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Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Jeremy N Moore, Lisa L Williams, Keith A Grasman
A broad suite of 87 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including 26 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs), 16 organophosphate esters (OPEs), 4 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 5 emerging perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) or precursors, were determined in 30 individual Caspian tern (listed as a threatened species in the U.S. State of Michigan) eggs collected in 2013 and 2014 from Michigan nesting sites on Two Tree Island (St, Mary's River), Charity Reef (Saginaw Bay) and Channel-Shelter Island (a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in Saginaw Bay)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marina Lidwine Olé Sangba, Aboubakar Sidick, Renaud Govoetchan, Christian Dide-Agossou, Razaki A Ossè, Martin Akogbeto, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of insecticide resistance status in the main malaria vectors is an essential component of effective malaria vector control. This study presents the first evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations from Bangui, the Central African Republic. METHODS: Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in seven districts of Bangui between September to November 2014. The World Health Organisation's bioassay susceptibility tests to lambda-cyhalothrin (0...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Surat Hongsibsong, Nalin Sittitoon, Ratana Sapbamrer
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine (1) total dialkylphosphate (ΣDAP) levels, occupational knowledge and practice, DNA damage, AChE activity, and health symptoms in rice, corn, and double-crop farmers; (2) the association of health symptoms with ΣDAP levels, occupational knowledge and practice, DNA damage, and AChE activity in farmers; and (3) the prevalence of health symptoms between farmers and non-farmers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing as well as analyzing urine and blood samples during July to August 2014...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
Fan Li, Yaqun Yuan, Pai Meng, Min Wu, Shuguang Li, Bo Chen
Organophosphorus (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-2014 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring program during 2008-2011 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analyzed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs...
January 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Odile Francesca Restaino, Maria Giovanna Borzacchiello, Ilaria Scognamiglio, Elena Porzio, Giuseppe Manco, Luigi Fedele, Cinzia Donatiello, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
Thermostable phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs) from extremophile archaea, like SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus, are attractive biotechnological tools with industrial applications as organophosphate decontaminants, but their manufacturing still remains an unresolved issue because of the high costs and the low production yields. In this paper, for the first time, an efficient biotechnological process for the production and purification of a recombinant, engineered PLL, SsoPox W263F, expressed in E...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Samantha J Merwin, Teresa Obis, Yanelli Nunez, Diane B Re
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset paralytic disorder. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons controlling voluntary movement. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive, a fact that has precluded development of effective treatments. ALS presents as a sporadic condition 90-95% of the time, i.e., without familial history or obvious genetic mutation. This suggests that ALS has a strong environmental component. Organophosphates (OPs) are prime candidate neurotoxicants in the etiology of ALS, as exposure to OPs was linked to higher ALS incidence among farmers, soccer players, and Gulf War veterans...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Paul A Umina, Alan Lord, Svetlana Micic, Owain Edwards
BACKGROUND: The redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) is an agricultural pest in Australia that attacks a wide variety of crops and pasture species. Chemicals remain an important part of control strategies for H. destructor, despite the existence of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species. Recent chemical control failures involving a second insecticide class, organophosphates, were investigated using pesticide bioassays. RESULTS: We confirmed, for the first time, resistance to organophosphates in H...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Beth A Polidoro, Mia T Comeros-Raynal, Thomas Cahill, Cassandra Clement
The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Aiqian Zhang, Yunsong Mu, Fengchang Wu
Chiral organophosphates (OPs) have been used widely around the world, very little is known about binding mechanisms with biological macromolecules. An in-depth understanding of the stereo selectivity of human AChE and discovering bioactive enantiomers of OPs can decrease health risks of these chiral chemicals. In the present study, a flexible molecular docking approach was conducted to investigate different binding modes of twelve phosphorus enantiomers. A pharmacophore model was then developed on basis of the bioactive conformations of these compounds...
January 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Masahiro Tokumura, Rurika Hatayama, Kouichi Tatsu, Toshiyuki Naito, Tetsuya Takeda, Mohammad Raknuzzaman, Md Habibullah -Al-Mamun, Shigeki Masunaga
The concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the indoor air and dust were measured in 25 unoccupied cars in Japan. In the indoor air of the cars, most OPFRs were neither detected nor found at a concentration lower than the method quantification limit. The highest concentration (1500 ng m(-3)) was obtained for tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP). By contrast, many OPFRs were detected in the dust samples collected from the interior of the cars. TCIPP and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were present at the highest concentrations at 390 μg g(-1) (in dust from car seats) and 640 μg g(-1) (in dust from car floor mats), respectively...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Meenakshi Srinivasan, Ruhul Amin, Girish Thunga, Shivashankar Kaniyoor Nagiri, Chandrashekar Udyavara Kudru
Organophosphate (OP) and mixed pesticide poisoning remains an important cause of hospital admission. Therefore, physician must be aware of atypical presentations of delayed neurological complications of poisoning by taking proper patient history. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with high stepping gait and muscle wasting in hands. Patient history revealed consumption of approximately 4ml of mixed pesticide, consisting of 50% chlorpyrifos with synthetic pyrethroid, 5% cypermethrin. The prolonged and severe nature of delayed peripheral neuropathy, persisting at two years of follow-up, suggests that even small quantities of OP taken in combination with a pyrethroid can result in significant morbidity and is irreversible...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández, Daniel Montero, María Camacho, Rafael Ginés, Luis D Boada, Besay Ramírez Bordón, Pilar F Valerón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Ricardo Haroun, Octavio P Luzardo
The marine environment acts as a sink for diverse anthropogenic pollutants, although the environmental contamination may be non-uniformly distributed. In recent decades, the aquaculture sector has experienced a steady growth postulating as a good alternative for seafood production. However, a social debate exits about the differential level of pollutants in wild and farmed species. This study was designed to evaluate the level of pollutants in a sentinel species: Bogue (Boops boops) associated and non-associated to fish-farm cages...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Chih-Chuan Lin, Dong-Zong Hung, Hsien-Yi Chen, Kuang-Hung Hsu
BACKGROUND: To determine a new pralidoxime (PAM) treatment guideline based on the severity of acute organophosphate intoxication patients, APACHE II score, and dynamic changes in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. METHODS: This is a randomization trial. All patients received supportive care measurements and atropinization. Each enrolled patient was treated with 2 gm PAM intravenously as the loading dose. The control group was treated according to the WHO's recommended PAM regimen, and the experimental group was treated according to their APACHE II scores and dynamic changes in BuChE activity...
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight new data supporting the use of pralidoxime in the treatment of cases of organophosphate poisoning, which also suggest that WHO treatment guidelines should be updated. We also learn about a modified surgical technique to repair severe spinal injuries, as well as new insight into the structure of human adenovirus that could inform vaccine development.
December 2016: Biomedical Journal
F Dong, H L Li, J Ma, B Zhou, Y Yu
Objective: To investigate the QuEChERS pretreatment method combined with on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GPC-GC/MS) for the determination of organophosphate pesticide and raticide in whole blood. Methods: The samples were pretreated with QuEChERS. A total of 1 ml acetonitrile was added to 1 ml whole blood sample for extraction, and 0.5 g sodium chloride was added. The mixture was oscillated for 15 seconds at a temperature of 4° C and centrifuged at a high speed of 12 000 r/min for 10 minutes...
October 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Xiaowei He, Jiawei Gao, Tianyu Dong, Minjian Chen, Kun Zhou, Chunxin Chang, Jia Luo, Chao Wang, Shoulin Wang, Daozhen Chen, Zuomin Zhou, Ying Tian, Yankai Xia, Xinru Wang
Methamidophos is a representative organophosphate insecticide. The knowledge of its developmental neurotoxicity is limited, especially for zebrafish in the early stages of their life. Four hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to several environmentally relevant concentrations of methamidophos (0, 25, and 500 μg/L) for up to 72 hpf. Locomotor behavior was then studied in the zebrafish larvae at this timepoint. Acridine orange (AO) staining was carried out in the zebrafish larvae, and the mRNA levels of genes associated with neural development (mbp and syn2a) were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
W G van Herk, R S Vernon, D R Waterer, J H Tolman, P J Lafontaine, R P Prasad
At the time of this research, there were only two insecticides registered for control of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum L., in rutabaga in Canada, one of which (diazinon) will be deregistered by 2017, and resistance having been reported in some areas for the other (chlorpyrifos). To screen for chemistries to replace these organophosphates, and obtain efficacy data comparable between key vegetable brassica production areas in Canada, four small plot field studies were conducted concurrently in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec in 2009...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sunil Parthasarathy, Sarwar Azam, Annapoorni Lakshman Sagar, Veera Narasimha Rao, Ramurthy Gudla, Hari Paraptla, Harshita Yakkala, Sujana Ghanta Vemuri, Dayananda Siddavattam
The complete genome sequence of Brevundimonas diminuta represented a chromosome (∼4.15 Mb) and two plasmids (pCMS1 and pCMS2) with sizes of 65,908 bp and 30,654 bp, respectively. The sequence of the genome showed no significant similarity with the known bacterial genome sequences, instead showed weak similarity with the members of different genera of family, Sphingomonadaceae. Contradicting existing taxonomic position, the core genome guided phylogenetic tree placed B. diminuta in the genus Sphingopyxis and showed sufficient genome to-genome distance warranting a new species name...
December 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
David Blaha-Nelson, Dennis M Krüger, Klaudia Szeler, Moshe Ben-David, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin
Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a native lactonase capable of promiscuously hydrolyzing a broad range of substrates, including organophosphates, esters, and carbonates. Structurally, PON1 is a six-bladed β-propeller with a flexible loop (residues 70-81) covering the active site. This loop contains a functionally critical Tyr at position 71. We have performed detailed experimental and computational analyses of the role of selected Y71 variants in the active site stability and catalytic activity in order to probe the role of Y71 in PON1's lactonase and organophosphatase activities...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Chloé de Perre, Tracye M Murphy, Michael J Lydy
Currently, the potential impact of insecticide mixtures to non-target organisms is still largely unknown, and needs additional studies. Therefore, the present study investigated the mixture toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide phostebupirim and pyrethroid insecticide cyfluthrin using four non-target species including Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and Danio rerio (zebrafish). For each species, the toxicity of equipotent mixtures was compared to the expected toxicity estimated using the independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA) models...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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