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intellectual disorder

Owen Y Chao, Richelle Yunger, Yi-Mei Yang
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed based on the behavioral criteria of impaired social interaction, defective communication and repetitive behaviors. Psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and intellectual disability, are commonly present in ASD. The BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice display a range of autistic phenotypes, yet whether this mouse model is appropriate to study psychiatric comorbidity in ASD remains unclear. We addressed this issue by subjecting the BTBR animals to three-chambered apparatus, open field, object attention test and elevated open platform...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
William J McIlvane, Joanne B Kledaras, Christophe J Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Kim C M Bul, Lisa L Doove, Ingmar H A Franken, Saskia Van der Oord, Pamela M Kato, Athanasios Maras
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to identify which subgroups of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) benefitted the most from playing a Serious Game (SG) intervention shown in a randomized trial to improve behavioral outcomes. METHOD: Pre-intervention characteristics [i.e., gender, age, intellectual level of functioning, medication use, computer experience, ADHD subtype, severity of inattention problems, severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity problems, comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) symptoms] were explored as potential moderators in a Virtual Twins (VT) analysis to identify subgroups for whom the SG intervention was most effective...
2018: PloS One
Sally-Ann Cooper, Elita Smiley, Linda Allan, Jillian Morrison
BACKGROUND: Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown. Aims To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports. METHOD: Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years. RESULTS: There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
A Dunham, D Kinnear, L Allan, E Smiley, S-A Cooper
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities face a much greater burden and earlier onset of physical and mental ill-health than the general adult population. Physical-mental comorbidity has been shown to result in poorer outcomes in the general population, but little is known about this relationship in adults with intellectual disabilities. AIMS: To identify whether physical ill-health is associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and whether the extent of physical multi-morbidity can predict the likelihood of mental ill-health...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
K Francis, A Dougali, K Sideri, C Kroupis, V Vasdekis, K Dima, A Douzenis
OBJECTIVE: Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. METHOD: BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls...
March 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Saud Alsahli, Muhammad Talal Alrifai, Saeed Al Tala, Fuad Al Mutairi, Majid Alfadhel
Background: Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and disequilibrium syndrome (CAMRQ) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that have been grouped by shared clinical features; all of these features are transmitted via an autosomal recessive mechanism. Four variants of this syndrome have been identified so far, and each one differs in terms of both clinical and genotypical features. CAMRQ4 is a rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, ataxia or an inability to walk, dysarthria and, in some patients, quadrupedal gait...
2018: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
Tae-Yong Choi, Seung-Hyun Lee, Yoon-Jung Kim, Jae Ryul Bae, Kwang Min Lee, Youhwa Jo, Soo-Jeong Kim, A-Ram Lee, Sekyu Choi, La-Mee Choi, Sunhoe Bang, Mi-Ryoung Song, Jongkyeong Chung, Kyung Jin Lee, Sung Hyun Kim, Chul-Seung Park, Se-Young Choi
Mutations in the cereblon ( CRBN ) gene cause human intellectual disability, one of the most common cognitive disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of CRBN -related intellectual disability remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of CRBN in synaptic function and animal behavior using male mouse and Drosophila models. Crbn knockout (KO) mice showed normal brain and spine morphology as well as intact synaptic plasticity; however, they also exhibited decreases in synaptic transmission and presynaptic release probability exclusively in excitatory synapses...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gohar Nikoghosyan-Bossen, Anne Lisbeth Hoffmann
In the absence of any known neurological condition or intellectual impairment, dyspraxia, also known as developmental coordination disorder, should be considered. Dyspraxia is the inability to plan, organize and execute movements. At all ages, dyspraxia can be congenital or acquired. While some learn to cope with their motor difficulties over the years, the majority will retain them as adults. Children with significant functional impairment should be identified and assessed as early as possible, since failure to address the motor and other commonly associated (co-morbid) features may have major consequences in adult life...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Katherine E Manning, Roger Tait, John Suckling, Anthony J Holland
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Louise Crowe, Vicki Anderson, Winita Hardikar, Avihu Boneh
Ornithine Trans-Carbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common disorder of the urea cycle. Cognitive impairments in skills such as attention and executive function have been reported in individuals with OTC deficiency who are managed with medication. In some cases, children undergo liver transplantation (LTx) to correct the metabolic defect. The metabolic and medical outcomes of LTx are generally good. However, little is known about the impacts on cognition. In this study, four children (three female) completed detailed neuropsychological batteries prior to (n = 6) and following LTx (n = 8 assessments)...
March 10, 2018: JIMD Reports
Bradley Pawlikowski, Nicole Dalla Betta, Tiffany Elston, Darian A Williams, Bradley B Olwin
Down syndrome, caused by trisomy 21, is characterized by a variety of medical conditions including intellectual impairments, cardiovascular defects, blood cell disorders and pre-mature aging phenotypes. Several somatic stem cell populations are dysfunctional in Down syndrome and their deficiencies may contribute to multiple Down syndrome phenotypes. Down syndrome is associated with muscle weakness but skeletal muscle stem cells or satellite cells in Down syndrome have not been investigated. We find that a failure in satellite cell expansion impairs muscle regeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
I Maini, I Ivanovski, O Djuric, S G Caraffi, E Errichiello, M Marinelli, F Franchi, V Bizzarri, S Rosato, M Pollazzon, C Gelmini, M Malacarne, C Fusco, G Gargano, S Bernasconi, O Zuffardi, L Garavelli
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, array-CGH (aCGH) has been the first-tier test in the diagnostic approach of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) of unknown origin. Its broad application led to the detection of numerous variants of uncertain clinical significance (VOUS). How to appropriately interpret aCGH results represents a challenge for the clinician. METHOD: We present a retrospective study on 293 patients with age range 1 month - 29 years (median 7 years) with NDD and/or MCA and/or dysmorphisms, investigated through aCGH between 2005 and 2016...
March 9, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Yukiko Kuroda, Ikuko Ohashi, Takuya Naruto, Kazumi Ida, Yumi Enomoto, Toshiyuki Saito, Jun-Ichi Nagai, Kenji Kurosawa
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type (cEDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and joint hypermobility. The condition typically results from mutations in COL5A1 or COL5A2 leading to the functional haploinsufficiency. Here, we report of a 24-year-old male with mild intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and a phenotype consistent with cEDS. A copy number variant-calling algorithm from panel sequencing data identified the deletions exons 2-11 and duplications of exons 12-67 within COL5A1...
March 9, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
B Rosello-Miranda, C Berenguer-Forner, A Miranda-Casas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present difficulties in adaptive functioning and learning, possibly associated with failures in executive functioning characteristic of both disorders. AIM: To analyze the impact of executive functioning in the adaptive behaviors of socialization and daily life and in learning behaviors in children with ASD and children with ADHD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The participants were 124 children matched in age and intellectual quotient: 37 children with typical development, 52 children with ASD and 35 children with ADHD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
J Martos-Perez, S Freire-Prudencio, M Llorente-Comi, R Ayuda-Pascual, A Gonzalez-Navarro
INTRODUCTION: Autism is a heterogeneous disorder. The possibility of determining its characteristics over time will have a great impact on the prognosis and predictions that can be made. In that regard, the intelligence quotient and its possible stability throughout the life cycle can help to better define the phenotype of the disorder and its associated needs. DEVELOPMENT: Longitudinal studies show a certain level of stability in intelligence quotient scores, especially starting from the school years...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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