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Kelly M Correia, Delbert L Smee
Insecticide effects on nontarget organisms most commonly involve measuring mortality after single exposures. We examined sublethal effects of consecutive exposures of malathion, an organophosphate insecticide used for mosquito abatement, on the behavior of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus). We measured righting time (i.e., time to return upright when placed upside down), eyestalk reflexes, foraging ability, and response to predation risk in three malathion treatments of 50 µg/L that varied in duration: (1) static exposure for 96 h followed by a second exposure for 96 h, (2) static exposure for 96 h followed by transfer to pesticide-free water for 96 h, (3) control without malathion for 192 h...
May 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rui Hou, Hongmin Zhang, Huan Chen, Yuankai Zhou, Yun Long, Dawei Liu
Cases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic function impairment. Here, we report a 47-year-old female organophosphate poisoning case after ingestion of massive insecticides; she was considered to have total necrosis and function failure of the pancreas via serum amylase test, glucose level test, and CT imaging. The patient exhibited no relief under the regular medicine treatment, which included sandostatin, antibiotics, intravenous atropine, and pralidoxime methiodide...
May 18, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Xuejuan Ma, Lin Zhang, Mengfan Xia, Xiaohong Zhang, Yaodong Zhang
The degradation of organophosphorous nerve agents is of primary concern due to the severe toxicity of these agents. Based on the active center of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), a bimetallic nuclear ligand, (5-vinyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(di(1H-imidazol-2-yl) methanol) (VPIM), was designed and synthesized, which contains four imidazole groups to mimic the four histidines at OPH active center. By grafting VPIM on graphene oxide (GO) surface via polymerization, the VPIM-polymer beads@GO was produced. The obtained OPH mimics has an impressive activity in dephosphorylation reactions (turnover frequency (TOF) towards paraoxon: 2...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Saman Sargazi, Hamidreza Galavi, Sadegh Zarei
Diazinon is an organophosphate toxicant that has been identified to induce oxidative stress within biological systems through altering biochemical and hematological indices, by generating free radicals while deteriorating the cellular antioxidant defense system. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), a synthetic food additive, in serving as an antioxidant against sub-lethal diazinon-induced oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control (treated with corn oil as a vehicle), diazinon (10 mg/kg/day), TBHQ (0...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
Xiao Wei Shi, Feng Zhang, Zhi Yan Li, Ai Li Lyu, Xiong Guo
A case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, aggression, impulsivity, and attempted suicide. The purpose of this study was to explore whether genomic polymorphisms in the alpha 1(XI) collagen gene (COL11A1) were associated with the risk and severity of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in COL11A1 were genotyped in 274 KBD cases and 249 healthy controls using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. The expression of type XI collagen (COL11A) in the knee articular cartilage of 22 KBD patients and 21 controls was analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Mikhail E Minyaev, Alexander N Tavtorkin, Sof'ya A Korchagina, Ilya E Nifant'ev, Andrei V Churakov
The title complex, [Lu2 (C17 H28 O4 P)6 ]·2C7 H16 , was formed in the reaction between potassium 2,6-di- tert -butyl-4-methyl-phenyl ethyl phosphate, [K(2,6- t Bu2 -4-MeC6 H2 -O)(EtO)PO2 ], and LuCl3 (H2 O)6 in water, followed by vacuum drying and recrystallization from heptane. Its crystal structure has triclinic ( P [Formula: see text]) symmetry at 120 K. The lutetium tris-(phosphate) complex has a binuclear [Lu2 (μ-OPO)4 ] core and the organophosphate ligand exhibits κ2 O , O ' terminal and μ2 -κ1 O :κ1 O ' bridging coordination modes with the LuIII ion being sixfold coordinated...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Shaorui Wang, Amina Salamova, Ronald A Hites, Marta Venier
This study examined spatial and seasonal variations of current use pesticdes (CUPs) CUPs levels in the atmospheric particulate phase in the Great Lakes basin. Twenty-four hour air samples were collected at six sites (two urban, two rural, and two remote) in 2015. The concentrations of 15 CUPs, including nine pyrethroid insecticides, four herbicides, one organophosphate insecticide, and one fungicide, were measured. The total CUPs concentrations were higher at the urban sites (0.38-1760 pg/m3 ) than at the rural and remote sites (0...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Fiona Wong, Cynthia A de Wit, Seth R Newton
We investigated the concentrations and temporal variability of organophospate esters (OPEs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor and outdoor urban air in Stockholm, Sweden over one year (2014-2015) period. The median concentrations of the three target chemical groups (OPEs, HFRs, PBDEs) were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in indoor air than outdoor urban air. OPEs were the most abundant target FRs with median concentrations in indoor (Σ10 OPE = 340 000 pg/m3 ) and outdoor urban (Σ10 OPEs = 3100 pg/m3 ) air, being 3 orders of magnitude greater than for HFRs in indoor (Σ15 HFRs = 120 pg/m3 ) and outdoor urban (Σ15 HFRs = 1...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Cherng Shii Leong, Indra Vythilingam, Meng Li Wong, Wan-Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Yee Ling Lau
The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50  = 0.21 - 2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested...
May 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Alexa Colgrove Curtis, Barbara Sattler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In March 2017, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reversed course on a proposal to ban the agricultural use of the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). The purpose of this article is to examine the evidence leading to this controversial decision and provide clinically applicable health promotion guidance for nurse practitioners on CPF exposure and risk reduction measures. METHODS: Environmental Protection Agency documents on CPF regulation and corresponding research referenced within the EPA reports are reviewed...
May 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Prabu Manoharan, J Sridhar
The organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme is involved in the catalyzing reaction that involve hydrolysis of organophosphate toxic compounds. An enzyme from Deinococcus radiodurans reported as homologous to phosphotriesterase and show activity against organophosphate. In the past activity of this enzyme is low and efforts made to improve the activity by experimental mutation study. However only very few organophosphates tested against very few catalytic site mutations. In order to improve the catalytic power of the organophosphorus hydrolase enzyme, we carried out systematic functional hotspot based protein engineering strategy...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Mingyu Zhong, Huifeng Wu, Wenying Mi, Fei Li, Chenglong Ji, Ralf Ebinghaus, Jianhui Tang, Zhiyong Xie
Concentrations and distribution characteristics of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in surface sediment samples were analyzed and discussed for the first time in the open Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS). Three halogenated OPEs [tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)] and five non-halogenated OPEs [tri-isobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tripentyl phosphate (TPeP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and tris-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP)] were detected in this region...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Viviana López Aca, Patricia Verónica Gonzalez, Pedro Carriquiriborde
Need for ecotoxicological information on local species has been recently highlighted as a priority issue in Latin America. In addition, little information has been found on concentration distances between lethal and sublethal effects, and the effect of mixtures at these two levels of analysis. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide broadly used in soybean crops which has dramatically expanded in Latin America and other regions of the world. The aim of the present study was to evaluate lethal and sublethal effects of CPF, singly or in mixtures, on the inland "Pejerrey" (Odontesthes bonariensis) under laboratory conditions...
May 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Pascal Houzé, Thomas Berthin, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Alice Hutin, J Frédéric Baud
Objective: The efficiency of pralidoxime in the treatment of human organophosphates poisoning is still unclear. In a rat model, we showed that pralidoxime induced a complete but concentration-dependent reversal of paraoxon-induced respiratory toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of pralidoxime in a species other than rats. Methods: A dose of diethylparaoxon corresponding to 50% of the median lethal dose was administered subcutaneously to male F1B6D2 mice...
April 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Hai-Yang Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Ming-Yuan Xu, Li Zhu, Yi-Jun Wu
Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is characterized by progressive axonal degeneration and demyelination of the spinal cord and sciatic nerves. The neuregulin 1/epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) signaling pathway is crucial for axonal myelination. In this study, we investigated whether the neuregulin 1/ErbB signaling pathway mediated the progression of OPIDN. Adult hens were given tri- o -cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a typical neuropathic organophosphorus compound, to induce OPIDN. The ErbB inhibitor lapatinib was administered to hens 4 h prior to and 4 days after TOCP exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Bamidele S Ajilore, Adetayo A Alli, Tolulope O Oluwadairo
The present study investigated possible benefits of magnesium ion (as MgCl2 ) in organophosphorus poisoning targeting its ability to interact with substrates and membrane enzymes. Blood samples collected from volunteered healthy adult by venepuncture into anticoagulant test tubes containing EDTA were separated into plasma and red blood cell and divided into three groups namely: normal, pesticide only (0.25-2.0 mmol/L chlorpyrifos) and pesticide (0.25-2.0 mmol/L chlorpyrifos) + 0.1 mol/L MgCl2 . Acetylcholinesterase, Na+ /K+ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase activities were evaluated...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Kizar Ahmed Sumon, Harunur Rashid, Edwin T H M Peeters, Roel H Bosma, Paul J Van den Brink
The use of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) to protect a variety of crops has increased in Bangladesh. OPPs may contaminate surrounding aquatic environments through several routes including spray drift, surface runoff and groundwater leaching. Since it is unknown how much OPP end ups in aquatic environment in Bangladesh, the objectives of the present study were to quantify the residues of ten most commonly used OPPs in water and sediment of water bodies of north-west Bangladesh and to assess their ecological risks for aquatic organisms...
May 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Simona Jílková, Lisa Melymuk, Šimon Vojta, Martina Vykoukalová, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jana Klánová
Indoor dust is often used to evaluate levels of organic compounds indoors, particularly for compounds with indoor sources, such as flame retardants (FRs). Yet there are uncertainties about the type of information that can be obtained from indoor dust. This study reports detailed dust sampling to assess spatial variability in indoor dust concentrations, the relationship between FR sources and dust, and the implications when interpreting dust concentrations. Multiple dust samples were collected from a range of surface types in three large rooms: a residential flat, a university seminar room, and a university computer room...
April 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Qing Luo, Shiyu Wang, Li-Na Sun, Hui Wang
Through the optimization of extraction, purification, and determination parameters, a reliable and convenient analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 13 organophosphate esters in soils was developed. The method is based on one-step extraction and purification by accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits and method quantitation limits ranged from 0.10 to 0.22 ng/g and from 0.33 to 0...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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