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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906509/principles-of-brain-development
#1
REVIEW
Joan Stiles
Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906501/the-heritability-fallacy
#2
REVIEW
David S Moore, David Shenk
The term 'heritability,' as it is used today in human behavioral genetics, is one of the most misleading in the history of science. Contrary to popular belief, the measurable heritability of a trait does not tell us how 'genetically inheritable' that trait is. Further, it does not inform us about what causes a trait, the relative influence of genes in the development of a trait, or the relative influence of the environment in the development of a trait. Because we already know that genetic factors have significant influence on the development of all human traits, measures of heritability are of little value, except in very rare cases...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906387/hierarchically-porous-materials-synthesis-strategies-and-structure-design
#3
REVIEW
Xiao-Yu Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Yu Li, Joanna Claire Rooke, Clément Sanchez, Bao-Lian Su
Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906280/generation-and-applications-of-an-ultrahigh-fidelity-four-photon-greenberger-horne-zeilinger-state
#4
Chao Zhang, Yun-Feng Huang, Cheng-Jie Zhang, Jian Wang, Bi-Heng Liu, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
High-quality entangled photon pairs generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion have made great contributions to the modern quantum information science and the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. However, the quality of the entangled states decreases sharply when moving from biphoton to multiphoton experiments, mainly due to the lack of interactions between photons. Here, for the first time, we generate a four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with a fidelity of 98%, which is even comparable to the best fidelity of biphoton entangled states...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906011/prevalence-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-coinfection-in-ghana-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Akosua Adom Agyeman, Richard Ofori-Asenso
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality and may impact significantly on healthcare resource utilization. However, in Ghana, accurate estimates of the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection needed to inform policy decisions and the design of public health interventions are currently lacking. In this study, our aim was to determine the HIV/HBV coinfection prevalence rate in Ghana. METHODS: Primary studies reporting prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection in Ghana were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, science direct, Google scholar and Africa journals online (AJOL) databases...
May 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905577/infrared-spectroscopy-and-spectroscopic-imaging-in-forensic-science
#6
REVIEW
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905145/the-public-multi-coil-information-pumcin-policy
#7
Christoph Juchem, Robin A de Graaf
PURPOSE: Multi-coil (MC) magnetic field modeling has emerged as a viable alternative to conventional field generation based on spherical harmonic shapes, and an active MC community is forming. Although all MC applications share the same modeling concept, the specific MC designs can largely differ as a result of disparities in region of interest (eg, human versus rodent), intended MR application (eg, B0 shimming versus spatial encoding), or other experimental constraints (eg, available bore space or integration with radiofrequency technology)...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904714/facilitating-the-commercialization-and-use-of-organ-platforms-generated-by-the-microphysiological-systems-tissue-chip-program-through-public-private-partnerships
#8
REVIEW
Christine A Livingston, Kristin M Fabre, Danilo A Tagle
Microphysiological systems (organs-on-chips, tissue chips) are devices designed to recapitulate human physiology that could be used to better understand drug responses not easily addressed using other in vivo systems or in vitro animal models. Although still in development, initial results seem promising as tissue chips exhibit in vivo systems-like functional responses. The National Center for Advancing Translation Science (NCATS) identifies this technology as a potential tool that could improve the process of getting safer, more effective treatments to patients, and has led to the Tissue Chip Program, which aims to develop, integrate and validate major organ systems for testing...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903808/setting-up-crowd-science-projects
#9
Kaja Scheliga, Sascha Friesike, Cornelius Puschmann, Benedikt Fecher
Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up...
November 29, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902902/history-of-the-first-generation-marek-s-disease-vaccines-the-science-and-little-known-facts
#10
Karel A Schat
Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902453/environmental-and-occupational-exposure-to-cadmium-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#11
Leila Tavakkoli, Narges Khanjani
INTRODUCTION: Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that have negative effects on human health. In Iran, there is no policy to regularly measure Cd in the general population. However, some studies have been performed on special groups and in different cities of Iran. This paper has reviewed these studies and human contamination levels in Iran. METHOD AND MATERIALS: All accessible electronic information resources such as Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, IranMedex, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and Science Direct were searched, with relevant phrases and their Persian translations...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901246/chemotherapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-elderly-population
#12
Fábio Nasser Santos, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Marcelo Rocha Souza Cruz, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are over 70 years of age at diagnosis. Despite this fact, these patients are underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). As a consequence, the most appropriate regimens for these patients are controversial, and the role of single-agent or combination therapy is unclear. In this setting, a critical systematic review of RCTs in this group of patients is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens for previously untreated elderly patients with advanced (stage IIIB and IV) NSCLC...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900969/proteinuria-graft-outcomes-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#13
Aminu Muhammad Sakajiki, Sagren Naidoo, P Manga, M S Nazir, S Naicker
Proteinuria is a marker of poor long-term graft survival and an independent risk factor for total and cardiovascular mortality in the transplant population. We investigated the prevalence of proteinuria and its relationship with graft function and cardiovascular risk factors in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Adult KTRs at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital were recruited. Patients' records were reviewed for information on their posttransplant follow-up. Echocardiography and carotid Doppler were performed for the assessment of cardiac status and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), respectively...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900742/-precision-nursing-individual-based-knowledge-translation
#14
Li-Chi Chiang, Mei-Ling Yeh, Sui-Lung Su
U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900583/does-elite-sport-degrade-sleep-quality-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Luke Gupta, Kevin Morgan, Sarah Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology...
November 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900421/spectroscopic-sensors-for-in-line-bioprocess-monitoring-in-research-and-pharmaceutical-industrial-application
#16
REVIEW
Jens Claßen, Florian Aupert, Kenneth F Reardon, Dörte Solle, Thomas Scheper
The use of spectroscopic sensors for bioprocess monitoring is a powerful tool within the process analytical technology (PAT) initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration. Spectroscopic sensors enable the simultaneous real-time bioprocess monitoring of various critical process parameters including biological, chemical, and physical variables during the entire biotechnological production process. This potential can be realized through the combination of spectroscopic measurements (UV/Vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy) with multivariate data analysis to obtain relevant process information out of an enormous amount of data...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899561/database-resources-of-the-national-center-for-biotechnology-information
#17
(no author information available yet)
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank(®) nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for most of these data from 37 distinct databases. The E-utilities serve as the programming interface for the Entrez system. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899471/when-science-becomes-too-easy-science-popularization-inclines-laypeople-to-underrate-their-dependence-on-experts
#18
Lisa Scharrer, Yvonne Rupieper, Marc Stadtler, Rainer Bromme
Science popularization fulfills the important task of making scientific knowledge understandable and accessible for the lay public. However, the simplification of information required to achieve this accessibility may lead to the risk of audiences relying overly strongly on their own epistemic capabilities when making judgments about scientific claims. Moreover, they may underestimate how the division of cognitive labor makes them dependent on experts. This article reports an empirical study demonstrating that this "easiness effect of science popularization" occurs when laypeople read authentic popularized science depictions...
November 29, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899345/ethics-of-genetic-testing-and-research-in-sport-a-position-statement-from-the-australian-institute-of-sport
#19
Nicole Vlahovich, Peter A Fricker, Matthew A Brown, David Hughes
As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identification. Athletes and coaches should be discouraged from using direct-to-consumer genetic testing because of its lack of validation and replicability and the lack of involvement of a medical practitioner in the process...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899195/the-future-of-clinical-cancer-genomics
#20
Kenneth Offit
The current and future applications of genomics to the practice of preventive oncology are being impacted by a number of challenges. These include rapid advances in genomic science and technology that allow massively parallel sequencing of both tumors and the germline, a diminishing of intellectual property restrictions on diagnostic genetic applications, rapid expansion of access to the internet which includes mobile access to both genomic data and tools to communicate and interpret genetic data in a medical context, the expansion of for-profit diagnostic companies seeking to monetize genetic information, and a simultaneous effort to depict medical professionals as barriers to rather than facilitators of understanding one's genome...
October 2016: Seminars in Oncology
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