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Sandra Claes, Thomas D'huys, Anneleen Van Hout, Dominique Schols, Tom Van Loy
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry as they are involved in many human diseases and include well-validated targets for therapeutic intervention. Discovery of lead compounds, including small synthetic molecules, that specifically inhibit the receptor's function, is an important initial step in drug development and relies on sensitive, specific, and robust cell-based assays. Here, we describe a kinetic cellular assay with a fluorescent readout primarily designed to identify receptor-specific antagonists that inhibit the intracellular Ca2+ release evoked upon the activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) by its endogenous ligand, the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yi-Chen Lee, Shui-Chin Lu, Yu-Lin Hsieh
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John E Downey, Nathaniel Schwed, Steven M Chase, Andrew B Schwartz, Jennifer L Collinger
Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are being developed to assist people with motor disabilities in communicating and interacting with the world around them. This technology relies on recordings from the primary motor cortex, which may vary from day to day. 
 Approach: Here we quantify, in two long-term BCI subjects, the length of time that action potentials from the same neuron, or group of neurons, can be recorded from motor cortex. 
 Main Results: These action potentials, are identified by their extracellular waveforms and may change within a single day, although some of these identified units can be identified consistently for weeks and even months...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Zaher Nazzal, Hisham Sholi, Suha B Sholi, Mohammad B Sholi, Rawya Lahaseh
BACKGROUND: Mammography screening is an effective tool for early detection and management of breast cancer. Female health-care workers' awareness of breast cancer screening is important because their beliefs and behaviours could influence other women. The aim of this study was to assess mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers at primary health-care centres and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all governmental primary health-care centres in the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Trudy Mooren, Yoke Rabaia, Suzan Mitwalli, Relinde Reiffers, Rosemarijn Koenen, Marguerithe de Man
BACKGROUND: Families with a child who has a disability have extra difficulties, particularly when services are hard to reach or less available. In a collaborative project, the Institute of Community and Public Health, the Palestinian community-based rehabilitation programme, and international non-governmental organisations cooperated to share and develop expertise and knowledge on increasing families' resilience through establishing family groups. This contribution focuses on the use of the Multi-Family Approach (MFA) in a Palestinian context...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Suzan Mitwalli, Yoke Rabaia, Hanna Kienzler
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, the community-based rehabilitation programme in the north of the West Bank has established nineteen support groups for mothers following a Multi-Family Approach (MFA), with technical support from the Institute of Community and Public Health (Birzeit University) and the War Trauma Foundation (Netherlands). The main aims of the programme are to improve the wellbeing of mothers who have children with a handicap, to build support networks between vulnerable families, and to counter problems associated with social isolation and stigma...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Shaden Jobran, Randa Kattan, Jamal Shamaa, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses have an important role in paediatric respiratory tract infections. They are estimated to cause 2-5% of the overall respiratory tract infections and 4-10% of all pneumonias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and effect of adenoviral infection on the management of infected infants. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients infected with adenovirus and admitted to Caritas Baby Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Sanaa Al Najjar, Tamer Al Shaer
BACKGROUND: To meet the emerging needs of the increasing numbers of patients with non-communicable diseases and to provide optimum care with optimum contact time and minimum waiting time, as stated in UNRWA guidelines, the mobile phone text messaging system was implemented in UNRWA centres to remind patients of upcoming appointments and to thereby improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and regulate the work load in the clinics for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the causes for lack of adherence to the appointment system at UNRWA centres...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam Sous, Fatimah Jorf, Mahmoud Taqatqa, Mahdi Allan, Lamees Sawalha, Enas Lubadeh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Palestinian population and the effect of the disease on the psychological status of the patient underlie the importance of increasing knowledge about the mental health status of patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Palestinian patients treated with haemodialysis and its correlation with patients' clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and adherence to medications...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Mohammed B Sarhan, Rula Ghandour, Niveen M E Abu Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: The burden of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly in the occupied Palestinian territory. Different counselling interventions have been applied worldwide to reduce HbA1c concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Achieving good glycaemic control is important for prevention of complications of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this modelling study was to assess the effectiveness of different counselling interventions in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Klim McPherson, Shaymaa Al Waheidi
BACKGROUND: There has been extensive debate about whether mammographic screening has done more good than harm. Recent reviews showed that women who undergo mammographic screening are more likely to have a tumour that was an overdiagnosis and therefore would not cause them problems. In the Gaza Strip, a strong forum of people advocate an increase in mammographic screening, and the aim of this study was to establish the evidence for this view. METHODS: Research papers that have focused on breast screening in the Gaza Strip or elsewhere in the occupied Palestinian territory were reviewed...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jasem Humeid
BACKGROUND: Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Daniel J Paulus, Charles Jardin, Andres G Viana, Clayton Neighbors, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: Extant work has documented the relationship between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic alcohol-related behaviors. However, research on the underlying mechanisms may serve to better explain their association. METHOD: The present study tested the hypothesis that AS would exert an indirect effect on alcohol-related behaviors through negative urgency among a sample of 507 college students (74.4% female; mean age = 22.07 years; SD = 3.83; age range: 18-47 years) who reported at least one heavy episodic drinking (HED) event in the previous month and at least one lifetime sexual partner...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Robin Room, Norman Giesbrecht, Thomas K Greenfield
The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Jon M Houck, Jennifer K Manuel, Theresa B Moyers
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of a causal chain in motivational interviewing (MI) involving counselor MI-consistent skills, client change language, and outcomes. MI was a key component of the combined behavioral intervention in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study. Participants in COMBINE were treatment-seeking and medication-seeking, and were required to maintain a period of abstinence before enrollment. Counselors were closely monitored and were temporarily removed from the study for remediation and supervision if their performance fell below threshold...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Erica M Eaton, Molly Magill, Christy Capone, Margaret A Cramer, Nadine R Mastroleo, Racheal Reavy, Brian Borsari
OBJECTIVE: Colleges continue to experience a high number of referred students because of campus alcohol violations. Subsequently, there has been a trend to use peer-implemented minimal interventions (PMIs), often using motivational interviewing (MI). However, little is known about how PMIs facilitate behavior change. This study aims to examine the mechanisms of behavior change within PMIs and their influence on alcohol reduction among mandated students. METHOD: Participants (N = 146; mean age = 18...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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