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Daniel Panchik, Sarah Masco, Patrice Zinnikas, Brooke Hillriegel, Tori Lauder, Erica Suttmann, Vernon Chinchilli, Maureen McBeth, William Hermann
BACKGROUND:  Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) affects many areas of daily living. Individuals with lymphedema may experience chronic and progressive swelling, recurrent skin infections, and decreased self-image and quality of life. For many years, it was considered best practice for this population to avoid exercise; however, in recent years, research has begun to challenge this belief. This systematic review and meta-analyses examined the recent literature on the effects of exercise for patients with, or at risk for, BCRL to inform best practice...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Junting Yang, Shunwen Zhang, Jiangdong Wu, Jie Zhang, Jiangtao Dong, Peng Guo, Suyu Tang, Wanjiang Zhang, Fang Wu
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused the dysregulation of host inflammatory response and immunosuppression to infection Early recognition and intervention are hence of paramount importance. In this respect the "sepsis bundle" was proposed in 2004 to be instituted in cases of suspected sepsis. OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesised that a combination treatment of the sepsis bundle with cyclophosphamide would improve the function of the intestinal mucosa and enhance survival in rats with induced sepsis...
June 12, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
T Uittenbosch, K Buckley, T Ruth, D M Martinez, C Hoehr
A forced-convection gas target for the production of [11 C]CH4 on a 13 MeV cyclotron was constructed and tested. A small fan was incorporated into the back of the target, which mixes the target gas during irradiation. The effect of the forced convection alone on the target operation and the [11 C]CH4 yield was measured. Forced convection improved the target yield by up to 16 ± 4%. In addition, improvement in heat transfer of up to 70% was observed to be a function of fan speed. Operating with forced convection allowed delivery of 21% higher beam currents while still staying in the acceptable pressure rise during irradiation, providing a 25 ± 7% greater yield...
June 15, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
S Nematollahi, E Ayubi, A Almasi-Hashiani, K Mansori, Y Moradi, Y Veisani, E Jenabi, B Gholamaliei, S Khazaei
OBJECTIVES: Determination of the true burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among high-risk groups relies heavily on occurrence measures such as prevalence, which are vital for implementation of preventive action plans. Nevertheless, up-to-date data on the prevalence of HCV infection remain scarce in Iran. This study aimed to review the relevant literature systematically and determine the pooled prevalence of HCV infection among high-risk groups in Iran. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review & meta-analysis...
June 20, 2018: Public Health
Mojtaba Shafiee, Mahsa Ahmadnezhad, Maryam Tayefi, Soheil Arekhi, Hassanali Vatanparast, Habibollah Esmaeili, Mohsen Moohebati, Gordon A Ferns, Naghmeh Mokhber, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are significantly associated with systemic inflammation. Moreover, oxidative stress resulting from a disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance is linked to inflammation-related conditions. Therefore, depression/anxiety symptoms may also be associated with oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and serum prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in adults who participated in a large population-based, cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andy Schieler, Melissa Koenig, David Buttelmann
Infants are selective in their learning from others. However, there is only very limited research on the possible factors that shape this selectivity, especially when it comes to the impact of infants' familiarity with the informant and the context. The current study investigated whether 14-month-olds preferred to receive and use information provided by an unfamiliar informant (experimenter) compared with a familiar informant (parent) and whether this pattern depended on the context (home vs. laboratory). We tested infants either in the laboratory (n = 67) or in their home (n = 70)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Jochem Louisse, Milou M L Dingemans, Kirsten A Baken, Annemarie P van Wezel, Merijn Schriks
The present study explores the ToxCast/Tox21 database to select candidate bioassays as bioanalytical tools for measuring groups of chemicals in water. To this aim, the ToxCast/Tox21 database was explored for bioassays that detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines (AAs), (chloro)phenols ((C)Ps) and halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HAliHs), which are included in the European and/or Dutch Drinking Water Directives. Based on the analysis of the availability and performance of bioassays included in the database, we concluded that several bioassays are suitable as bioanalytical tools for assessing the presence of PAHs and (C)Ps in drinking water sources...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Elvio D Amato, Adrian Covaci, Raewyn M Town, Jonas Hereijgers, Ben Bellekens, Valentina Giacometti, Tom Breugelmans, Maarten Weyn, Freddy Dardenne, Lieven Bervoets, Ronny Blust
Passive sampling with in situ devices offers several advantages over traditional sampling methods (i.e., discrete spot sampling), however, data interpretation from conventional passive samplers is hampered by difficulties in estimating the thickness of the diffusion layer at the sampler/medium interface (δ), often leading to inaccurate determinations of target analyte concentrations. In this study, the performance of a novel device combining active and passive sampling was investigated in the laboratory. The active-passive sampling (APS) device is comprised of a diffusion cell fitted with a pump and a flowmeter...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Hangxing Jin, Lushi Lian, Huaxi Zhou, Shuwen Yan, Weihua Song
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin generated by several diatom species in harmful algae blooms (HABs). We report the photo-induced transformation products (TPs) and degradation mechanisms of DA in dissolved organic matter (DOM)-rich freshwater and brackish water. High-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) and the multivariate statistical strategy orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identified 36 and 23 potential TPs in DOM-rich freshwater and brackish water, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
O M M Abdelwahab, G F Ricci, A M De Girolamo, F Gentile
In this study, the simulations generated by two of the most widely used hydrological basin-scale models, the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were compared in a Mediterranean watershed, the Carapelle (Apulia, Southern Italy). Input data requirements, time and efforts needed for input preparation, strength and weakness points of each model, ease of use and limitations were evaluated in order to give information to users. Models were calibrated and validated at monthly time scale for hydrology and sediment load using a four year period of observations (streamflow and suspended sediment concentrations)...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Nikita Nirwan, Fouzia Siraj, Divya Vohora
OBJECTIVE: Currently, lacosamide (LCM) is not approved for use in status epilepticus (SE) but several shreds of evidence are available to support its use. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to evaluate the effect of LCM on pilocarpine (PILO) induced SE and neurodegeneration in C57BL/6 mice and to ascertain the involvement of CRMP-2 in mediating above effect. METHODS: Pilocarpine-induced SE model was developed to explore the effect of LCM 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg in mice...
June 18, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Tianqi Zhang, Marnie E Shaw, Erin I Walsh, Perminder S Sachdev, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher blood glucose and brain atrophy and functional deficits, however, little is known about the association between blood glucose, striatal volume and striatal function despite sensori-motor deficits being reported in diabetes. This study investigated the relationship between blood glucose levels, striatal volume and fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort of cognitively healthy individuals living in the community with normal or impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes...
June 7, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Inga Korolczuk, Boris Burle, Jennifer T Coull
While the benefit of temporal predictability on sensorimotor processing is well established, it is still unknown whether this is due to efficient execution of an appropriate response and/or inhibition of an inappropriate one. To answer this question, we examined the effects of temporal predictability in tasks that required selective (Simon task) or global (Stop-signal task) inhibitory control of prepotent responses. We manipulated temporal expectation by presenting cues that either predicted (temporal cues) or not (neutral cues) when the target would appear...
June 20, 2018: Cognition
Victor Boureau, Robert McLeod, Benjamin Mayall, David Cooper
In this paper we discuss developments for Lorentz mode or "medium resolution" off-axis electron holography such that it is now routinely possible obtain very high sensitivity phase maps with high spatial resolution whilst maintaining a large field of view. Modifications of the usual Fourier reconstruction procedure have been used to combine series of holograms for sensitivity improvement with a phase-shifting method for doubling the spatial resolution. In the frame of these developments, specific attention is given to the phase standard deviation description and its interaction with the spatial resolution as well as the processing of reference holograms...
June 4, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Judith Roca, Silvia Gros, Olga Canet
INTRODUCTION: The bachelor thesis, a final year subject to obtain a nursing degree, presents an ideal opportunity for the development and assessment of professional competencies. Thus, it is necessary to specify that the structure of the bachelor thesis works as an element of review and reflection from both a pedagogical and professional perspective. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the main elements of the bachelor thesis in the nursing degree 2015-16 in Spain. METHODOLOGY: A transversal descriptive study was conducted using a quantitative documentary analysis via study guides or grade reports...
June 11, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Susanne M van Hooft, Yvonne N Becqué, Jolanda Dwarswaard, AnneLoes van Staa, Roland Bal
BACKGROUND: Nurses are expected to support people to self-manage. Student nurses therefore need to master competencies that include the assessment of peoples' needs and preferences, and shared decision-making, whilst respecting and enhancing peoples' autonomy. Adapting nurse education programmes to meet this goal requires insight into the practice of teaching self-management support. In order to reveal this practice, one can distinguish between the intended, the taught, and the received curriculum...
June 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Li Huang, Paul Frijters, Kim Dalziel, Philip Clarke
The monetary value of a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is frequently used to assess the benefits of health interventions and inform funding decisions. However, there is little consensus on methods for the estimation of this monetary value. In this study, we use life satisfaction as an indicator of 'experienced utility', and estimate the dollar equivalent value of a QALY using a fixed effect model with instrumental variable estimators. Using a nationally-representative longitudinal survey including 28,347 individuals followed during 2002-2015 in Australia, we estimate that individual's willingness to pay for one QALY is approximately A$42,000-A$67,000, and the willingness to pay for not having a long-term condition approximately A$2000 per year...
June 18, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Eleanor Hutchinson, Susan Nayiga, Christine Nabirye, Lilian Taaka, Sarah G Staedke
In anthropology, interest in how values are created, maintained and changed has been reinvigorated. In this case study, we draw on this literature to interrogate concerns about the relationship between data collection and the delivery of patient care within global health. We followed a pilot study conducted in Kayunga, Uganda that aimed to improve the collection of health systems data in five public health centres. We undertook ethnographic research from July 2015 to September 2016 in health centres, at project workshops, meetings and training sessions...
May 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Hongqiao Fu, Ling Li, Winnie Yip
In 2012, the Chinese government launched a nationwide reform of county-level public hospitals with the goal of controlling the rapid growth of healthcare expenditure. The key components of the reform were the zero markup drug policy (ZMDP), which removed the previously allowed 15% markup for drug sales at public hospitals, and associated increases in fees for medical services. By exploiting the temporal and cross-sectional variations in the policy implementation and using a unique, nationally representative hospital-level dataset in 1880 counties between 2009 and 2014, we find that the policy change led to a reduction in drug expenditures, a rise in expenditures for medical services, and no measurable changes in total health expenditures...
June 18, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Saeed Mehrzadi, Iman Fatemi, Ali Reza Malayeri, Ali Khodadadi, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Esrafil Mansouri, Mohammad Rashno, Mehdi Goudarzi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) on arsenic-induced renal and hepatic toxicity in rats. METHODS: A total number of 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. Group 1 received normal saline (po). Group 2 received sodium arsenite (SA, 10 mg/kg, po) for 21 days. Group 3 received EA (30 mg/kg, po) for 14 days. Groups 4 and 5 received SA 7 days prior to EA (10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) treatment and continued up to 21 days simultaneous with SA administration...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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