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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548882/finding-conducting-and-nurturing-science-a-virologist-s-memoir
#1
Anna Marie Ann Skalka Skalka
My laboratory investigations have been driven by an abiding interest in understanding the consequences of genetic rearrangement in evolution and disease, and in using viruses to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in biology. Starting with bacteriophages and moving to the retroviruses, my use of the tools of genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics has spanned more than half a century-from the time when DNA structure was just discovered to the present day of big data and epigenetics. Both riding and contributing to the successive waves of technology, my laboratory has elucidated fundamental mechanisms in DNA replication, repair, and recombination...
May 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547755/demographic-and-socioeconomic-influences-on-helicobacter-pylori-gastritis-and-its-pre-neoplastic-lesions-amongst-us-residents
#2
R M Genta, K O Turner, A Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) can lead to chronic inactive gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. AIMS: To investigate in a cross-sectional study these changes among different socioeconomic and ethnic groups within the USA. METHODS: We used the Miraca Life Sciences database, an electronic depository of clinicopathological records from patients distributed throughout the USA, to extract data from 487 587 patients who underwent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy between 1/2008 and 12/2014...
May 25, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547680/the-influence-of-attention-on-value-integration
#3
Melina A Kunar, Derrick G Watson, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Nick Chater
People often have to make decisions based on many pieces of information. Previous work has found that people are able to integrate values presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream to make informed judgements on the overall stream value (Tsetsos et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9659-9664, 2012). It is also well known that attentional mechanisms influence how people process information. However, it is unknown how attentional factors impact value judgements of integrated material...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546983/efficacy-of-purposeful-educational-workshop-of-medical-and-nonmedical-interventions-based-on-needs-assessments-in-nurses
#4
Abbas Attari, Mahin Aminoroaia, Mohammd Reza Maracy
BACKGROUND: The medical and nonmedical care of patients is the necessary skills in nursing profession. That it needs proper knowledge and attitude. Hence, it is important to promote nurses' knowledge and attitude by education based on need assessment. This study aimed to define the efficacy of a medical and nonmedical intervention educational workshop on nurses' knowledge and attitude until 3 months after holding the workshop in psychiatric wards of educational hospitals in Isfahan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental study...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546979/information-seeking-anxiety-among-m-a-students-of-isfahan-university-of-medical-sciences
#5
Fereshteh Aghaei, Mohammad Reza Soleymani, Hassan Ashrafi Rizi
BACKGROUND: Information-seeking anxiety is a feeling caused by abundance of information or failure to proper interpret the information that can adversely affect the ability of individuals for seeking information and meeting their information needs. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate information-seeking anxiety, factors causing it, and methods for addressing and reducing this type of anxiety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate information-seeking anxiety in postgraduate students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546978/effectiveness-of-concept-mapping-and-traditional-linear-nursing-care-plans-on-critical-thinking-skills-in-clinical-pediatric-nursing-course
#6
Fereshteh Aein, Fatemeh Aliakbari
INTRODUCTION: Concept map is a useful cognitive tool for enhancing a student's critical thinking (CT) by encouraging students to process information deeply for understanding. However, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on nursing students' CT is contradictory. This paper compares the effectiveness of concept mapping and traditional linear nursing care planning on students' CT. METHODS: An experimental design was used to examine the CT of 60 baccalaureate students who participated in pediatric clinical nursing course in the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran in 2013...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546675/anatomical-correlation-of-core-muscle-activation-in-different-yogic-postures
#7
REVIEW
Mrithunjay Rathore, Soumitra Trivedi, Jessy Abraham, Manisha B Sinha
Faulty postures due to sedentary lifestyle cause weakening of core muscles which contributes to increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Although a few research studies have quantified the core muscle activity in various yogic exercises used in rehabilitation programs, evidence correlating it to functional anatomy is scarce. Such information is important for exercise prescription when formulating treatment plans for MSDs. Therefore, the objective of this review article is to examine the literature and analyze the muscle activity produced across various yoga postures to determine which type of yoga posture elicits the highest activation for the core muscle in individuals...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546583/hybridizing-feature-selection-and-feature-learning-approaches-in-qsar-modeling-for-drug-discovery
#8
Ignacio Ponzoni, Víctor Sebastián-Pérez, Carlos Requena-Triguero, Carlos Roca, María J Martínez, Fiorella Cravero, Mónica F Díaz, Juan A Páez, Ramón Gómez Arrayás, Javier Adrio, Nuria E Campillo
Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling using machine learning techniques constitutes a complex computational problem, where the identification of the most informative molecular descriptors for predicting a specific target property plays a critical role. Two main general approaches can be used for this modeling procedure: feature selection and feature learning. In this paper, a performance comparative study of two state-of-art methods related to these two approaches is carried out. In particular, regression and classification models for three different issues are inferred using both methods under different experimental scenarios: two drug-like properties, such as blood-brain-barrier and human intestinal absorption, and enantiomeric excess, as a measurement of purity used for chiral substances...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546559/mapping-few-femtosecond-slices-of-ultra-relativistic-electron-bunches
#9
Tim Plath, Christoph Lechner, Velizar Miltchev, Philipp Amstutz, Nagitha Ekanayake, Leslie Lamberto Lazzarino, Theophilos Maltezopoulos, Jörn Bödewadt, Tim Laarmann, Jörg Roßbach
Free-electron lasers are unique sources of intense and ultra-short x-ray pulses that led to major scientific breakthroughs across disciplines from matter to materials and life sciences. The essential element of these devices are micrometer-sized electron bunches with high peak currents, low energy spread, and low emittance. Advanced FEL concepts such as seeded amplifiers rely on the capability of analyzing and controlling the electron beam properties with few-femtosecond time resolution. One major challenge is to extract tomographic slice parameters instead of projected electron beam properties...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546138/mental-health-mobile-apps-for-preadolescents-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Grist, Joanna Porter, Paul Stallard
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of mobile apps available for adolescents with mental health problems and an increasing interest in assimilating mobile health (mHealth) into mental health services. Despite the growing number of apps available, the evidence base for their efficacy is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to systematically appraise the available research evidence on the efficacy and acceptability of mobile apps for mental health in children and adolescents younger than 18 years...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#11
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545918/recent-trends-in-high-spin-sensitivity-magnetic-resonance
#12
Aharon Blank, Ygal Twig, Yakir Ishay
Magnetic resonance is a very powerful methodology that has been employed successfully in many applications for about 70years now, resulting in a wealth of scientific, technological, and diagnostic data. Despite its many advantages, one major drawback of magnetic resonance is its relatively poor sensitivity and, as a consequence, its bad spatial resolution when examining heterogeneous samples. Contemporary science and technology often make use of very small amounts of material and examine heterogeneity on a very small length scale, both of which are well beyond the current capabilities of conventional magnetic resonance...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545502/improving-care-for-people-with-heart-failure-in-uganda-serial-in-depth-interviews-with-patients-and-their-health-care-professionals
#13
Elizabeth Namukwaya, Liz Grant, Julia Downing, Mhoira Leng, Scott A Murray
BACKGROUND: The short prognosis of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the associated multidimensional distress as illustrated in literature from high income countries necessitates the integration of palliative care into the care of advanced HF patients to address these needs and improve their quality of life. These needs, which are subjective, have not been described from the patients' and health care professionals'(HPs) view point in the Ugandan setting, a low income country with a different socio-cultural context...
May 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545066/bayesian-estimation-of-directed-functional-coupling-from-brain-recordings
#14
Danilo Benozzo, Pasi Jylänki, Emanuele Olivetti, Paolo Avesani, Marcel A J van Gerven
In many fields of science, there is the need of assessing the causal influences among time series. Especially in neuroscience, understanding the causal interactions between brain regions is of primary importance. A family of measures have been developed from the parametric implementation of the Granger criteria of causality based on the linear autoregressive modelling of the signals. We propose a new Bayesian method for linear model identification with a structured prior (GMEP) aiming to apply it as linear regression method in the context of the parametric Granger causal inference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544626/countering-evidence-denial-and-the-promotion-of-pseudoscience-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Isabel M Smith, Noni E MacDonald
This commentary introduces a framework within which clinical and research experts in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can address public instances of evidence denial and promotion of pseudoscience related to ASD. This is a generalized extension of work by a World Health Organization (WHO) group dedicated to reducing the influence of Vocal Vaccine Deniers through educating advocates in how to effectively defuse their arguments. The WHO guidelines were informed by conceptual work on the "denialism" phenomenon, and by studies in psychology, communication, vaccine science, and public health...
May 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543973/advancing-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework-an-international-horizon-scanning-approach
#16
Carlie A LaLone, Gerald T Ankley, Scott E Belanger, Michelle R Embry, Geoff Hodges, Dries Knapen, Sharon Munn, Edward J Perkins, Murray A Rudd, Daniel L Villeneuve, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett, Xiaowei Zhang, Markus Hecker
Our ability to conduct whole-organism toxicity tests to understand chemical safety has been outpaced by the synthesis of new chemicals for a wide variety of commercial applications. As a result, scientists and risk assessors are turning to mechanistically based studies to increase efficiencies in chemical risk assessment and making greater use of in vitro and in silico methods to evaluate potential environmental and human health hazards. In this context, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework has gained traction in regulatory science because it offers an efficient and effective means for capturing available knowledge describing the linkage between mechanistic data and the apical toxicity end points required for regulatory assessments...
June 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543739/sound-at-the-zoo-using-animal-monitoring-sound-measurement-and-noise-reduction-in-zoo-animal-management
#17
David A Orban, Joseph Soltis, Lori Perkins, Jill D Mellen
A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers' daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543645/reflections-on-the-national-bioethics-advisory-commission-and-models-of-public-bioethics
#18
James F Childress
The National Bioethics Advisory Commission, of which I was a member, was established by a 1995 executive order that identified its "first priority" as "the protection of the rights and welfare of human research subjects." Not surprisingly, then, most of NBAC's work focused on research involving human subjects or participants. A second priority concerned "issues in the management and use of genetics information, including but not limited to, human gene patenting." NBAC's charter (in contrast to the executive order) listed this charge as "part B" of the "first priority...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542984/applying-quantitative-molecular-tools-for-virus-transport-studies-opportunities-and-challenges
#19
Kelvin Wong, Marirosa Molina
Bacteriophages have been used in soil column studies for the last several decades as surrogates to study the fate and transport behavior of enteric viruses in groundwater. However, recent studies have shown that the transport behavior of bacteriophages and enteric viruses in porous media can be very different. The next generation of virus transport science must therefore provide more data on mobility of enteric viruses and the relationship between transport behaviors of enteric viruses and bacteriophages. To achieve this new paradigm, labor intensity devoted to enteric virus quantification method must be reduced...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542898/health-habit-a-concept-analysis
#20
Andra S Opalinski, Linda S Weglicki, Sareen S Gropper
The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science...
May 25, 2017: Nursing Forum
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