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Joceline Lega, Heidi E Brown
Recent events have thrown the spotlight on infectious disease outbreak response. We developed a data-driven method, EpiGro, which can be applied to cumulative case reports to estimate the order of magnitude of the duration, peak and ultimate size of an ongoing outbreak. It is based on a surprisingly simple mathematical property of many epidemiological data sets, does not require knowledge or estimation of disease transmission parameters, is robust to noise and to small data sets, and runs quickly due to its mathematical simplicity...
October 11, 2016: Epidemics
Mostafa M Ghorab, Mansour S Alsaid, Ghada H Al-Ansary, Ghada A Abdel-Latif, Dalal A Abou El Ella
Twenty novel chromene derivatives carrying different sulfonamide moieties (3-22) were designed and synthesized. All the newly prepared compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against breast cancer cell line (T47D). Most of the synthesized compounds showed good to moderate activity (IC50 = 8.8-108.9 μM), where compound 16 (IC50 = 8.8 μM) exhibited higher activity compared to doxorubicin (IC50 = 9.8 μM). In order to determine the mechanism of the anticancer activity in T47D cells, the effect of the most potent compounds (5-8, 11-14, and 16-18) on the aromatase activity was tested...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Fei Fan, Kui Zhang, Zhao Peng, Jing-Hui Cui, Na Hu, Zhen-Hua Deng
To perform a study to clarify how strong the chronological age relates to ossification of the knee in Chinese on X-rays and the MRI when a similar four-stage grading system was used. 322 individuals with conventional radiographs and MRI were collected from routine medical investigations and evaluated retrospectively. Bland Altman plots were performed to reveal the agreement of grading of MRI and radiograph. Regression analysis was conducted to establish a mathematical model for age estimation. The ossification process of the knee occurs earlier in females than in males for about 1-2 years...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Philippe Glorennec, Jean-Paul Lucas, Anne-Camille Mercat, Alain-Claude Roudot, Barbara Le Bot
Children are exposed to toxic metals and metalloids via their diet and environment. Our objective was to assess the aggregate chronic exposure of children aged 3-6years, living in France, to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V present in diet, tap water, air, soil and floor dust in the years 2007-2009. Dietary data came from the French Total Diet Study, while concentrations in residential tap water, soil and indoor floor dust came from the 'Plomb-Habitat' nationwide representative survey on children's lead exposure at home...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Matias Koivurova, Ari-Pekka Leppänen
Predictive models are necessary in order to minimize potential damages in the event of a nuclear or radiological release. For this reason, a novel model for the calculation of both wet and dry deposition from airborne radioactivity is proposed. Full derivation of the model and the estimation of uncertainty are presented, and the validity of the model is evaluated by calculating deposition based on several measured airborne activities in different countries. The results are compared with the corresponding measured deposition activities and the predictive power of the model is found to be good, i...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Jacob Louie, Amer Shalaby, Khandker Nurul Habib
Most investigations of incident-related delay duration in the transportation context are restricted to highway traffic, with little attention given to delays due to transit service disruptions. Studies of transit-based delay duration are also considerably less comprehensive than their highway counterparts with respect to examining the effects of non-causal variables on the delay duration. However, delays due to incidents in public transit service can have serious consequences on the overall urban transportation system due to the pivotal and vital role of public transit...
October 19, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jie Wang, Helai Huang, Qiang Zeng
OBJECTIVES: This paper aimed to (i) differentiate the effects of contributory factors on crash risks related to different transportation modes, i.e., motor vehicle, bicycle and pedestrian; (ii) explore the potential contribution of zone-level factors which are traditionally excluded or omitted, so as to track the source of heterogeneous effects of certain risk factors in crash-frequency models by different modes. METHODS: Two analytical methods, i.e. negative binomial models (NB) and random parameters negative binomial models (RPNB), were employed to relate crash frequencies of different transportation modes to a variety of risk factors at intersections...
October 19, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lin Cheng, Matthew D Blackledge, David J Collins, Matthew R Orton, Neil P Jerome, Thorsten Feiweier, Mihaela Rata, Veronica Morgan, Nina Tunariu, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh
PURPOSE: To introduce T2-adjusted computed DWI (T2-cDWI), a method that provides synthetic images at arbitrary b-values and echo times (TEs) that improve tissue contrast by removing or increasing T2 contrast in diffusion-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the standard DWI acquisition protocol T2-weighted echo-planar images at multiple (≥2) echo times were acquired. This allows voxelwise estimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 values, permitting synthetic images to be generated at any chosen b-value and echo time...
October 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
G P Chuiko, O V Dvornik, S I Shyian, Ye A Baganov
BACKGROUND: A new computer model for systolic pulse waves within the cardiovascular system is presented. The emphasis was made on blood stroke volume (BS). The new waveform for pulse wave demands the re-computing of the BS. The authors showed the applicability of suggested model for arterial aging problem. METHODS: Suggested model is based on the well-known Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. Instead of the common accepted solitary wave, the periodical cnoidal wave is used...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Maryam Songhorzadeh, Karim Ansari-Asl, Alimorad Mahmoudi
Quantifying delayed directional couplings between electroencephalographic (EEG) time series requires an efficient method of causal network inference. This is especially due to the limited knowledge about the underlying dynamics of the brain activity. Recent methods based on information theoretic measures such as Transfer Entropy (TE) made significant progress on this issue by providing a model-free framework for causality detection. However, TE estimation from observed data is not a trivial task, especially when the number of variables is large which is the case in a highly complex system like human brain...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
James A Cranford, Kipling M Bohnert, Brian E Perron, Carrie Bourque, Mark Ilgen
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. PROCEDURES: Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use...
October 15, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sunil Nath
As the chief energy source of eukaryotic cells, it is important to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS). Previous estimates of the thermodynamic efficiency of this vital process have ranged from Lehninger's original back-of-the-envelope calculation of 38% to the often quoted value of 55-60% in current textbooks of biochemistry, to high values of 90% from recent information theoretic considerations, and reports of realizations of close to ideal 100% efficiencies by single molecule experiments...
October 15, 2016: Biophysical Chemistry
Hasan Terzi, Pinar Solmaz Hasdemir, Alper Biler, Ahmet Kale, Fatih Sendag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether uterine weight has a deleterious effect on the operation time, complication rates, length of hospital stay and incidence of intraoperative haemorrhage during total laparoscopic hysterectomy operation. METHODS: A total of 282 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign gynaecologic indications were retrospectively analyzed. The median operation time of 70 min was accepted as an index number, and a cut-off point of ≥300 g was calculated for uterine weight by using reciever operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Henry Maia Peixoto, Marcelo Augusto Mota Brito, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental budget impact (IBI) of a rapid diagnostic test to detect G6PDd in male patients infected with Plasmodium vivax in the Brazilian Amazon, as compared to the routine protocol recommended in Brazil which does not include G6PDd testing. METHODS: The budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Brazilian health system, in the Brazilian Amazon for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. The analysis used a decision model to compare two scenarios: the first consisting of the routine recommended in Brazil which does not include prior diagnosis of dG6PD, and the second based on the use of RDT CareStart(™) G6PD (CS-G6PD) in all male subjects diagnosed with vivax malaria...
October 22, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
L Pelligand, A Soubret, J N King, J Elliott, J P Mochel
The objective of this study was to model the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of robenacoxib in cats using a nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) approach, leveraging all available information collected from cats receiving robenacoxib s.c. and/or i.v.: 47 densely sampled laboratory cats and 36 clinical cats sparsely sampled preoperatively. Data from both routes were modeled sequentially using Monolix 4.3.2. Influence of parameter correlations and available covariates (age, gender, bodyweight, and anesthesia) on population parameter estimates were evaluated by using multiple samples from the posterior distribution of the random effects...
October 22, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Letícia Couto Garcia, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Jose Manuel Ochoa-Quintero, William F Laurance
In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 19 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$5.21 billion/year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Tao Ye, Xi Jiang, Dongyang Wan, Xingzhi Wang, Jun Xing, Thirumalai Venkatesan, Qihua Xiong, Seeram Ramakrishna
Aligned and flexible electrospun carbon nanomaterials are used to synthesize novel carbon perovskite nanocomposite for the first time. The free electron diffusion length in CH3NH3PbI3 phase of the CH3NH3PbI3/carbon nanocomposite is observed to almost double that of bare CH3NH3PbI3 and nearly 95% of the photogenerated free holes can inject from CH3NH3PbI3 phase to the carbon nanomaterials. Furthermore, the exciton binding energy in the composite is estimated to be ~23 meV by utilizing temperature dependent optical absorption spectroscopy...
October 22, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Joanne E Brady, Danielle K Liffmann, Anthony Yartel, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, Joseph Kannry, Cynthia Jordan, Omar I Massoud, David R Nerenz, Kimberly A Brown, Bryce D Smith, Claudia Vellozzi, David B Rein
BACKGROUND: From December 2012-March 2014, three randomized trials, each implementing a unique intervention in primary care settings (mail recruitment [repeated-mailing], an electronic health record best practice alert [BPA], and patient-solicitation [patient-solicitation]), evaluated HCV antibody testing, diagnosis, and costs for each of the interventions compared to standard-of-care testing. Multilevel multivariable models were used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for receiving an HCV antibody test, and costs were estimated using activity-based costing...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
M Kochlamazashvili, Kh Khatiashvili, M Butsashvili, O Chubinishvili, Sh Khetsuriani, G Kamkamidze
In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
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