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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732254/going-down-the-tubes-impact-on-seizure-control-of-antiepileptic-medication-given-via-percutaneous-feeding-tubes
#1
REVIEW
Caryn Jory, Rohit Shankar, Katy Oak, Janina Oates, Mike Wilcock
BACKGROUND: Long-term feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG) is uncommon but can present significant issues when both nutrition and medication have to be fed down the same tube. This is especially important in people with epilepsy where the dose and bioavailability of antiepileptic drugs are critical to maintain adequate seizure control. This group with long-term PEG tubes is particularly vulnerable and dependent on their carers to provide high standard of care. Indeed, approximately half of the people with long-term feeding tubes suffer from severe intellectual disability which requires careful coordination of all members of the multidisciplinary team...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728607/zika-virus-transmission-to-mouse-ear-by-mosquito-bite-a-laboratory-model-that-replicates-the-natural-transmission-process
#2
Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Barbara Aparecida Chaves, Alessandra Silva Orfano, Karine Renata Dias Silveira, Nilton Barnabe Rodrigues, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Luiz Eduardo Martinez Villegas, Breno Melo Silva, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Douglas Eric Norris, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with Aedes aegypti being the main vector. METHODS: We successfully developed a ZIKV experimental transmission model by single infectious Ae. aegypti bite to a laboratory mouse using circulating Brazilian strains of both arbovirus and vector...
July 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727007/best-management-practices-for-newly-weaned-calves-for-improved-health-and-well-being
#3
B K Wilson, C J Richards, D L Step, C R Krehbiel
Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724448/systemic-insecticide-treatment-of-the-canine-reservoir-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-induces-high-levels-of-lethality-in-triatoma-infestans-a-principal-vector-of-chagas-disease
#4
Ariel Loza, Adrianna Talaga, Gladys Herbas, Ruben Jair Canaviri, Thalia Cahuasiri, Laura Luck, Alvaro Guibarra, Raquel Goncalves, Juan Antonio Pereira, Sonia A Gomez, Albert Picado, Louisa Alexandra Messenger, Caryn Bern, Orin Courtenay
BACKGROUND: Despite large-scale reductions in Chagas disease prevalence across Central and South America, Trypanosoma cruzi infection remains a considerable public health problem in the Gran Chaco region where vector-borne transmission persists. In these communities, peridomestic animals are major blood-meal sources for triatomines, and household presence of infected dogs increases T. cruzi transmission risk for humans. To address the pressing need for field-friendly, complementary methods to reduce triatomine infestation and interrupt T...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720899/p32-heterozygosity-protects-against-age-and-diet-induced-obesity-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#5
Yong Liu, Patrick L Leslie, Aiwen Jin, Koji Itahana, Lee M Graves, Yanping Zhang
Obesity is increasing in prevalence and has become a global public health problem. The main cause of obesity is a perturbation in energy homeostasis, whereby energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the deregulation of energy homeostasis, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we identify mitochondrial p32 (also known as C1QBP) as an important regulator of lipid homeostasis that regulates both aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. We show that while whole-body deletion of the p32 results in an embryonic lethal phenotype, mice heterozygous for p32 are resistant to age- and high-fat diet-induced ailments, including obesity, hyperglycemia, and hepatosteatosis...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719808/activated-neuro-oxidative-and-neuro-nitrosative-pathways-at-the-end-of-term-are-associated-with-inflammation-and-physio-somatic-and-depression-symptoms-while-predicting-outcome-characteristics-in-mother-and-baby
#6
Chutima Roomruangwong, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, André de Souza Nogueira, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira, Michael Maes
OBJECTIVES: To examine oxidative & nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers at the end of term in relation to perinatal affective symptoms, neuro-immune biomarkers and pregnancy-related outcome variables. METHODS: We measured plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), -sulfhydryl (-SH), peroxides (LOOH) and paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in pregnant women with and without prenatal depression and non-pregnant controls...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713567/genetically-engineered-bananas-resistant-to-xanthomonas-wilt-disease-and-nematodes
#7
REVIEW
Leena Tripathi, Howard Atkinson, Hugh Roderick, Jerome Kubiriba, Jaindra N Tripathi
Banana is an important staple food crop feeding more than 100 million Africans, but is subject to severe productivity constraints due to a range of pests and diseases. Banana Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is capable of entirely destroying a plantation while nematodes can cause losses up to 50% and increase susceptibility to other pests and diseases. Development of improved varieties of banana is fundamental in order to tackle these challenges. However, the sterile nature of the crop and the lack of resistance in Musa germplasm make improvement by traditional breeding techniques either impossible or extremely slow...
May 2017: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712005/an-overview-of-the-ongoing-insights-in-selenium-research-and-its-role-in-fish-nutrition-and-fish-health
#8
REVIEW
Kifayat Ullah Khan, Amina Zuberi, João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes, Imdad Ullah, Huda Sarwar
In the present review, the ongoing researches about selenium research in fish nutrition have been comprehensively discussed. Selenium research is getting popularity in fish nutrition as it is required for the normal growth and proper physiological and biochemical functions in fish. Its deficiency or surplus amounts create severe problems in fish. It is available as inorganic form, organic form, and nano form. In fish, most of the previous research is about the selenium requirements for fish by using only one selenium source mainly the inorganic one...
July 15, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710905/administration-of-fortifier-by-finger-feeder-during-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants
#9
Margarita Thanhaeuser, Alexandra Kreissl, Claudia Lindtner, Sophia Brandstetter, Angelika Berger, Nadja Haiden
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptance, adherence, and feasibility of fortifier administration by finger feeder during breastfeeding and to determine weight, length, and head circumference gains after discharge for preterm infants. DESIGN: Observational pilot study. SETTING: A Level III NICU and its outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. PARTICIPANTS: Infants born at younger than 34 weeks gestation were included. METHODS: Mothers were screened in a tertiary NICU and trained by certified lactation consultants to administer fortifier with a finger feeder during breastfeeding...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704206/an-autonomous-robot-inspired-by-insect-neurophysiology-pursues-moving-features-in-natural-environments
#10
Zahra M Bagheri, Benjamin S Cazzolato, Steven Grainger, David C O'Carroll, Steven D Wiederman
OBJECTIVE: Many computer vision and robotic applications require the implementation of robust and efficient target-tracking algorithms on a moving platform. However, deployment of a real-time system is challenging, even with the computational power of modern hardware. Lightweight and low-powered flying insects, such as dragonflies, track prey or conspecifics within cluttered natural environments, illustrating an efficient biological solution to the target-tracking problem. APPROACH: We used our recent recordings from 'small target motion detector' neurons in the dragonfly brain to inspire the development of a closed-loop target detection and tracking algorithm...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701823/innovative-technologies-to-manage-aflatoxins-in-foods-and-feeds-and-the-profitability-of-application-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Alexander Nimo Wiredu, Marcus Nagle, Joachim Müller, Bernard Vanlauwe, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay
Aflatoxins are mainly produced by certain strains of Aspergillus flavus, which are found in diverse agricultural crops. In many lower-income countries, aflatoxins pose serious public health issues since the occurrence of these toxins can be considerably common and even extreme. Aflatoxins can negatively affect health of livestock and poultry due to contaminated feeds. Additionally, they significantly limit the development of international trade as a result of strict regulation in high-value markets. Due to their high stability, aflatoxins are not only a problem during cropping, but also during storage, transport, processing, and handling steps...
June 2017: Food Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700565/nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-influences-bottle-feeding-in-preterm-lambs
#12
Nathalie Samson, Audrey Michaud, Rahmeh Othman, Charlène Nadeau, Stéphanie Nault, Danny Cantin, Michaël Sage, Céline Catelin, Jean-Paul Praud
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699602/importance-of-target-calorie-intake-in-hospitalized-patients
#13
Ferda Akbay Harmandar, Ismail Gömceli, Başak Oğuz Yolcular, Ayhan Hilmi Çekin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcome of a nutritional algorithm based on target calorie intake commenced as enteral nutrition (EN) alone or in combination with supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) among hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 301 hospitalized patients who were provided with nutritional support, including EN (n=125) or EN+SPN (n=176), due to various medical conditions during their hospitalization were included in this study conducted at Antalya Training and Research Hospital...
July 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695688/opening-pandora-s-box-ethical-issues-in-prenatal-whole-genome-and-exome-sequencing
#14
Ruth Horn, Michael Parker
OBJECTIVE: The development of genomic approaches to prenatal testing such as whole genome and exome sequencing offers the potential for a better understanding of prenatal structural anomalies in the fetus and ultimately for improved patient care and more informed reproductive decision making. In addition to the scientific and clinical challenges of achieving this, the introduction of new reproductive technologies also presents a number of ethical problems. The successful and appropriate development and introduction of prenatal genomics into clinical practice requires these problems to be identified, understood and carefully analysed in the development of models of good ethical practice...
July 10, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692577/associations-between-feeding-problems-and-maternal-sensitivity-across-infancy-differences-in-very-preterm-and-full-term-infants
#15
Ayten Bilgin, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of maternal sensitivity on infant feeding problems in very preterm/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) and full-term (FT) infants. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 178 infants (73 VP/VLBW and 105 FT). Feeding problems and maternal sensitivity were assessed at term, 3 and 18 months. A cross-lagged path model was tested to assess the longitudinal associations. RESULTS: The direction of the association between maternal sensitivity and feeding problems differed among VP/VLBW and FT infants...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690865/delaying-pigs-from-the-normal-production-flow-is-associated-with-health-problems-and-poorer-performance
#16
Julia Adriana Calderón Díaz, Alessia Diana, Laura Ann Boyle, Finola C Leonard, Máire McElroy, Shane McGettrick, John Moriarty, Edgar García Manzanilla
BACKGROUND: Delaying pigs from advancing through the production stages could have a negative impact on their health and performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible implications of delaying pigs from the normal production flow on pig health and performance in a farrow-to-finish commercial farm with a self-declared All-In/All-Out (AIAO) management. RESULTS: Three flows of pigs were defined, flow 1 (i.e. pigs that followed the normal production flow; 8 weeks in the nursery stage, 4 weeks in the growing stage and 8 weeks in the finisher stage), flow 2 (i...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690068/effects-of-feeding-alfalfa-stemlage-or-wheat-straw-for-dietary-energy-dilution-on-nutrient-intake-and-digestibility-growth-performance-and-feeding-behavior-of-holstein-dairy-heifers
#17
Huawei Su, Matt S Akins, Nancy M Esser, Robin Ogden, Wayne K Coblentz, Kenneth F Kalscheur, Ron Hatfield
Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems contain high fiber and moderate protein content and have the potential to be used to replace straw to reduce dietary energy. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intakes, digestibilities, growth performance, and feeding behaviors of dairy heifers offered an alfalfa silage/corn silage high energy diet (HE; 13...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687939/effects-of-different-fat-sources-saturated-and-unsaturated-on-reproductive-performance-and-biological-indices-of-ewes-during-flushing-period
#18
Amir Hossein Asgari Safdar, Ali Asghar Sadeghi, Mohammad Chamani
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different sources of fat during flushing period on the reproductive performance, lambing percent, and twin numbers of Afshari ewes. A total of 84 ewes (mean weight 48 ± 3 kg; age: 3-4 years) were divided into seven groups of 12 animals and received flushing-specific rations for 5 weeks. The control group just received a basic ration (non-flushing). Lipid sources were calcium salt of palm oil (CaP), pure palm oil (PO), calcium salt of flaxseed (CaFL), calcium salt of sunflower oil (CaSF), flaxseed oil (FLO), and sunflower oil (SFO)...
July 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676125/antimicrobial-drug-use-in-food-producing-animals-and-associated-human-health-risks-what-and-how-strong-is-the-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Karin Hoelzer, Nora Wong, Joe Thomas, Kathy Talkington, Elizabeth Jungman, Allan Coukell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. MAIN TEXT: The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework...
July 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674820/detection-of-the-tremorgenic-mycotoxin-paxilline-and-its-desoxy-analog-in-ergot-of-rye-and-barley-a-new-class-of-mycotoxins-added-to-an-old-problem
#20
Julia I Bauer, Madeleine Gross, Benedikt Cramer, Sandra Wegner, Heike Hausmann, Gerd Hamscher, Ewald Usleber
A newly developed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of the tremorgenic indole-diterpene alkaloid paxilline (PAX) and closely related analogs was used to analyze ergot sclerotia collected from rye and barley fields. The mean EIA standard curve detection limit was 0.47 ± 0.14 ng/mL; relative cross-reactivity of toxin standard solutions was found for 11-hydroxy-paspaline (terpendole E, 1.1%) but not for lolitrem B or ergot alkaloids. Sclerotia from all fields were positive in the PAX-EIA at concentration levels of 620 ± 200 and 160 ± 37 μg/kg in ergot of rye and 130 ± 47 μg/kg in ergot of barley...
July 4, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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