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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822486/adaptation-to-toxic-hosts-as-a-factor-in-the-evolution-of-insecticide-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Andrei Alyokhin, Yolanda H Chen
Insecticide resistance is a serious economic problem that jeopardizes sustainability of chemical control of herbivorous insects and related arthropods. It can be viewed as a specific case of adaptation to toxic chemicals, which has been driven in large part, but not exclusively, by the necessity for insect pests to tolerate defensive compounds produced by their host plants. Synthetic insecticides may simply change expression of specific sets of detoxification genes that have evolved due to ancestral associations with host plants...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822233/obese-fathers-lead-to-an-altered-metabolism-and-obesity-in-their-children-in-adulthood-review-of-experimental-and-human-studies
#2
REVIEW
Fernanda Ornellas, Priscila V Carapeto, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. SOURCES: A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication...
August 16, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818816/oil-sorbents-from-plastic-wastes-and-polymers-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Junaid Saleem, Muhammad Adil Riaz, McKay Gordon
A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815846/innovative-look-at-dairy-heifer-rearing-effect-of-prenatal-and-post-natal-environment-on-later-performance
#4
REVIEW
M Van Eetvelde, G Opsomer
As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815083/routine-jejunostomy-tube-feeding-following-esophagectomy
#5
Teus J Weijs, Hanneke W J van Eden, Jelle P Ruurda, Misha D P Luyer, Elles Steenhagen, Grard A P Nieuwenhuijzen, Richard van Hillegersberg
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an important problem following esophagectomy. A surgically placed jejunostomy secures an enteral feeding route, facilitating discharge with home-tube feeding and long-term nutritional support. However, specific complications occur, and data are lacking that support its use over other enteral feeding routes. Therefore routine jejunostomy tube feeding and discharge with home-tube feeding was evaluated, with emphasis on weight loss, length of stay and re-admissions...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813000/an-ameliorated-prediction-of-drug-target-interactions-based-on-multi-scale-discrete-wavelet-transform-and-network-features
#6
Cong Shen, Yijie Ding, Jijun Tang, Xinying Xu, Fei Guo
The prediction of drug-target interactions (DTIs) via computational technology plays a crucial role in reducing the experimental cost. A variety of state-of-the-art methods have been proposed to improve the accuracy of DTI predictions. In this paper, we propose a kind of drug-target interactions predictor adopting multi-scale discrete wavelet transform and network features (named as DAWN) in order to solve the DTIs prediction problem. We encode the drug molecule by a substructure fingerprint with a dictionary of substructure patterns...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805918/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-nitrate-residues-in-tissues-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-finishing-phase
#7
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803514/investigation-sensitivity-analysis-and-multi-objective-optimization-of-effective-parameters-on-temperature-and-force-in-robotic-drilling-cortical-bone
#8
Vahid Tahmasbi, Majid Ghoreishi, Mojtaba Zolfaghari
The bone drilling process is very prominent in orthopedic surgeries and in the repair of bone fractures. It is also very common in dentistry and bone sampling operations. Due to the complexity of bone and the sensitivity of the process, bone drilling is one of the most important and sensitive processes in biomedical engineering. Orthopedic surgeries can be improved using robotic systems and mechatronic tools. The most crucial problem during drilling is an unwanted increase in process temperature (higher than 47 °C), which causes thermal osteonecrosis or cell death and local burning of the bone tissue...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802744/remediation-of-thiothrix-spp-associated-bulking-problems-by-raw-wastewater-feeding-a-full-scale-experience
#9
Cristobal A Onetto, Kathryn L Eales, Paul R Grbin
An industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Australia has long suffered from bulking problems associated with the proliferation of Thiothrix spp. The WWTP consists of a covered anaerobic lagoon (CAL) followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The CAL functions as both an anaerobic digester and surge lagoon for the irregular flow of wastewater generated from the production of seasonal products. Chemical analysis of the raw influent showed it was composed of a mixture of organic acids, phenols and alcohols...
July 27, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796986/evaluation-of-stomatognathic-problems-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-osteogenesis-imperfecta-oi-preliminary-study
#10
Danuta Smoląg, Małgorzata Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Jerzy Sułko
According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794796/a-high-throughput-phenotyping-procedure-for-evaluation-of-antixenosis-against-common-cutworm-at-early-seedling-stage-in-soybean
#11
Guangnan Xing, Kai Liu, Junyi Gai
BACKGROUND: Common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a major leaf-feeding pest of soybean in Asia. The previous methods of measuring antixenosis against CCW using adult plant under field or net-room conditions were time-consuming, labor-intensive and precision-inferior. To solve the problems, this study aimed at (i) establishing a high-throughput phenotyping method for evaluating antixenosis against CCW at early seedling stage, (ii) using the procedure to evaluate the antixenosis of an insect-resistant versus -susceptible germplasm population (IRSGP), (iii) validating the proposed method through comparing the results with the historical phenotypic data and phenotyping-genotyping consistency data using PAV (presence/absence variation) markers linked with the identified loci CCW-1 and CCW-2, (iv) and evaluating the efficiency of the novel method through comparisons to the previous methods...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794695/water-filtered-infrared-a-wira-overcomes-swallowing-disorders-and-hypersalivation-a-case-report
#12
Gerd Hoffmann
Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube): quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments) and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out)...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782552/a-dynamic-bioenergetic-model-for-coral-symbiodinium-symbioses-and-coral-bleaching-as-an-alternate-stable-state
#13
Ross Cunning, Erik B Muller, Ruth D Gates, Roger M Nisbet
Coral reef ecosystems owe their ecological success - and vulnerability to climate change - to the symbiotic metabolism of corals and Symbiodinium spp. The urgency to understand and predict the stability and breakdown of these symbioses (i.e., coral 'bleaching') demands the development and application of theoretical tools. Here, we develop a dynamic bioenergetic model of coral-Symbiodinium symbioses that demonstrates realistic steady-state patterns in coral growth and symbiont abundance across gradients of light, nutrients, and feeding...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780117/targeting-a-global-health-problem-vaccine-design-and-challenges-for-the-control-of-tick-borne-diseases
#14
REVIEW
José de la Fuente, Marinela Contreras, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz
It has been over twenty years since the first vaccines for the control of tick infestations became commercially available. These vaccines proved their efficacy and the potential of this approach for the control of tick-borne diseases (TBDs), which represent a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. In all these years, research in this area has produced new tick-derived and pathogen-derived candidate protective antigens. However, the potential of vaccines for the control of TBDs has been underestimated due to major challenges to reduce tick infestations, pathogen infection, multiplication and transmission, tick attachment and feeding time and/or host pathogen infection...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776273/combining-metabolomics-and-network-analysis-to-improve-tacrolimus-production-in-streptomyces-tsukubaensis-using-different-exogenous-feedings
#15
Cheng Wang, Jiao Liu, Huanhuan Liu, Shaoxiong Liang, Jianping Wen
Tacrolimus is widely used as an immunosuppressant in the treatment of various autoimmune diseases. However, the low fermentation yield of tacrolimus has thus far restricted its industrial applications. To solve this problem, the time-series response mechanisms of the intracellular metabolism that were highly correlated with tacrolimus biosynthesis were investigated using different exogenous feeding strategies in S. tsukubaensis. The metabolomic datasets, which contained 93 metabolites, were subjected to weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), and eight distinct metabolic modules and seven hub metabolites were identified to be specifically associated with tacrolimus biosynthesis...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775260/phytoextraction-of-cadmium-contaminated-soil-and-potential-of-regenerated-tobacco-biomass-for-recovery-of-cadmium
#16
Yang Yang, Yichen Ge, Hongyuan Zeng, Xihong Zhou, Liang Peng, Qingru Zeng
The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of regenerated tobacco on the extraction of Cd from two acidic soils as well as to address the problem of how to deal with contaminated leaves following phytoextraction. Results showed that a coppicing tobacco led to a decline in Cd concentration in regenerated leaves and stalks when plants were grown in pots, but increased concentrations in regenerated lower and middle leaves when plants were grown under field conditions. The highest recorded bioconcentration factors in Chaling and Guanxi soil were 37...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773810/thermo-mechanical-characterization-of-friction-stir-spot-welded-aa7050-sheets-by-means-of-experimental-and-fem-analyses
#17
Gianluca D'Urso, Claudio Giardini
The present study was carried out to evaluate how the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process parameters affect the temperature distribution in the welding region, the welding forces and the mechanical properties of the joints. The experimental study was performed by means of a CNC machine tool obtaining FSSW lap joints on AA7050 aluminum alloy plates. Three thermocouples were inserted into the samples to measure the temperatures at different distance from the joint axis during the whole FSSW process. Experiments was repeated varying the process parameters, namely rotational speed, axial feed rate and plunging depth...
August 11, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772997/recovery-of-silver-using-adsorption-gels-prepared-from-microalgal-residue-immobilized-with-functional-groups-containing-sulfur-or-nitrogen
#18
Kanjana Khunathai, Katsutoshi Inoue, Keisuke Ohto, Hidetaka Kawakita, Minoru Kurata, Kinya Atsumi, Hiroaki Fukuda, Shafiq Alam
Although biodiesel oil extracted from microalgae attracts much attention as one of the most promising green energies, its high production cost is a big problem, impeding its extensive use. In order to lower the production cost, the effective use of microalgal residue after extracting biofuel was investigated as a feed material of functional materials. In the present work, a new adsorbent for silver(I) was prepared by immobilizing functional groups of polyethylene-polyamine or dithiooxamide, which exhibita high affinity for soft Lewis acids such as silver(I) ions...
June 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770188/early-childhood-caries-prevalence-risk-factors-and-prevention
#19
REVIEW
Sukumaran Anil, Pradeep S Anand
Early childhood caries (ECC) is major oral health problem, mainly in socially disadvantaged populations. ECC affects infants and preschool children worldwide. The prevalence of ECC differs according to the group examined, and a prevalence of up to 85% has been reported for disadvantaged groups. ECC is the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth in children aged 71 months (5 years) or younger. It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770098/boar-management-and-semen-handling-factors-affect-the-quality-of-boar-extended-semen
#20
REVIEW
Alfonso Lopez Rodriguez, Ann Van Soom, Ioannis Arsenakis, Dominiek Maes
Artificial insemination (AI) is the preferred method for reproduction in the majority of the intensive pig production systems Worldwide. To this end, fresh extended ready-to-use semen doses are either purchased from AI-centres or produced by boars kept on-farm. For profitable semen production, it is necessary to obtain a maximum amount of high quality semen from each boar. This paper reviews current knowledge on factors that may affect semen quality by influencing the boar or the semen during processing. Genetic markers could be used for early detection of boars with the highest fertility potential...
2017: Porcine Health Management
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