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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534616/microbes-and-the-next-nitrogen-revolution
#1
Ilje Pikaar, Silvio Matassa, Korneel Rabaey, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Alexander Popp, Mario Herrero, Willy Verstraete
The Haber Bosch process is among the greatest inventions of the 20th century. It provided agriculture with reactive nitrogen and ultimately mankind with nourishment for a population of 7 billion people. However, the present agricultural practice of growing crops for animal production and human food constitutes a major threat to the sustainability of the planet in terms of reactive nitrogen pollution. In view of the shortage of directly feasible and cost-effective measures to avoid these planetary nitrogen burdens and the necessity to remediate this problem, we foresee the absolute need for, and expect, a revolution in the use of microbes as a source of protein...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#2
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527978/enhanced-antimony-v-removal-using-synergistic-effects-of-fe-hydrolytic-flocs-and-ultrafiltration-membrane-with-sludge-discharge-evaluation
#3
Baiwen Ma, Xing Wang, Ruiping Liu, Zenglu Qi, William A Jefferson, Huachun Lan, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
The integration of adsorbents with ultrafiltration (UF) membranes is a promising method for alleviating membrane fouling and reducing land use. However, a number of problems have become apparent concerning the granular adsorbents used currently, such as high running cost, high chance of causing membrane surface damage, low in situ chemical cleaning efficiency, etc. Herein, to overcome these disadvantages, loose in situ hydrolyzed flocs were directly injected into the membrane tank, providing strong adsorption ability at low cost...
May 13, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521656/oral-feeding-difficulties-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome-a-narrative-review
#4
Judy Hopkins, Sharon A Cermak, Russell J Merritt
Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with associated intestinal failure may be unable to absorb sufficient nutrients to sustain life. Improvements in the medical management of SBS, including use of parenteral nutrition, has significantly increased life expectancy. Independence from parenteral nutrition further improves quality of life. However, children living with SBS often develop oral aversions and feeding difficulties. There is limited research and information on which to base interventions that will preserve and develop oral motor and feeding skills...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515456/metabolomic-analysis-shows-differential-hepatic-effects-of-t2-and-t3-in-rats-after-short-term-feeding-with-high-fat-diet
#5
Liliana F Iannucci, Federica Cioffi, Rosalba Senese, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health problem worldwide, and is often associated with lipotoxic injury, defective mitochondrial function, and insulin resistance. Thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Among the THs, diiodothyronine (T2) and triiodothyronine (T3) have shown promising results in lowering hepatic fat content in various models of NAFLD. In this study, we used a targeted metabolomics approach to investigate the differential effects of T2 and T3 on the early metabolic adaptation in the livers of rats fed high fat diet (HFD), a period when hepatosteatosis is reversible...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506311/one-fourth-of-the-prisoners-are-underweight-in-northern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Semaw Ferede Abera, Kelemework Adane
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that prisoners are exposed to different health problems, prison health problems are often overlooked by researchers and no previous study has investigated nutritional problems of prisoners in Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 809 prisoners from nine major prison setups in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. A proportional stratified sampling technique was used to select the total number of participants needed from each prison site...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492927/prevalence-of-auditory-problems-in-children-with-feeding-and-swallowing-disorders
#7
Vishakha Waman Rawool
Purpose: Although an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for assessment and management of feeding or swallowing difficulties, audiologists are not always included in the interdisciplinary team. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of middle ear and hearing problems in children with feeding and swallowing disorders and to compare this prevalence with that in typical children. Method: A total of 103 children were included in the study: 44 children with feeding and swallowing disorders and 59 children without any such disorders...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489043/underweight-stunting-and-wasting-among-children-in-kilimanjaro-region-tanzania-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#8
Melina Mgongo, Nikolas A S Chotta, Tamara H Hashim, Jacqueline G Uriyo, Damian J Damian, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Sia E Msuya, Margareta Wandel, Siri Vangen
This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0-24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486402/compensating-unknown-time-varying-delay-in-opto-electronic-platform-tracking-servo-system
#9
Ruihong Xie, Tao Zhang, Jiaquan Li, Ming Dai
This paper investigates the problem of compensating miss-distance delay in opto-electronic platform tracking servo system. According to the characteristic of LOS (light-of-sight) motion, we setup the Markovian process model and compensate this unknown time-varying delay by feed-forward forecasting controller based on robust H∞ control. Finally, simulation based on double closed-loop PI (Proportion Integration) control system indicates that the proposed method is effective for compensating unknown time-varying delay...
May 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484597/individual-and-community-level-factors-with-a-significant-role-in-determining-child-height-for-age-z-score-in-east-gojjam-zone-amhara-regional-state-ethiopia-a-multilevel-analysis
#10
Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew, Belay Simanie Birhanu, Benjamin F Zaitchik
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, child undernutrition remains to be a major public health challenge and a contributing factor for child mortality and morbidity. To reduce the problem, it is apparent to identify determinants of child undernutrition in specific contexts to deliver appropriately, targeted, effective and sustainable interventions. METHODS: An agroecosystem linked cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3108 children aged 6-59 months. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484336/robust-h%C3%A2-state-feedback-control-for-linear-systems
#11
Hao Chen, Zhenzhen Zhang, Huazhang Wang
This paper investigates the problem of robust H∞ control for linear systems. First, the state-feedback closed-loop control algorithm is designed. Second, by employing the geometric progression theory, a modified augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with the geometric integral interval is established. Then, parameter uncertainties and the derivative of the delay are flexibly described by introducing the convex combination skill. This technique can eliminate the unnecessary enlargement of the LKF derivative estimation, which gives less conservatism...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477254/a-review-of-oxygen-removal-from-oxygen-bearing-coal-mine-methane
#12
Peiyu Zhao, Guojie Zhang, Yinghui Sun, Ying Xu
In this article, a comparison will be made concerning the advantages and disadvantages of five kinds of coal mine methane (CMM) deoxygenation method, including pressure swing adsorption, combustion, membrane separation, non-metallic reduction, and cryogenic distillation. Pressure swing adsorption has a wide range of application and strong production capacity. To achieve this goal, adsorbent must have high selectivity, adsorption capacity, and adequate adsorption/desorption kinetics, remain stable after several adsorption/desorption cycles, and possess good thermal and mechanical stabilities...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475294/refractory-cytopenias-secondary-to-copper-deficiency-in-children-receiving-exclusive-jejunal-nutrition
#13
Amanda E Jacobson, Samir B Kahwash, Anjulika Chawla
Copper deficiency is a known cause of anemia and neutropenia that is easily remedied with copper supplementation. Copper is primarily absorbed in the stomach and proximal duodenum, so patients receiving enteral nutrition via methods that bypass this critical region may be at increased risk for copper deficiency. In pediatrics, postpyloric enteral feeding is increasingly utilized to overcome problems related to aspiration, severe reflux, poor gastric motility, and gastric outlet obstruction. However, little is known about the prevalence of copper deficiency in this population...
May 5, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473747/stimulus-pauses-and-perturbations-differentially-delay-or-promote-the-segregation-of-auditory-objects-psychoacoustics-and-modeling
#14
James Rankin, Pamela J Osborn Popp, John Rinzel
Segregating distinct sound sources is fundamental for auditory perception, as in the cocktail party problem. In a process called the build-up of stream segregation, distinct sound sources that are perceptually integrated initially can be segregated into separate streams after several seconds. Previous research concluded that abrupt changes in the incoming sounds during build-up-for example, a step change in location, loudness or timing-reset the percept to integrated. Following this reset, the multisecond build-up process begins again...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470713/accurate-p-values-for-adaptive-designs-with-binary-endpoints
#15
Stephane Heritier, Chris J Lloyd, Serigne N Lô
Adaptive designs encompass all trials allowing various types of design modifications over the course of the trial. A key requirement for confirmatory adaptive designs to be accepted by regulators is the strong control of the family-wise error rate. This can be achieved by combining the p-values for each arm and stage to account for adaptations (including but not limited to treatment selection), sample size adaptation and multiple stages. While the theory for this is novel and well-established, in practice, these methods can perform poorly, especially for unbalanced designs and for small to moderate sample sizes...
May 3, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466501/refolding-the-unfoldable-a-systematic-approach-for-renaturation-of-bacillus-circulans-xylanase
#16
Miriam P Kötzler, Lawrence P McIntosh, Stephen G Withers
Xylanases are important polysaccharide-cleaving catalysts for the pulp and paper, animal feeds and biofuels industries. They have also proved to be valuable model systems for understanding enzymatic catalysis, with one of the best studied being the GH11 xylanase from Bacillus circulans (Bcx). However, proteins from this class are very recalcitrant to refolding in vitro. This both limits their high level expression in heterologous hosts, and prevents experimental approaches, such as peptide ligation or chemical modifications, to probe and engineer their stability and function...
May 2, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465827/does-level-of-motivation-for-change-impact-post-treatment-outcomes-in-the-eating-disorders-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-quantitative-analysis
#17
Jeanne Sansfaçon, Howard Steiger, Lise Gauvin, Émilie Fletcher, Mimi Israël
BACKGROUND: Eating Disorders are highly prevalent and widespread mental health problems, with marked risk of chronicity and refractoriness to treatment. Affected individuals are hesitant to change their behaviours and therefore struggle to maintain motivation for therapy. This review aims to produce the first high-quality meta-analysis of the literature on the impact of level of motivation for change on post-treatment outcomes in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED)...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462684/integrated-gasification-combined-cycle-using-egyptian-maghara-coal-rice-straw-feedstock
#18
A Hegazy, A O Ghallab, F H Ashour
Rice straw is an agricultural waste that causes an annoying problem in Egypt if it is not well exploited. This study focuses on using this waste in power generation by co-gasification of Egyptian Maghara coal and rice straw blends using entrained flow gasifier technology. Aspen Plus was used to conduct a parametric study for investigation of the effect of changing the inputs to the gasifier on the produced gas composition. Three different input parameters, influencing the performance of the gasifier, including the percentage of coal to rice straw in the blend, the fraction of added water to the blend, and the mass percentage of oxygen with respect to the mass of the blend fed to the gasifier were analysed...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458194/climate-change-water-supply-and-environmental-problems-of-headwaters-the-paradigmatic-case-of-the-tiber-savio-and-marecchia-rivers-central-italy
#19
Lucio Di Matteo, Walter Dragoni, David Maccari, Simone Maria Piacentini
River headwaters, in spite of their importance for habitats and water supply, are often inadequately studied and managed. This study discusses the effects of the hydrogeological system and climatic variations on the environment of Monte Fumaiolo (Central Italy), which corresponds to the headwaters of the rivers Tiber, Savio and Marecchia. The area is a key system for supplying drinking-water and is also the habitat of amphibians such as the endemic and endangered Bombina pachypus and other amphibian species...
April 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449865/flexible-feeding-obturator-for-early-intervention-in-infants-with-pierre-robin-sequence
#20
Ruta Jadhav, Santosh Nelogi, Sounyala Rayannavar, Raghunath Patil
Pierre Robin sequence presents with distinct features of retrognathia and glossoptosis with or without cleft palate, which results in potentially serious, life-threatening respiratory obstruction and feeding complications. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage such complex features. This article describes a novel technique for managing Pierre Robin sequence using a flexible feeding obturator. This custom-made intraoral appliance overcomes numerous problems associated with the available feeding obturators and helps infants and parents cope with a variety of difficulties...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
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