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Pathogenesis treatment chronic kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666917/measurement-of-iron-status-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Wesley Hayes
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, and dysregulation of iron homeostasis plays a central role in its pathogenesis. Optimizing iron status is a prerequisite for effective treatment of anemia. Insufficient iron can lead to inappropriate escalation of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Excess iron supplementation also has negative sequelae including free radical tissue damage and increased risk of systemic infection...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661023/tak1-mediates-apoptosis-via-p38-involve-in-ischemia-induced-renal-fibrosis
#2
Jun Zhou, Jiying Zhong, Zhenxing Huang, Meijuan Liao, Sen Lin, Jia Chen, Hongtao Chen
Renal fibrosis is a common and characteristic symptom of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the molecular mechanisms of renal fibrosis remain elusive. Ischemia injury, as a major cause of AKI, deserves more attention in order to improve the knowledge of AKI-induced fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) interacts directly with TGF-β, which play a critical role in the progression of fibrosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 in the pathogenesis of ischemia-induced renal fibrosis...
April 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556265/advanced-oxidation-protein-products-inhibit-the-autophagy-of-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#3
Jun Zhang, Xiaohong Xiang, Shuangshuang Shu, Cuiling Zhang, Yuling Liang, Tingting Jiang, Wenying Zhang, Tingting Guo, Xiujie Liang, Xun Tang
It is well known that autophagy serves a crucial role in renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) injury in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The accumulation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) also participates in the progression of CKD. However, the effects of AOPPs on autophagy remain unknown. To clarify the underlying mechanism of RTEC injury in CKD, the effect of AOPPs on HK-2 cells, an RTEC cell line, was investigated. The results of the present study revealed that AOPP exposure downregulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2-interacting myosin-like coiled-coil protein 1, reduced the conversion of microtubule-associated proteins 1 light chain 3B (LC3)-I to LC3-II and the formation of autophagosomes, and lead to an accumulation of p62...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555895/specific-inhibitor-of-smad3-sis3-attenuates-fibrosis-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-kidneys-by-inhibition-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-tgf-%C3%AE-smad3-signaling
#4
Xingli Ji, Honglian Wang, Zhaojun Wu, Xia Zhong, Menglian Zhu, Yuwei Zhang, Ruizhi Tan, Yuhang Liu, Jianchun Li, Li Wang
BACKGROUND Fibrosis is the common pathological feature in most kinds of chronic kidney disease (CKD). TGF-β/Smads signaling is the master pathway regulating kidney fibrosis pathogenesis, in which Smad3 acts as the integrator of various pro-fibrosis signals. In this study, we analyzed the role of SIS3, a specific inhibitor of Smad3, in mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidneys. MATERIAL AND METHODS UUO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg/day or 2 mg/kg/day of SIS3 or control saline for 7 days, followed by analysis of structure injury, fibrosis status, inflammation, apoptosis, and TGF-β/Smads signaling activity...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518614/central-role-of-dysregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-in-ckd-progression-and-potential-targets-of-its-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Lin Chen, Tian Yang, De-Wen Lu, Hui Zhao, Ya-Long Feng, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ying-Yong Zhao
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and inflammation play the central role in the pathogenesis and progression of CKD to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is the central mediator of renal fibrosis and numerous studies have focused on inhibition of TGF-β1 and its downstream targets for treatment of kidney disease. However, blockade of TGF-β1 has not been effective in the treatment of CKD patients...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509436/developmental-origins-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-risk-factor-for-exaggerated-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-renal-disease
#6
Frank T Spradley, Jillian A Smith, Barbara T Alexander, Christopher D Anderson
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is linked to increased risk for chronic disease. Placental ischemia and insufficiency in the mother are implicated in predisposing IUGR offspring to metabolic dysfunction, including hypertension, insulin resistance, abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether these metabolic disturbances contribute to the developmental origins of exaggerated cardiovascular-renal disease (CVRD) risk accompanying IUGR is unclear. IUGR impacts the pancreas, adipose tissue, and liver, which are hypothesized to program for hepatic insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477239/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are stable posttranslational modifications of proteins formed by the spontaneous reaction with glucose and related metabolites. Important AGEs quantitatively are methylglyoxal (MG)-derived hydroimidazolone MG-H1, Nε -carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and glucosepane. They contribute to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cellular proteolysis of AGE-modified proteins forms AGE free adducts, glycated amino acids, which are cleared by the kidneys and excreted in urine...
April 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462869/modulation-of-vegf-a-alternative-splicing-as-a-novel-treatment-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Megan Stevens, Sebastian Oltean
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a prominent pro-angiogenic and pro-permeability factor in the kidney. Alternative splicing of the terminal exon of VEGF-A through the use of an alternative 3' splice site gives rise to a functionally different family of isoforms, termed VEGF-Axxx b, known to have anti-angiogenic and anti-permeability properties. Dysregulation of the VEGF-Axxx /VEGF-Axxx b isoform balance has recently been reported in several kidney pathologies, including diabetic nephropathy (DN) and Denys-Drash syndrome...
February 15, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448936/chitinase-3-like-1-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-paediatric-severe-malaria
#9
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432231/noncommunicable-diseases-in-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-1-infection-in-high-income-and-low-income-settings
#10
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425281/at1-receptor-antagonism-improves-structural-functional-and-biomechanical-properties-in-resistance-arteries-in-a-rodent-chronic-kidney-disease-model
#11
K J Quek, O Z Ameer, J K Phillips
Background: The renin-angiotensin system, in particular Angiotensin II (AngII), plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of chronic AT1 receptor antagonism were investigated in a genetic hypertensive rat model of CKD, the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat. Methods: Mixed-sex LPK and Lewis control rats (total n=31) were split between treated (valsartan 60mg/kg/day p.o. from 4-18 weeks) and vehicle groups...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423208/sevelamer-reduces-endothelial-inflammatory-response-to-advanced-glycation-end-products
#12
Paulo C Gregório, Giane Favretto, Guilherme L Sassaki, Regiane S Cunha, Alessandra Becker-Finco, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Wesley M Souza, Fellype C Barreto, Andréa E M Stinghen
Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been related to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. We sought to investigate the binding capacity of sevelamer to both AGEs and uremic serum in vitro and then test this pharmaceutical effect as a potential vascular anti-inflammatory strategy. Methods: AGEs were prepared by albumin glycation and characterized by absorbance and electrophoresis...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389516/wnt-signaling-in-kidney-development-and-disease
#13
Yongping Wang, Chengji J Zhou, Youhua Liu
Wnt signal cascade is an evolutionarily conserved, developmental pathway that regulates embryogenesis, injury repair, and pathogenesis of human diseases. It is well established that Wnt ligands transmit their signal via canonical, β-catenin-dependent and noncanonical, β-catenin-independent mechanisms. Mounting evidence has revealed that Wnt signaling plays a key role in controlling early nephrogenesis and is implicated in the development of various kidney disorders. Dysregulations of Wnt expression cause a variety of developmental abnormalities and human diseases, such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, cystic kidney, and renal carcinoma...
January 2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378252/gut-microbiota-hypertension-and-chronic-kidney-disease-recent-advances
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Sircana, Franco De Michieli, Renato Parente, Luciana Framarin, Nicola Leone, Mara Berrutti, Elena Paschetta, Daria Bongiovanni, Giovanni Musso
A large number of different microbial species populates intestine. Extensive research has studied the entire microbial population and their genes (microbiome) by using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomic analysis. Studies suggest that the imbalances of the microbial community causes alterations in the intestinal homeostasis, leading to repercussions on other systems: metabolic, nervous, cardiovascular, immune. These studies have also shown that alterations in the structure and function of the gut microbiota play a key role in the pathogenesis and complications of Hypertension (HTN) and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)...
January 26, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357413/defective-interplay-between-mtorc1-activity-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-unfolded-protein-response-in-uremic-vascular-calcification
#15
Dibyendu Panda, Xiuying Bai, Yves Sabbagh, Yan Zhang, Hans-Christian Zaun, Angeliki Karellis, Antonis E Koromilas, Mark Lipman, Andrew C Karaplis
Vascular calcification increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Increased activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-unfolded protein response (UPR) are reported to partake independently in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in CKD. However, the association between mTORC1 activity and ER stress-UPR remains unknown. We report here that components of the uremic state (activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) or hyperphosphatemia) potentiate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification by inducing persistent and exaggerated activity of mTORC1...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336855/update-on-anemia-in-esrd-and-earlier-stages-of-ckd-core-curriculum-2018
#16
Steven Fishbane, Bruce Spinowitz
Anemia is a frequent complication during the later stages of chronic kidney disease. When present, it may cause symptoms such as fatigue and shortness of breath. The pathogenesis of anemia in chronic kidney disease is complex, but a central feature is a relative deficit of erythropoietin. New information has elucidated the critical role of the hypoxia-sensing system in mediating erythropoietin synthesis and release. Iron deficiency is a second important factor in the anemia of chronic kidney disease. New insights into the dynamics of iron metabolism have clarified the role of chronic inflammation and hepcidin as key mediators of impaired iron utilization...
March 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291208/hepatitis-c-infection-in-renal-transplantation-pathogenesis-current-impact-and-emerging-trends
#17
REVIEW
Sailaja Kesiraju, Praneeth Srikanti, S Sahariah
Prevalence of hepatitis C infection, which is associated with mortality and morbidity, is higher in chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis and transplant recipients when compared to non HCV infected patients. In addition to the conventional risk factors, HCV infection maybe an additional risk factor in the development of chronic kidney disease. HCV causes adverse effects leading to the poor long term outcome in renal transplant recipients; hepatitis C infection can cause both hepatic as well as extra hepatic complications...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287685/medicinal-plants-and-bioactive-natural-compounds-in-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-clinical-review
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Bagherniya, Valerio Nobili, Christopher N Blesso, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver diseases, and is closely related to metabolic syndrome and its related conditions, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. On the other hand, NAFLD as a multisystem disease increases the risk of several chronic diseases include type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and chronic kidney disease. The main objective was to review the efficacy of bioactive natural compounds assessed by clinical trials. Search literature using four databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of bioactive natural compounds in NAFLD treatment...
December 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247650/increased-circulating-trimethylamine-n-oxide-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Tiejun Li, Chaojun Gua, Baogang Wu, Yanli Chen
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Impaired endothelial function, a key initiating step in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, has been reported in patients with CKD, but the mechanisms responsible for endothelial dysfunction in CKD remain elusive. Emerging evidence reveals that trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-generated metabolite, is involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Circulating TMAO is elevated in CKD...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241199/change-in-hemoglobin-trajectory-and-darbepoetin-dose-approaching-end-stage-renal-disease-data-from-the-trial-to-reduce-cardiovascular-events-with-aranesp-therapy-trial
#20
Finnian R Mc Causland, Brian Claggett, Marc A Pfeffer, Emmanuel A Burdmann, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Andrew S Levey, John J V McMurray, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ajay K Singh, Scott D Solomon, Robert D Toto, Patrick Parfrey
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease associated anemia is multifactorial and includes decreased production of erythropoietin (EPO), iron deficiency, inflammation, and EPO resistance. To better understand the trajectory of these parameters, we described temporal trends in hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and darbepoetin dosing in the Trial to Reduce cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of 4,038 participants in TREAT...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
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