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Teresa M Attina, Russ Hauser, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Patricia A Hunt, Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, John Peterson Myers, Joseph DiGangi, R Thomas Zoeller, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. METHODS: We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders...
October 17, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Long Pang, Peijie Yang, Jihong Zhao, Hongzhong Zhang
Organophosphate esters (OPs), widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. The effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants is generally considered to be the main contributor of OP pollution to the surface water. In this study, anoxic-oxic (AO) and University of Capetown (UCT) processes were selected to investigate the removal efficiency of OPs. The results indicated that the UCT process showed better removal efficiency than that of the AO process. For the chlorinated OPs, approximately 12...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Kate Hoffman, Amelia Lorenzo, Craig M Butt, Linda Adair, Amy H Herring, Heather M Stapleton, Julie L Daniels
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate compounds are commonly used in residential furniture, electronics, and baby products as flame retardants and are also used in other consumer products as plasticizers. Although the levels of exposure biomarkers are generally higher among children and decrease with age, relatively little is known about the individual characteristics associated with higher levels of exposure. Here, we investigate urinary metabolites of several organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in a cohort of pregnant women to evaluate patterns of exposure...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Carlos Silva, Bruno Nunes, António Ja Nogueira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana L Pereira
Using the bivalve macrofouler Corbicula fluminea, the suitability of in vitro testing as a stepping stone towards the improvement of control methods based on chemical mixtures was addressed in this study. In vitro cholinesterase (ChE) activity inhibition following single exposure of C. fluminea tissue to four model chemicals (the organophosphates dimethoate and dichlorvos, copper and sodium dodecyl phosphate [SDS]) was first assessed. Consequently, mixtures of dimethoate with copper and dichlorvos with SDS were tested and modelled; mixtures with ChE revealed synergistic interactions for both chemical pairs...
November 2016: Biofouling
Paula Moyano, Javier Del Pino, María José Anadon, María Jesús Díaz, Gloria Gómez, María Teresa Frejo
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide reported to induce, both after acute and repeated exposure, learning and memory dysfunctions, although the mechanism is not completely known. CPF produces basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. This effect was reported to be induced through apoptotic process, partially mediated by AChE overexpression, although neuronal necrosis was also described after CPF exposure...
October 10, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Pia Basaure, Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Maria Cabré, Ingrid Reverte, Maria Teresa Colomina
Cholinesterases (ChE) are common targets of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and play a critical role in the pathology of some dementias. While chlorpyrifos (CPF) remains one of the most commonly used OPs in the world, numerous investigations have reported its neurotoxic potential and highlighted behavioral disturbances upon its administration. Rivastigmine currently serves to treat Alzheimer's disease, but it may induce cholinergic overstimulation in non-demented individuals. The present investigation aimed to compare the acute and delayed effects caused by both ChE inhibitors in adult C57BL/6 male mice...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Amanpreet Singh, Pushap Raj, Narinder Singh
The unregulated use of chemical weapons has aroused researchers to develop sensors for chemical warfare agents (CWA) and likewise to abolish their harmful effects, the degradation through catalysis has great advantage. Chemically, the CWAs are versatile; however, mostly they contain organophosphates that act on inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. In this work, we have designed and synthesized some novel benzimidazolium based fluorescent cations and their fluorescent aggregates were fabricated using anionic surfactants (SDS and SDBS) in aqueous medium...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jian Du, Zoya Gridneva, Melvin C L Gay, Robert D Trengove, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
Persistent organic pollutants in human milk (HM) at high levels are considered to be detrimental to the breastfed infant. To determine the pesticide concentration in HM, a pilot cross-sectional study of 40 Western Australian (WA) women was carried out. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a validated QuEChERS was used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a mean concentration of 62.8 ± 54.5 ng/g fat was found, whereas other organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids were not detected in HM...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Bammigatti C, M Vinod Babu, T Kadhiravan, R P Swaminathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Suresh B N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Benjamin D Menze, Jacob M Riveron, Sulaiman S Ibrahim, Helen Irving, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Parfait H Awono-Ambene, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent progress in establishing the patterns of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Central African populations of this species remain largely uncharacterised. To bridge this important gap and facilitate the implementation of suitable control strategies against this vector, we characterised the resistance patterns of An. funestus population from northern Cameroon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Collection of indoor-resting female mosquitoes in Gounougou (northern Cameroon) in 2012 and 2015 revealed a predominance of An...
2016: PloS One
Sofía Otero, Gisela Kristoff
Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) continue to be an important class of agrochemicals used in modern agriculture worldwide. Even though these pesticides persist in the environment for a relatively short time, they show a high acute toxicity that may represent a serious hazard for wildlife. Sub-lethal effects on non-target species are a focus in pest management programs and should be used as biomarkers. Cholinesterases (ChEs) are the most used biomarker of OP exposure in vertebrate and invertebrate species. However, the combined monitoring of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities may provide a more useful indication of exposure and effect of the organisms...
October 6, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Atousa Abdollahi, Anita Eng, Liisa M Jantunen, Lutz Ahrens, Mahiba Shoeib, J Mark Parnis, Tom Harner
This study aimed to characterize the uptake of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers (PAS). Atmospheric OPE concentrations were monitored with high-volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) that were co-deployed with passive air samplers. Samples were analyzed for tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tri(phenyl) phosphate (TPhP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The mean concentration of ∑OPEs in air was 2650 pg/m(3) for the HV-AAS...
October 7, 2016: Chemosphere
G Albendín, J M Arellano, M P Mánuel-Vez, C Sarasquete, M I Arufe
The characterization of cholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of gilthead seabream was carried out using four specific substrates and three selective inhibitors. In addition, K m and V max were calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation for ASCh and BSCh substrates. Finally, the in vitro sensitivity of brain and muscle cholinesterases to three organophosphates (OPs) was also investigated by estimating inhibition kinetics. The results indicate that AChE is the enzyme present in the brain, whereas in muscle, a typical AChE form is present along with an atypical form of BChE...
October 6, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Rachel M Adams, Brandon C McAdams, William A Arnold, Yu-Ping Chin
Non-point source pesticide pollution is a concern for wetlands in the prairie pothole region (PPR). Recent studies have demonstrated that reduced sulfur species (e.g., bisulfide and polysulfides) in PPR wetland pore waters directly undergo reactions with chloroacetanilide and dinitroaniline compounds. In this paper, the abiotic transformation of two organophosphate compounds, chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl, was studied in PPR wetland pore waters. Chlorpyrifos-methyl reacted significantly faster (up to 4 times) in pore water with reduced sulfur species relative to hydrolysis...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Long Pang, Rong Pang, Liming Ge, Liqing Zheng, Jihong Zhao, Hongzhong Zhang
Organophosphate esters, widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the fabrication of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by using hybrid silica-based materials with immobilized ionic liquids with sol-gel technology, and the prepared solid-phase microextraction fiber was then coupled with gas chromatography and flame photometric detection for the analysis of six organophosphate esters. The high loading of 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was confined within the hybrid network...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Dimitrios A Giannakoudakis, Nikolina A Travlou, Jeff Secor, Teresa J Bandosz
A unique composite of the copper-based metal-organic framework (Cu-benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTC)) with oxidized graphitic carbon nitride nanospheres is synthesized. For comparison, a hybrid material consisting of g-C3 N4 and Cu-BTC is also obtained. Their surface features are analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, sorption of nitrogen, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results suggest that the formed nanospheres of oxidized g-C3 N4 act as linkers between the copper sites, playing a crucial role in the composite building process...
October 6, 2016: Small
Cunman Yang, Ying Li, Daoping Zha, Guanghua Lu, Qin Sun, Donghai Wu
A modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (m-POCIS) was used to determine the occurrence of and risk posed by organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the Yangtze River in Nanjing. Laboratory calibrations were performed to determine sampling rates (Rs) in different situations. Rs values increased with the flow rate, but the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on Rs was relatively small. The validation of Rs in the m-POCIS for 15 days at the Yangtze River in 2015 showed that the Rs values for most of the test compounds are considerably larger than those obtained in the laboratory...
October 2, 2016: Chemosphere
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Briana Siracuse, Natasha Gupta, Ashly Sobel Sokol
Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) irreversibly. The subsequent build-up of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) provokes seizures and, at sufficient doses, centrally-mediated respiratory arrest. Accumulation of ACh at peripheral autonomic synapses leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as "cholinergic crisis" (i...
October 5, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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