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Pathogenesis treatment chronic kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197521/high-phosphate-induced-downregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-contributes-to-ckd-associated-vascular-calcification
#1
Liang Liu, Yong Liu, Ying Zhang, Xianjin Bi, Ling Nie, Chi Liu, Jiachuan Xiong, Ting He, Xinlin Xu, Yanlin Yu, Ke Yang, Jun Gu, Yunjian Huang, Jingbo Zhang, Zhiren Zhang, Bo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
Medial arterial calcification associated with hyperphosphatemia is a main cause of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underlying high phosphate-induced vascular calcification remain largely unknown. Here, we observed a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) in calcified arteries both in CKD patients and in a mouse model of CKD with hyperphosphatemia. In vitro, high phosphate treatment led to a decreased expression of PPARγ in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VMSCs), accompanied by apparent osteogenic differentiation and calcification...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181713/genetic-testing-in-steroid-resistant-nephrotic-syndrome-why-who-when-and-how
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca Preston, Helen M Stuart, Rachel Lennon
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood and has a significant risk of rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. The identification of over 50 monogenic causes of SRNS has revealed dysfunction in podocyte-associated proteins in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, highlighting their essential role in glomerular function. Recent technological advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled indication-driven genetic panel testing for patients with SRNS...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150712/unacylated-ghrelin-and-obestatin-promising-biomarkers-of-protein-energy-wasting-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Alice Monzani, Michela Perrone, Flavia Prodam, Stefania Moia, Giulia Genoni, Sara Testa, Fabio Paglialonga, Anna Rapa, Gianni Bona, Giovanni Montini, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Impairment in orexigenic/anorexigenic hormone balance may be key in the pathogenesis of protein energy wasting in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Measurement of ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in children with CKD would help assess the potential contribution of these hormones to uremic protein energy wasting. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin and obestatin were measured in 42 children on conservative treatment (CT), 20 children on hemodialysis, 48 pediatric renal transplant (RTx) recipients and 43 controls (CTR) (mean age 11...
November 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135628/endothelial-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease-part-ii-role-in-disease-conditions-a-joint-consensus-statement-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-on-endothelin-and-endothelial-factors-and-the-japanese-society
#4
Gian Paolo Rossi, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, A H Jan Danser, Peter W de Leeuw, Neeraj Dhaun, Damiano Rizzoni, Patrick Rossignol, Luis-Miguel Ruilope, Anton H van den Meiracker, Sadayoshi Ito, Naoyuki Hasebe, David J Webb
: After examining in Part I the general mechanisms of endothelial cell injury in the kidney, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension will herein review current knowledge on the role of endothelial dysfunction in multiple disease conditions that affect the kidney, including diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, solid organ transplantation, hyperhomocysteinemia and antiangiogenic therapy in cancer. The few available randomized controlled clinical trials specifically designed to evaluate strategies for correcting endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension and/or chronic kidney disease are also discussed alongside their cardiovascular and renal outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120962/endothelial-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease-part-i-general-mechanisms-a-joint-consensus-statement-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-on-endothelin-and-endothelial-factors-and-the-japanese-society-of-hypertension
#5
Gian Paolo Rossi, Teresa M Seccia, Matthias Barton, A H Jan Danser, Peter W de Leeuw, Neeraj Dhaun, Damiano Rizzoni, Patrick Rossignol, Luis-Miguel Ruilope, Anton H van den Meiracker, Sadayoshi Ito, Naoyuki Hasebe, David J Webb
: Kidney damage is a common consequence of arterial hypertension, but is also a cause of atherogenesis. Dysfunction and/or harm of the endothelium in glomeruli and tubular interstitium damage the function of these structures and translates into dynamic changes of filtration fraction, with progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate, expansion of extracellular fluid volume, abnormal ion balance, and hypoxia, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease. Considering the key role played by endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, the Working Group on Endothelin and Endothelial Factors of the European Society of Hypertension and the Japanese Society of Hypertension have critically reviewed available knowledge on the mechanisms underlying endothelial cell injury...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078263/clinical-research-on-traditional-chinese-medicine-compounds-and-their-preparations-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Jiayi Zhu, Lan Shen, Xiao Lin, Yanlong Hong, Yi Feng
PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. In order to summarize the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations in the prevention and treatment of ALS through analyzing the mechanism, action site, and symptoms according to effective clinical research. METHODS: We searched ALS, motor neuron disease, chemical drugs, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and various combinations of these terms in databases including the PudMed, Springer, Ovid, Google, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases...
October 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068584/hydronephrosis-in-the-course-of-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-an-underestimated-problem-current-opinions-on-the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Wojciech Krajewski, Joanna Wojciechowska, Janusz Dembowski, Romuald Zdrojowy, Tomasz Szydełko
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) causes a reduction in the urine flow from the renal pelvis into the ureter. Untreated UPJO may cause hydronephrosis, chronic infection or urolithiasis and will often result in progressive deterioration of renal function. Most cases of UPJO are congenital; however, the disease can be clinically silent until adulthood. Other causes, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are acquired and include urolithiasis, post-operative/inflammatory/ischemic stricture, fibroepithelial polyps, adhesions and malignancy...
August 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063068/immunoglobulin-g4-related-kidney-disease-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Ke Zheng, Fei Teng, Xue-Mei Li
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized clinical entity that often involves multiple organs; it is characterized by high levels of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), dense infiltration of IgG4+ cells, and storiform fibrosis. Cellular immunity, particularly T cell-mediated immunity, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. The most frequent renal manifestations of IgG4-RD are IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, membranous glomerulonephropathy (MGN), and obstructive nephropathy secondary to urinary tract obstruction due to IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis, prostatitis, or ureter inflammation...
September 2017: Chronic diseases and translational medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062239/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Victoria L Fisher, Abd A Tahrani
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common and often-underdiagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). CAN is associated with increased mortality, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and morbidity in patients with DM, but despite these significant consequences CAN often remains undiagnosed for a prolonged period. This is commonly due to the disease being asymptomatic until the later stages, as well as a lack of easily available screening strategies. In this article, we review the latest developments in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, consequences, and treatments of CAN in patients with DM...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061652/progressive-renal-disease-established-by-renin-coding-adeno-associated-virus-driven-hypertension-in-diverse-diabetic-models
#10
Shannon M Harlan, Kathleen M Heinz-Taheny, John M Sullivan, Tao Wei, Hana E Baker, Dianna L Jaqua, Zhonghua Qi, Martin S Cramer, Tatiyana L Shiyanova, Matthew D Breyer, Josef G Heuer
Progress in research and developing therapeutics to prevent diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is limited by a lack of animal models exhibiting progressive kidney disease. Chronic hypertension, a driving factor of disease progression in human patients, is lacking in most available models of diabetes. We hypothesized that superimposition of hypertension on diabetic mouse models would accelerate DKD. To test this possibility, we induced persistent hypertension in three mouse models of type 1 diabetes and two models of type 2 diabetes by adeno-associated virus delivery of renin (ReninAAV)...
October 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033833/cell-based-therapies-for-tissue-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca Lim, Sharon D Ricardo, William Sievert
The development of tissue fibrosis in the context of a wound-healing response to injury is common to many chronic diseases. Unregulated or persistent fibrogenesis may lead to structural and functional changes in organs that increase the risk of significant morbidity and mortality. We will explore the natural history, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of fibrotic disease affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver as dysfunction of these organs is responsible for a substantial proportion of global mortality. For many patients with end-stage disease, organ transplantation is the only effective therapy to prolong life...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990102/role-of-artesunate-in-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-induced-renal-tubular-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transdifferentiation-in-nrk%C3%A2-52e-cells
#12
Yaqian Zhang, Huanhuan Li, Jiajun Zhu, Tiantian Wei, Yingxian Peng, Ran Li, Rui Xu, Mei Li, Anzhou Xia
The implications of epithelial‑mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) have extended beyond the confines of renal fibrosis to renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. It has been proposed that EMT may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 is considered to be an important cytokine which regulates the transdifferentiation of tubular epithelial cells into myofibroblasts in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978825/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-anemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Masaomi Nangaku
Chronic kidney disease leads to dysfunction of renal erythropoietin-producing cells, resulting in a decrease in erythrocyte production. A decrease in oxygen delivery to vital organs due to anemia results in worse quality of life and is associated with poor prognosis of the patients. Treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin or its improved version of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) with a longer half-life is effective. However, some patients show hyporesponsiveness to ESA. Hyporesponsiveness to ESA, which can be induced by factors such as inflammation and uremic toxins, is associated with poor prognosis...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963827/-iron-deficiency-in-nd-ckd-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Maria Elena Liberti, Carlo Garofalo, Adelia Sagliocca, Silvio Borrelli, Giuseppe Conte, Luca De Nicola, Roberto Minutolo
In non-dialysis-chronic kidney disease (CKD), iron deficiency is a frequent nutritional disorder due to either the greater tendency to occult gastrointestinal bleeding or to the chronic inflammatory state resulting in a reduced intestinal iron reabsorption through an increased synthesis of hepcidin. These phenomenon are responsible for a negative iron balance that compromises erythropoiesis and contributes to the pathogenesis of anemia in CKD. Several laboratory tests are now available to allow an adequate diagnosis of iron deficiency...
September 28, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#15
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
November 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947259/-hemolytic-and-uremic-syndrome-and-related-thrombotic-microangiopathies-treatment-and-prognosis
#16
C Rafat, P Coppo, F Fakhouri, V Frémeaux-Bacchi, C Loirat, J Zuber, E Rondeau
Major achievements in the understanding of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) have not only resulted in a reclassification of TMA but most of all they have culminated in the design of new treatments and have enabled clinicians to better delineate their prognosis. Recent multicenter studies have improved our understanding of the prognosis of atypical hemolytic and uremic syndromes (aHUS). More specifically, they have highlighted the role of genetic testing on predicting the recurrence of aHUS, the risk of chronic kidney disease and the recurrence following kidney transplantation...
September 22, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945024/-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-interventional-effects-of-chinese-herbal-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Wei Wu, Jing-Jing Yang, Yi-Gang Wan, Yue Tu, Ge Shi, Wen-Bei Han, Bu-Hui Liu, Jian Yao
The kidney is the target organ of insulin with abundant insulin receptors. Thereinto,the renal intrinsic cells including glomerular podocytes,endothelial cells,mesangial cells,renal tubular epitheliums and collecting duct epithelial cells are all highly sensitive to insulin as the effector cells. Furthermore,the structural and functional abnormalities of these cells are closely related to insulin and its receptors activity. It is reported that the chronic kidney disease(CKD)patients have systemic or renal insulin resistance(IR)...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939921/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nadine Khouzam, Katherine Wesseling-Perry
Life expectancy in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) falls far short of that in the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in pediatric patients with CKD. In contrast to the intimal atherosclerotic lesions that characterize cardiovascular disease in the general population, vascular endothelial dysfunction, medial arterial calcification, and cardiac dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular pathological conditions in CKD. The pathogenesis of these lesions, the origins of which can be identified in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, is incompletely understood...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918021/in%C3%A2-vitro-selection-of-cell-internalizing-dna-aptamers-in-a-model-system-of-inflammatory-kidney-disease
#19
Glory Ranches, Melanie Lukasser, Herbert Schramek, Andreas Ploner, Taras Stasyk, Gert Mayer, Günter Mayer, Alexander Hüttenhofer
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive pathological condition marked by a gradual loss of kidney function. Treatment of CKD is most effective when diagnosed at an early stage and patients are still asymptomatic. However, current diagnostic biomarkers (e.g., serum creatinine and urine albumin) are insufficient for prediction of the pathogenesis of the disease. To address this need, we applied a cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) approach and identified a series of DNA aptamers, which exhibit high affinity and selectivity for cytokine-stimulated cells, resembling some aspects of a CKD phenotype...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910789/end-stage-renal-disease-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-outcomes
#20
Lu Dai, Edyta Golembiewska, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Despite marked improvements in renal replacement therapy during the last 30 years, the age-adjusted mortality rate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is still unacceptably high and comparable to that of many malignancies. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients. However, traditional risk factors can only partially explain the high premature cardiovascular burden in this population. Nontraditional risk factors, including persistent low-grade inflammation, are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, and other causes of CVD and may also contribute to protein-energy wasting and other complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
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