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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545208/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-particulate-matter-intake-fractions-for-vehicular-emissions-hourly-variation-by-micro-environments-in-the-greater-toronto-and-hamilton-area-canada
#1
Weeberb J Requia, Matthew D Adams, Altaf Arain, Petros Koutrakis, Wan-Chen Lee, Mark Ferguson
Previous investigations have reported intake fraction (iF) for different environments, which include ambient concentrations (outdoor exposure) and microenvironments (indoor exposure). However, little is known about iF variations due to space-time factors, especially in microenvironments. In this paper, we performed a spatio-temporal analysis of particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions for vehicular emissions. Specifically, we investigated hourly variation (12:00am-11:00pm) by micro-environments (residences and workplaces) in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), Canada...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545206/the-performance-of-an-efficient-dairy-system-using-a-combination-of-nitrogen-leaching-mitigation-strategies-in-a-variable-climate
#2
P C Beukes, A J Romera, P Gregorini, K A Macdonald, C B Glassey, M A Shepherd
An efficient dairy system, that implemented a combination of nitrogen (N) leaching mitigation strategies including lower N fertilizer input, standing cows off pasture for part of the day in autumn and winter (stand-off), and importing limited amounts of low protein supplements was evaluated over four consecutive years of a farmlet study. This efficient system consistently demonstrated a lower measured annual N leaching of 40 to 50% compared with a baseline system representing current practice with no mitigations...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545177/mid-term-results-of-oxford-medial-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-in-young-asian-patients-less-than-60-years-of-age-a-minimum-5-year-follow-up
#3
Yeong-Joon Kim, Bu-Hwan Kim, Seong-Ho Yoo, Suk-Woong Kang, Chang-Hun Kwack, Moo-Ho Song
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in young active Asian patients by analyzing clinical outcomes, complications and survival rates. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two knees were evaluated with a minimum follow-up of 5 years after Oxford phase 3 UKA in patients less than 60 years of age at the time of surgery. Their mean age was 54.7 years (range, 44 to 59 years). The mean follow-up period was 8...
June 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#4
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545152/short-term-changes-in-the-health-state-of-children-with-group-b-meningococcal-disease-a-prospective-national-cohort-study
#5
Iain T R Kennedy, Albert J van Hoek, Sonia Ribeiro, Hannah Christensen, W John Edmunds, Mary E Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
OBJECTIVES: The short-term impact of childhood invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) on quality-of-life (QoL) remains largely unquantified. This study aimed to quantify QoL loss at the point when illness was at its worst, and assess health state recovery in the months following illness. METHODS: Parents of children aged <16 years with laboratory-confirmed meningococcal group B (MenB) disease in England, with onset dates from November 2012 to May 2013 were asked to complete a short questionnaire, which included EQ-5DY, a version of EQ-5D for 8-15 year-olds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545149/persistence-of-lineage-iv-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-within-israel-since-1993-an-evolutionary-perspective
#6
Brian Clarke, Mana Mahapatra, Orly Friedgut, Velizar Bumbarov, Satya Parida
Peste-des-petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important infectious diseases of domesticated small ruminants. From the initial identification in 1942 in West Africa, PPR virus (PPRV) has spread throughout much of the developing world. PPRV is now considered endemic throughout Africa, with the notable exception of South Africa, the Middle-East and Israel, as well as South-, East-, and Central Asia. Despite this widespread dispersal, the evolution and transmission of PPRV in endemic populations is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545137/re-examining-the-association-between-residential-exposure-to-magnetic-fields-from-power-lines-and-childhood-asthma-in-the-danish-national-birth-cohort
#7
Madhuri Sudan, Onyebuchi A Arah, Thomas Becker, Yael Levy, Torben Sigsgaard, Jørn Olsen, Ximena Vergara, Leeka Kheifets
BACKGROUND: A study reported an increased risk of asthma in children whose mothers were exposed to magnetic field (MF) levels above 0.2 μT during pregnancy. We re-examined this association using data from mothers and children in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). METHODS: This study included 92,676 singleton-born children and their mothers from the DNBC. MF exposure from power lines was estimated for all residences where the mothers lived during pregnancy and for all children from birth until the end of follow up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545136/assessment-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-united-states-navy-recruits
#8
Jason M Lempp, Margan J Zajdowicz, Arlene L Hankinson, Sean R Toney, Lisa W Keep, James D Mancuso, Gerald H Mazurek
BACKGROUND: Immunologic tests such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, both latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and infection manifesting as active tuberculosis disease (TB). These tests need high specificity to minimize unnecessary treatment and high sensitivity to allow maximum detection and prevention of TB. METHODS: Estimate QFT-GIT specificity, compare QFT-GIT and TST results, and assess factor associations with test discordance among U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545129/direct-and-indirect-costs-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-mali-a-case-control-study
#9
Clara Bermudez-Tamayo, Stéphane Besançon, Mira Johri, Sidibe Assa, Jonathan Betz Brown, Kaushik Ramaiya
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most burdensome chronic diseases and is associated with shorter lifetime, diminished quality of life and economic burdens on the patient and society as a result of healthcare, medication, and reduced labor market participation. We aimed to estimate the direct (medical and non-medical) and indirect costs of DM and compare them with those of people without DM (ND), as well as the cost predictors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Observational retrospective case-control study performed in Mali...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545112/home-range-size-of-tengmalm-s-owl-during-breeding-in-central-europe-is-determined-by-prey-abundance
#10
Marek Kouba, Luděk Bartoš, Václav Tomášek, Alena Popelková, Karel Šťastný, Markéta Zárybnická
Animal home ranges typically characterized by their size, shape and a given time interval can be affected by many different biotic and abiotic factors. However, despite the fact that many studies have addressed home ranges, our knowledge of the factors influencing the size of area occupied by different animals is, in many cases, still quite poor, especially among raptors. Using radio-telemetry (VHF; 2.1 g tail-mounted tags) we studied movements of 20 Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) males during the breeding season in a mountain area of Central Europe (the Czech Republic, the Ore Mountains: 50° 40' N, 13° 35' E) between years 2006-2010, determined their average hunting home range size and explored what factors affected the size of home range utilised...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545097/an-integrated-risk-predictor-for-pulmonary-nodules
#11
Paul Kearney, Stephen W Hunsucker, Xiao-Jun Li, Alex Porter, Steven Springmeyer, Peter Mazzone
It is estimated that over 1.5 million lung nodules are detected annually in the United States. Most of these are benign but frequently undergo invasive and costly procedures to rule out malignancy. A risk predictor that can accurately differentiate benign and malignant lung nodules could be used to more efficiently route benign lung nodules to non-invasive observation by CT surveillance and route malignant lung nodules to invasive procedures. The majority of risk predictors developed to date are based exclusively on clinical risk factors, imaging technology or molecular markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545084/feasibility-study-of-tspo-quantification-with-18f-feppa-using-population-based-input-function
#12
Rostom Mabrouk, Antonio P Strafella, Dunja Knezevic, Christine Ghadery, Romina Mizrahi, Avideh Gharehgazlou, Yuko Koshimori, Sylvain Houle, Pablo Rusjan
PURPOSE: The input function (IF) is a core element in the quantification of Translocator protein 18 kDa with positron emission tomography (PET), as no suitable reference region with negligible binding has been identified. Arterial blood sampling is indeed needed to create the IF (ASIF). In the present manuscript we study individualization of a population based input function (PBIF) with a single arterial manual sample to estimate total distribution volume (VT) for [18F]FEPPA and to replicate previously published clinical studies in which the ASIF was used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545083/simultaneous-inference-of-phylogenetic-and-transmission-trees-in-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#13
Don Klinkenberg, Jantien A Backer, Xavier Didelot, Caroline Colijn, Jacco Wallinga
Whole-genome sequencing of pathogens from host samples becomes more and more routine during infectious disease outbreaks. These data provide information on possible transmission events which can be used for further epidemiologic analyses, such as identification of risk factors for infectivity and transmission. However, the relationship between transmission events and sequence data is obscured by uncertainty arising from four largely unobserved processes: transmission, case observation, within-host pathogen dynamics and mutation...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545073/the-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-ticagrelor-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-general-acs-patients-and-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Qiutong Tan, Xin Jiang, Sichao Huang, Tiantian Zhang, Lin Chen, Siwen Xie, Enpan Mo, Jun Xu, Shaohui Cai
OBJECTIVE: In this study, a systematic evaluation was conducted to estimate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor for treating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in general ACS patients and a diabetes mellitus (DM) group. METHODS: A search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, CNKI databases was conducted to analyze relevant randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of ticagrelor treating ACS during 2007 to 2015. Article screening, quality accessing and data extracting was independently undertaken by two reviewers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545066/bayesian-estimation-of-directed-functional-coupling-from-brain-recordings
#15
Danilo Benozzo, Pasi Jylänki, Emanuele Olivetti, Paolo Avesani, Marcel A J van Gerven
In many fields of science, there is the need of assessing the causal influences among time series. Especially in neuroscience, understanding the causal interactions between brain regions is of primary importance. A family of measures have been developed from the parametric implementation of the Granger criteria of causality based on the linear autoregressive modelling of the signals. We propose a new Bayesian method for linear model identification with a structured prior (GMEP) aiming to apply it as linear regression method in the context of the parametric Granger causal inference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545041/effect-of-early-measles-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-colonization-a-randomized-trial-from-guinea-bissau
#16
Nadja Skadkær Hansen, Stine Byberg, Lars Hervig Jacobsen, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Cesario Martins, Peter Aaby, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Hilton Whittle
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544992/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-tolerability-of-usl261-midazolam-nasal-spray-randomized-study-in-healthy-geriatric-and-non-geriatric-adults
#17
Alexander K Berg, Michael J Myrvik, Peter J Van Ess
AIM: Characterize pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety/tolerability of USL261 in geriatric adults to inform its potential for treating bouts of increased seizure activity. METHODS: Phase 1, randomized, double-blind, 2-way crossover study in healthy geriatric (≥65years; n=18) and non-geriatric (18-40years; n=12) adults evaluated single USL261 doses (2.5 and 5.0mg) administered intranasally. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam (active metabolite), including area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), and half-life (t1/2)...
May 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544991/associations-of-neighborhood-social-environment-attributes-and-physical-activity-among-9-11-year-old-children-from-12-countries
#18
Samaah M Sullivan, Stephanie T Broyles, Tiago V Barreira, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Tim Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao, Peter T Katzmarzyk
We investigated whether associations of neighborhood social environment attributes and physical activity differed among 12 countries and levels of economic development using World Bank classification (low/lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high- income countries) among 9-11 year old children (N=6161) from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle, and the Environment (ISCOLE). Collective efficacy and perceived crime were obtained via parental/guardian report. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with waist-worn Actigraph accelerometers...
May 22, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544979/preoperative-left-hepatic-lobe-devascularisation-to-minimize-perioperative-bleeding-in-a-jehovah-s-witness-undergoing-left-hepatectomy
#19
Laurence Weinberg, Georgina Hanus, Jonathan Banting, Diana Abu-Ssaydeh, Manfred Spanger, Su Kah Goh, Vijayaragavan Muralidharan
INTRODUCTION: Major liver resection in a Jehovah's Witness presents unique clinical challenges requiring multimodal blood minimization strategies to reduce perioperative complications. We report a case where complete left hepatic lobe devascularisation was undertaken to minimize bleeding in a Jehovah's Witness undergoing left hepatectomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 65-year-old male Jehovah's Witness presented for open left hepatectomy for a large left-sided hepatocellular carcinoma involving segment IV of the liver...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544976/long-range-transport-of-xe-133-emissions-under-convective-and-non-convective-conditions
#20
J Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, M Krysta, M Kalinowski, E Hoffmann, J Baré
To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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