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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453854/cost-effective-innovations-in-low-resource-settings
#1
Olivia H Chang, Jeffrey P Wilkinson
As health technologies are slowly adapted in low resource settings, the support modalities, equipment and supplies that allow these advances to be implemented are often not fully considered. It is not uncommon to install a new computed tomography scan machine in a hospital in sub-Saharan Africa only to suffer extensive downtime from unreliable electricity supply or unavailability of contrast agents (Essential Health Technologies WHO 2011). Countless expensive high-tech devices sit idle in low resource settings for lack of proper disposables and properly trained health care professionals...
February 17, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#2
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453548/-big-data-from-clinical-routine
#3
REVIEW
U Mansmann
BACKGROUND: Over the past 100 years, evidence-based medicine has undergone several fundamental changes. Through the field of physiology, medical doctors were introduced to the natural sciences. Since the late 1940s, randomized and epidemiological studies have come to provide the evidence for medical practice, which led to the emergence of clinical epidemiology as a new field in the medical sciences. Within the past few years, big data has become the driving force behind the vision for having a comprehensive set of health-related data which tracks individual healthcare histories and consequently that of large populations...
February 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453267/plant-microbe-and-abiotic-factors-influencing-salmonella-survival-and-growth-on-alfalfa-sprouts-and-swiss-chard-microgreens
#4
Elizabeth Reed, Christina M Ferreira, Rebecca Bell, Eric W Brown, Jie Zheng
Microgreens, like sprouts, are relatively fast growing, and generally consumed raw. Moreover, as observed in sprouts, microbial contamination from preharvest sources could also be present in the production of microgreens. In this study, two Salmonella enterica serovars (Hartford and Cubana) applied, at multiple inoculation levels, were evaluated for survival and growth on alfalfa sprouts and Swiss chard microgreens using the most probable number (MPN) method. Various abiotic factors were also examined for their effects on Salmonella survival and growth on sprouts and microgreens...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452623/currently-available-radiopharmaceuticals-for-imaging-infection-and-the-holy-grail
#5
REVIEW
Ebru Salmanoglu, Sung Kim, Mathew L Thakur
Infection is ubiquitous. However, its management is challenging for both the patients and the health-care providers. Scintigraphic imaging of infection dates back nearly half a century. The advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease at cellular and molecular levels have paved the way to the development of a large number of radiopharmaceuticals for scintigraphic imaging of infection. These include radiolabeling of blood elements such as serum proteins, white blood cells (WBCs), and cytokines, to name a few...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452560/health-care-efficiencies-consolidation-and-alternative-models-vs-health-care-and-antitrust-regulation-irreconcilable-differences
#6
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452113/technological-innovation-strategies-for-the-specific-treatment-of-chagas-disease-based-on-benznidazole
#7
REVIEW
Leslie Raphael de Moura Ferraz, Alinne Élida Gonçalves Alves, Débora Dolores Souza da Silva Nascimento, Isabela Araújo E Amariz, Aline Silva Ferreira, Salvana Priscylla Manso Costa, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease is responsible for public health problems greater in magnitude than those attributed to malaria, schistosomiasis, or leishmaniasis. A factor in the socioeconomic development of poor countries, Chagas disease can cause death due to a high parasitic burden during its acute phase due and irreversible damage in organs such as the heart, esophagus, and colon during its chronic phase, even when the number of parasites is minimal. For treating Chagas disease, benznidazole (BNZ) remains the drug of choice and, in Latin America, the only drug on the market for treating the disease...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451924/late-effects-awareness-website-for-pediatric-survivors-of-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#8
Hillary Klonoff-Cohen, Ana Navarro, Elizabeth A Klonoff
OBJECTIVES: Every day 43 children are newly diagnosed with cancer. Fortunately, almost 90% of these childhood cancer patients will survive. However, 60-90% of these survivors will experience late effects, health problems that occur months or years after treatment has ended. Late effects could occur as a result of the disease, its treatment, and patient-related factors. The two main objectives of this research are to: 1) Examine the existence of all web-based resources for childhood cancer survivors with acute lymphocytic leukemia which focus on medical and psychological aspects of late effects, and 2) Create an innovative website specifically designed to fill this void...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451603/from-medicinal-chemistry-to-human-health-current-approaches-to-drug-discovery-for-cancer-and-neglected-tropical-diseases
#9
Leonardo G Ferreira, Glaucius Oliva, Adriano D Andricopulo
Scientific and technological breakthroughs have compelled the current players in drug discovery to increasingly incorporate knowledge-based approaches. This evolving paradigm, which has its roots attached to the recent advances in medicinal chemistry, molecular and structural biology, has unprecedentedly demanded the development of up-to-date computational approaches, such as bio- and chemo-informatics. These tools have been pivotal to catalyzing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the molecular sciences, and to converting the data into insightful guidelines for use in the research pipeline...
February 15, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450891/a-public-health-approach-for-preventing-neural-tube-defects-folic-acid-fortification-and-beyond
#10
Greg S Garrett, Lynn B Bailey
In this paper we review the evidence basis for prevention of folic acid-sensitive neural tube defects (NTDs) through public health interventions in women of reproductive age (WRA), the proven vehicles for delivery of folic acid, and what is needed to effectively scale these, and provide a snapshot of potential innovations that require future research. Our primary focus is on the global situation affecting large-scale food fortification (LSFF) with folic acid, in particular the fortification of wheat flour and maize meal...
February 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449877/internationalization-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-current-international-market-internationalization-challenges-and-prospective-suggestions
#11
REVIEW
Annie Xianghong Lin, Ging Chan, Yuanjia Hu, Defang Ouyang, Carolina Oi Lam Ung, Luwen Shi, Hao Hu
Through reviewing the current international market for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), this paper identified the internationalization challenges for TCM, including unclear therapeutic material basis and mechanism, difficulty of quality control, low preparation level, registration/policy barriers, and shortage of intellectual property. To deal with these challenges, suggestions were given including: (1) product innovation of TCM (study the TCM by using the methods and means of western medicine; innovate the basic theory of TCM; develop TCM health product); (2) standard innovation of TCM; (3) building big data platform of Chinese medicine (big data platform of TCM preparation; big data platform on the quality of TCM)...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447386/kick-it-the-development-of-an-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-smartphone-app
#12
Joseph E M van Agteren, Sharon Lawn, Billie Bonevski, Brian J Smith
Currently, the evidence for mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation interventions is limited and heterogeneous, warranting the need for innovative rigorously developed solutions. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a smoking cessation smartphone application (app) developed using evidence-based principles. The app (Kick.it) was designed using the Intervention Mapping framework, incorporating an extensive literature review and qualitative study, in combination with the Behavioural Change Taxonomy v1, the Theoretical Domains Framework, and the Persuasive System Design framework...
February 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447021/release-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-muscle-and-bone-causes-tenocyte-death-in-a-novel-rotator-cuff-in-vitro-explant-culture-model
#13
Brianne K Connizzo, Alan J Grodzinsky
Tendinopathy is a significant clinical problem thought to be associated with altered mechanical loading. Explant culture models allow researchers to alter mechanical loading in a controlled in vitro environment while maintaining tenocytes in their native matrix. However, current models do not accurately represent commonly injured tendons, ignoring contributions of associated musculature and bone, as well as regional collagen structure. This study details the characterization of a mouse rotator cuff explant culture model, including bone, tendon, and muscle (BTM)...
February 15, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446808/private-public-partnership-a-solution-for-the-development-of-health-system-in-tunisia
#14
Jihen Jdidi, Yosra Mejdoub, Sourour Yaich, Houda Ben Ayed, Mondher Kassis, Habib Fki, Ines Ayadi, Jamel Damak
In a context of economic difficulties, the Tunisian government is required to find solutions to meet the expectations of the population. Health sector is one of the critical areas requiring radical reform. The objective of this paper is to find the place of public private partnership project in the harmonious development of both public and private sectors in Tunisia. Indeed, the Tunisian health system consists of two main sectors: the public sector, and the private sector, booming since the 90s. Tunisian infrastructure and staff resources distribution is characterised by a very significant regional disparity, to the detriment of the interior regions, which is more pronounced in the private sector...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446336/using-telehealth-to-implement-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#15
Loren Dent, Aimee Peters, Patrick L Kerr, Heidi Mochari-Greenberger, Reena L Pande
Behavioral health issues are common among patients with comorbid medical conditions but often go unrecognized or untreated, resulting in worse clinical outcomes and avoidable medical expenditures. This column describes an innovative telehealth solution that includes proactive and targeted patient identification and engagement and nationwide delivery of a technology-enabled, standardized, and evidence-based behavioral health program delivered via phone or video. A retrospective before-after evaluation of the program demonstrated national reach, high patient satisfaction, and significant reductions in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445298/presence-of-pain-on-three-or-more-days-of-the-week-is-associated-with-worse-patient-reported-outcomes-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#16
Nitya Bakshi, Diana Ross, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti
While acute episodic pain is the hallmark of sickle cell disease (SCD), transition to chronic pain is a major cause of morbidity and impaired quality of life. One of the core diagnostic criteria used by Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) to define chronic SCD pain is the presence of pain on a "majority of days" in the past 6 months in one or more locations. The frequency characteristic of "majority of days" is adapted from the criteria of 15 days or more per month, used to define chronic migraine, but there are inadequate data to support this cutoff in SCD...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444735/short-assessment-of-health-literacy-sahl-in-portugal-development-and-validation-of-a-self-administered-tool
#17
Carla Pires, Pedro Rosa, Marina Vigário, Afonso Cavaco
The goal of this study was to adapt, improve and validate a short, self-administered health literacy assessment tool for European Portuguese-speaking adults. Health literacy tools are of great importance to health authorities and professionals, as low or inadequate health literacy, that is, a limited capacity to handle health-related information, is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The 18-item Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Brazilian Portuguese-speaking adults (SAHLPA-18) was adapted into European Portuguese...
February 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443719/the-time-is-now-using-graduates-practice-data-to-drive-medical-education-reform
#18
Marc M Triola, Richard E Hawkins, Susan E Skochelak
Medical educators are not yet taking full advantage of the publicly available clinical practice data published by federal, state, and local governments, which can be attributed to individual physicians and evaluated in the context of where they attended medical school and residency training. Understanding how graduates fare in actual practice, both in terms of the quality of the care they provide and the clinical challenges they face, can aid educators in taking an evidence-based approach to medical education...
February 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441511/-cardiology-telemedicine-solutions-opinion-of-the-committee-of-informatics-and-telemedicine-of-polish-society-of-cardiology-section-of-non-invasive-electrocardiology-and-telemedicine-of-polish-society-of-cardiology-and-clinical-sciences-committee-of-the
#19
Ryszard Piotrowicz, Paweł Krzesiński, Paweł Balsam, Maciej Kempa, Renata Główczyńska, Marcin Grabowski, Łukasz Kołtowski, Ewa Lewicka, Michał Peller, Ewa Piotrowicz, Jakub Podolec, Adam Stańczyk, Justyna Zajdel, Grzegorz Opolski
For several years, we have observed the dynamic development of technologies that allow patients to access medical care from the comfort of their homes, without direct contact with the doctor. Innovative solutions based on telemedicine improve care coordination and communication among clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as increases patients' security and gives them greater independence, thus eliminating health care inequalities. The rapidly growth of telemedicine and the adoption of new technologies in clinical practice is also observed in Poland...
February 14, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441117/contextual-factors-in-maternal-and-newborn-health-evaluation-a-protocol-applied-in-nigeria-india-and-ethiopia
#20
Kate Sabot, Tanya Marchant, Neil Spicer, Della Berhanu, Meenakshi Gautham, Nasir Umar, Joanna Schellenberg
Background: Understanding the context of a health programme is important in interpreting evaluation findings and in considering the external validity for other settings. Public health researchers can be imprecise and inconsistent in their usage of the word "context" and its application to their work. This paper presents an approach to defining context, to capturing relevant contextual information and to using such information to help interpret findings from the perspective of a research group evaluating the effect of diverse innovations on coverage of evidence-based, life-saving interventions for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India...
2018: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
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