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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#1
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217599/ers-statement-on-obstructive-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-1-to-23-month-old-children
#2
Athanasios G Kaditis, Maria Luz Alonso Alvarez, An Boudewyns, Francois Abel, Emmanouel I Alexopoulos, Refika Ersu, Koen Joosten, Helena Larramona, Silvia Miano, Indra Narang, Hui-Leng Tan, Ha Trang, Marina Tsaoussoglou, Nele Vandenbussche, Maria Pia Villa, Dick Van Waardenburg, Silke Weber, Stijn Verhulst
The present statement was produced by a European Respiratory Society Task Force to summarise the evidence and current practice on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children aged 1-23 months. A systematic literature search was completed and 159 articles were summarised to answer clinically relevant questions. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are identified. Morbidity (pulmonary hypertension, growth delay, behavioural problems) and coexisting conditions (feeding difficulties, recurrent otitis media) may be present...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214857/feeding-time-can-alleviate-negative-effects-of-heat-stress-on-performance-meat-quality-and-health-status-of-turkey
#3
M F A Farghly, M Alagawany, M E Abd El-Hack
1. A total of 180 one-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to 6 equal groups to investigate the effect of feeding time on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, leg problems and physiological responses of growing turkeys under the high temperature conditions of summer. 2. Birds of the first group were ad libitum fed and were considered as the controls (C). The second group (T1) was given 80% of diet in the morning and 20% of diet in the afternoon, The third group (T2) was given 60% of diet in the morning and 40% of diet in the afternoon, The fourth group (T3) was given 40% of diet in the morning and 60% of diet in the afternoon, The fifth group (T4) was given 20% of diet in the morning and 80% of diet in the afternoon and the sixth group (T5) was given 100% of diet in the afternoon...
December 7, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214211/targeted-kinase-inhibition-relieves-slowness-and-tremor-in-a-drosophila-model-of-lrrk2-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Amy C Cording, Nicolas Shiaelis, Stavroula Petridi, C Adam Middleton, Laurence G Wilson, Christopher J H Elliott
In a number of Drosophila models of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD) flies climb more slowly than wild-type controls. However, this assay does not distinguish effects of PD-related genes on gravity sensation, "arousal", central pattern generation of leg movements, or muscle. To address this problem, we have developed an assay for the fly proboscis extension response (PER). This is attractive because the PER has a simple, well-identified reflex neural circuit, in which sucrose sensing neurons activate a pair of "command interneurons", and thence motoneurons whose activity contracts the proboscis muscle...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214138/treating-food-approval-seeking-behavior-one-bite-at-a-time
#5
Sarah R Jenkins, Linda A LeBlanc, Garrick P Lambert
The prevalence of feeding problems in children with autism is high. The current investigation was a treatment of a unique presentation of food-related prompt dependence with a 6-year-old boy with autism who was reliant upon approval from adults for consumption of every bite of food. Instructions were used to establish independent eating, in which the number of bites specified in the instruction was systematically increased. Independent bites increased from a baseline level of 0.67% to a final phase level of almost 100%, and the instruction was faded to "eat your lunch"...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214040/the-smallest-de-novo-20q11-2-microdeletion-causing-intellectual-disability-and-dysmorphic-features
#6
Hiroaki Hanafusa, Naoya Morisada, Yusuke Ishida, Ryosuke Sakata, Keiichi Morita, Shizu Miura, Ming Juan Ye, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Kandai Nozu, Kazumoto Iijima
The 20q11.2 microdeletion is a rare chromosomal aberration characterized by intellectual disability (ID), motor developmental delay, neonatal feeding problems, and facial dysmorphism. Here, a 2-year- and 6-month-old Japanese girl with a 1.2 Mb microdeletion of 20q11.2 showed ID, motor developmental delay, and distinctive facial features without feeding problems. The deleted region was identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and is the smallest reported for a 20q11.2 microdeletion.
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209325/probiotic-enhanced-intestinal-immunity-in-broilers-against-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis
#7
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Xiaodan Qing, Lei Liu, Jing Lai, Abdul Khalique, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE), especially subclinical NE (SNE) whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201831/an-infantile-case-of-sandhoff-disease-presenting-with-swallowing-difficulty
#8
Jae-Gun Moon, Min-A Shin, Hannah Pyo, Seong-Uk Choi, Hyun-Kyung Kim
Infants with Sandhoff disease typically appear normal until 3-6 months of age. As the disease progresses, they present with symptoms such as loss of motor skills, exaggerated startle response to loud noise, seizures, visual loss, and paralysis. We encountered a rare case of a 22-month-old girl with Sandhoff disease characterized by progressive motor weakness and dysphagia, who initially showed signs of aspiration at 20 months of age. The major problems related to dysphagia were oromotor dysfunction and abnormal feeding posture...
October 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197422/the-acaricidal-speed-of-kill-of-orally-administered-fluralaner-against-poultry-red-mites-dermanyssus-gallinae-on-laying-hens-and-its-impact-on-mite-reproduction
#9
Maria D Brauneis, Hartmut Zoller, Heike Williams, Eva Zschiesche, Anja R Heckeroth
BACKGROUND: Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a growing threat to chickens in poultry farms. This nocturnal hematophagous ectoparasite has a rapid rate of proliferation with a negative impact on the birds' health, welfare and productivity resulting in severe economic consequences for poultry farmers. A study was performed with fluralaner, a novel systemic ectoparasiticide, to evaluate its effect on mite vitality and reproduction after oral administration to laying hens. METHODS: Sixteen healthy hens were randomly allocated to two study groups (n = 8)...
December 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196626/identification-of-borrelia-protein-candidates-in-mouse-skin-for-potential-diagnosis-of-disseminated-lyme-borreliosis
#10
Antoine Grillon, Benoît Westermann, Paola Cantero, Benoît Jaulhac, Maarten J Voordouw, Delphine Kapps, Elody Collin, Cathy Barthel, Laurence Ehret-Sabatier, Nathalie Boulanger
In vector-borne diseases, the skin plays an essential role in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens between the vertebrate host and blood-feeding arthropods and in pathogen persistence. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a tick-borne bacterium that causes Lyme borreliosis (LB) in humans. This pathogen may establish a long-lasting infection in its natural vertebrate host where it can persist in the skin and some other organs. Using a mouse model, we demonstrate that Borrelia targets the skin regardless of the route of inoculation, and can persist there at low densities that are difficult to detect via qPCR, but that were infective for blood-feeding ticks...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195449/ship-localization-in-santa-barbara-channel-using-machine-learning-classifiers
#11
Haiqiang Niu, Emma Ozanich, Peter Gerstoft
Machine learning classifiers are shown to outperform conventional matched field processing for a deep water (600 m depth) ocean acoustic-based ship range estimation problem in the Santa Barbara Channel Experiment when limited environmental information is known. Recordings of three different ships of opportunity on a vertical array were used as training and test data for the feed-forward neural network and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrating the feasibility of machine learning methods to locate unseen sources...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190142/biomedical-science-undergraduate-major-a-new-pathway-to-advance-research-and-the-health-professions
#12
John S Gunn, Cynthia H Ledford, Steven J Mousetes, Michael R Grever
PROBLEM: Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. INTERVENTION: In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions...
November 30, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189865/-the-fight-against-malnutrition-of-the-medical-community-between-1860-and-1940
#13
Juan Carlos Yáñez Andrade
The aim of this manuscript is to highlight the contribution of the first two generations of physicians who faced malnutrition in Chile, between the end of nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century. In the history of Chilean medicine, there is a paucity of research about the role of these physicians in the fight against malnutrition. The main interest was centered in the forties of the twentieth century and the first policies and actions for the working class feeding have been overlooked...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187144/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-associations-among-adolescents-in-an-urban-sri-lankan-community
#14
Shaman Rajindrajith, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Chamilka Jayasinghe, Dulani Kottahachchi, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Shamila T de Silva, Madunil A Niriella, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Arjuna P de Silva, H Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common problem across the world. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and its associations in Sri Lankan adolescents living in an urban Sri Lankan community. METHOD: The study population consisted of the birth cohort of the year 2000, residing in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data [anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and total body fat distribution] of these adolescents were collected by trained data collectors...
November 29, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186207/metabolic-health-assessment-of-zoo-elephants-management-factors-predicting-leptin-levels-and-the-glucose-to-insulin-ratio-and-their-associations-with-health-parameters
#15
Kari A Morfeld, Janine L Brown
Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185947/the-neonatal-eating-assessment-tool-development-and-content-validation
#16
Britt F Pados, Hayley H Estrem, Suzanne M Thoyre, Jinhee Park, Cara McComish
PURPOSE: To develop and content validate the Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool (NeoEAT), a parent-report measure of infant feeding. DESIGN: The NeoEAT was developed in three phases. Phase 1: Items were generated from a literature review, available assessment tools, and parents' descriptions of problematic feeding in infants.Phase 2: Professionals rated items for relevance and clarity. Content validity indices were calculated. Phase 3: Parent understanding was explored through cognitive interviews...
November 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183381/a-promising-approach-to-enhance-microalgae-productivity-by-exogenous-supply-of-vitamins
#17
REVIEW
Puja Tandon, Qiang Jin, Limin Huang
In order to reduce the consumption of traditional fossil fuels and their impact on the environment, strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions especially carbon dioxide needs exploration. Microalgae-based biofuels can be the best-fit plant based feed-stocks for diminishing a majority of the Universe's energy problems. Interestingly, the eukaryotic microalgae aid in fixation of almost 50% of the global carbon in the environment. Thus, determination of parameters that will enhance microalgal growth and productivity is crucial, if they are to be used as future renewable energy sources...
November 28, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182728/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-aloe-vera-and-licorice-extracts-on-the-course-of-experimental-pigeon-paramyxovirus-type-1-infection-in-pigeons
#18
D Dziewulska, T Stenzel, M Smialek, B Tykalowski, A Koncicki
The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1...
November 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181595/integration-of-waste-valorization-for-sustainable-production-of-chemicals-and-materials-via-algal-cultivation
#19
REVIEW
Yong Chen, Li-Ping Sun, Zhi-Hui Liu, Greg Martin, Zheng Sun
Managing waste is an increasing problem globally. Microalgae have the potential to help remove contaminants from a range of waste streams and convert them into useful biomass. This article presents a critical review of recent technological developments in the production of chemicals and other materials from microalgae grown using different types of waste. A range of novel approaches are examined for efficiently capturing CO2 in flue gas via photosynthetic microalgal cultivation. Strategies for using microalgae to assimilate nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, and metal ions from wastewater are considered in relation to modes of production...
November 27, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179291/lost-in-translation-piloting-a-novel-framework-to-assess-the-challenges-in-translating-scientific-uncertainty-from-empirical-findings-to-who-policy-statements
#20
Tarik Benmarhnia, Jonathan Y Huang, Catherine M Jones
BACKGROUND: Calls for evidence-informed public health policy, with implicit promises of greater program effectiveness, have intensified recently. The methods to produce such policies are not self-evident, requiring a conciliation of values and norms between policy-makers and evidence producers. In particular, the translation of uncertainty from empirical research findings, particularly issues of statistical variability and generalizability, is a persistent challenge because of the incremental nature of research and the iterative cycle of advancing knowledge and implementation...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
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