, Vany Pagnussatti, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: To compare different disinfection techniques for the peritoneal dialysis bag medication port (MP). METHODS: An experimental study was conducted testing different cleaning agents (70% alcohol vs 2% chlorhexidine) and time periods (5, 10 and 60 seconds) for disinfection of the MP. Five microorganisms (S. aureus, E.coli, A. baumannii and C. parapsilosis, CNS) were prepared for use as contaminants of the MP. MP were incubated in Tryptic soy broth at 36 °C for 24 h, after which, they were seeded on a Biomérieux® blood agar plate and incubated for 24 h at 36 °C...
July 13, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702109/bolstering-skin-grafts-with-a-surgical-scrub-brush-a-cost-effective-solution
#10
Mitchell Buller, Thomas J Lee, Jared Davis, Bradon J Wilhelmi
Objective: The objective of this article is to review the methods currently used for the bolstering of skin grafts and compare their advantages and disadvantages with those of the dry, sterile surgical scrub brush. We report a series of cases performed at a single institution and compare the cost-effectiveness, application, and limitations of this method with other options for skin graft bolstering. Methods: A PubMed search using the parameters "(bolster) AND skin graft" was conducted, yielding 85 results. A total of 40 publications met the criteria for our literature review...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700001/genetic-variability-of-leishmania-infantum-in-naturally-infected-dogs-in-the-state-of-bahia-brazil
#11
Fábio Santos Carvalho, George Rêgo Albuquerque, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro, Amauri Arias Wenceslau
In Brazil, Leishmania infantum mainly affects humans and dogs. The state of Bahia presents many dogs that are positive for this parasite. Despite the importance of epidemiology in this region, there are still very few studies that have assessed the genetic characteristics of L. infantum. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic variability of L. infantum isolated identified in naturally infected dogs, in order to verify occurrence of subpopulation of this parasite in the different biomes existing in the state of Bahia...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696103/photodriven-oxygen-removal-via-chromophore-mediated-singlet-oxygen-sensitization-and-chemical-capture
#12
Ryan M O'Donnell, Tod A Grusenmeyer, David J Stewart, Trenton R Ensley, William M Shensky, Joy E Haley, Jianmin Shi
We report a general, photochemical method for the rapid deoxygenation of organic solvents and aqueous solutions via visible light excitation of transition metal chromophores (TMCs) in the presence of singlet oxygen scavenging substrates. Either 2,5-dimethylfuran or an amino acid (histidine or tryptophan methyl ester) was used as the substrate in conjunction with an iridium or ruthenium TMC in toluene, acetonitrile, or water. This behavior is described for solutions with chromophore concentrations that are pertinent for both luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies...
July 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694624/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-scrub-typhus
#13
REVIEW
Sanjay K Mahajan, Sanyam K Mahajan
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683871/the-devil-is-in-the-details-failure-to-cap-or-scrub-the-hub-can-lead-to-infection-control-risks
#14
Susan F Paparella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679481/activation-of-the-coagulation-cascade-in-patients-with-scrub-typhus
#15
Hee-Jeong Lee, Chi-Young Park, Sang-Gon Park, Na-Ra Yoon, Dong-Min Kim, Choon-Hae Chung
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the levels of coagulation factors and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in patients with scrub typhus. We included patients confirmed to have scrub typhus at the Chosun University Hospital between September 2004 and December 2009. The DIC scores were evaluated in 365 patients and 36 healthy controls. The median concentrations of fibrinogen, d-dimer, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were compared between patients and healthy controls (p<0...
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674823/comparison-of-scrub-typhus-with-and-without-meningitis
#16
Winsley Rose, Urmi Ghosh, Anu Punnen, Rajiv Sarkar, John Jude Antony Prakash, Valsan Philip Verghese
OBJECTIVE: To compare the children admitted with scrub typhus with and without meningitis. METHODS: All children admitted with scrub typhus over a 62 mo period were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed to compare those with and without meningitis for demographic, clinical, investigations and outcome parameters. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty seven children were admitted with scrub typhus and 63 (14.8%) had meningitis. The mean cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell (CSF WBC) count was 71 cells/cu...
July 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674671/long-term-monitoring-reveals-an-avian-species-credit-in-secondary-forest-patches-of-costa-rica
#17
Steven C Latta, Nathan L Brouwer, Alison Olivieri, Julie Girard-Woolley, Judy F Richardson
Degraded and secondary forests comprise approximately 50% of remaining tropical forest. Bird community characteristics and population trends in secondary forests are infrequently studied, but secondary forest may serve as a "safety net" for tropical biodiversity. Less understood is the occurrence of time-delayed, community-level dynamics such as an extinction debt of specialist species or a species credit resulting from the recolonization of forest patches by extirpated species. We sought to elucidate patterns and magnitudes of temporal change in avian communities in secondary forest patches in Southern Costa Rica biannually over a 10 year period during the late breeding season and mid-winter...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664829/quantification-of-induced-hypothermia-from-aseptic-scrub-applications-during-rodent-surgery-preparation
#18
Anna M Skorupski, Jingyi Zhang, Danielle Ferguson, Frank Lawrence, F Claire Hankenson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are prone to develop hypothermia during anesthesia for surgery, thus potentially impedinganesthetic recovery, wound healing, and future health. The core body temperatures of isoflurane-anesthetized mice areinfluenced by the choice of supplemental heat sources; however, the contribution of various surgical scrubs on the bodytemperatures of mice under gas anesthesia has not been assessed. We sought to quantify the effect of using alcohol (70%isopropyl alcohol [IPA]) compared with saline to rinse away surgical scrub on the progression of hypothermia in anesthetizedmice (n = 47)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663682/hepatitis-e-virus-induced-acute-liver-failure-with-scrub-typhus-coinfection-in-a-pregnant-woman
#19
Nipun Verma, Megha Sharma, Manisha Biswal, Sunil Taneja, Nitya Batra, Abhay Kumar, Radha K Dhiman
Coinfections contribute significantly to diagnostic challenges of acute febrile illnesses, especially in endemic areas. The confusion caused by overlapping clinical features impedes timely management. Herein, we report an unusual, previously unreported case of a pregnant woman suffering from a coinfection of scrub typhus and hepatitis E virus. A 25-year-old, 31-week pregnant woman presented with jaundice for 5 days and altered sensorium for 2 days. She had features of both viral acute liver failure (ALF) and tropical infections mimicking ALF, including hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, anemia, thrombocytopenia, intravascular hemolysis, and hepatosplenomegaly...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660104/use-of-bivector-traction-for-stabilization-of-the-head-and-maintenance-of-optimal-cervical-alignment-in-posterior-cervical-fusions
#20
Isaac O Karikari, David B Bumpass, Jeffrey Gum, Patrick Sugrue, Todd M Chapman, Aladine A Elsamadicy, K Daniel Riew
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of consecutive case series. OBJECTIVE: To introduce a novel method of stabilizing the cranium using bivector traction in posterior cervical fusions. METHODS: A retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterior cervical arthrodesis was performed. All patients had at least 3 levels of subaxial fusion using the bivector traction apparatus. Patients' demographic data was recorded for the following: pre- and postoperative cervical lordosis, pre- and postoperative cervical sagittal vertical alignment (cSVA), and intraoperative complications from pin placements...
May 2017: Global Spine Journal
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